Generally, waterfowl feces contain high amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen. In a study by Purcell et al. (1995), black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) were responsible for 53-72% of the total phosphorus output while snow geese (Chen caerulescens) accounted for a significant amount of nitrogen in the area. In wetlands, their feces contribute greatly to the nutrient requirements of algae that allows it to stimulate plant growth such as that of the macrophyte (Purcell 1999). However, waterfowl feces may also be the cause of eutrophication especially if they feed on land and excrete on water as this hastens the process.