Started 10th Mar, 2022

The effect of laboratory and non-laboratory facilities on a researcher's research

How much does the existence of advanced laboratories and appropriate financial budgets and different support for a researcher's research affect the quality and quantity of a researcher's work?

Popular replies (1)

11th Mar, 2022
Len Leonid Mizrah
Authernative, Inc., USA
Many sciences cannot function at all, unless they have laboratories, for instance physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, pharmacology, and plenty of other ones. Those labs, and their equipment and technologies are necessary prerequisites for successful research. This is due to the fact that most sciences are essentially based on experimental facts.
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All replies (3)

11th Mar, 2022
Len Leonid Mizrah
Authernative, Inc., USA
Many sciences cannot function at all, unless they have laboratories, for instance physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, pharmacology, and plenty of other ones. Those labs, and their equipment and technologies are necessary prerequisites for successful research. This is due to the fact that most sciences are essentially based on experimental facts.
4 Recommendations
Laboratories is a backbone in science , it is necessary for development of physics , chemistry, pharmacy etc.... Because this fields of science is used to develop our life style using practical result and this practical result comes from laboratories of different science field.
Non laboratories theories are just an idea , hypothesis and this may be correct or not.
1 Recommendation
11th Mar, 2022
Francisco Manuel Marquez
University of Turabo / Universidad AGM-Gurabo Campus
Hello everyone,
Instrumental and economic resources are crucial for the scientific development of a laboratory. It is true that when these resources fail, the only option, which often works (and very well) is collaboration with other research centers, but this route greatly limits the development potential of many research groups...
Many times, the managers of universities (especially those that are not clearly defined towards research), consider the investment in scientific instrumentation and in "seed funds" for new researchers, a loss of money that is not justified by the results. The relevant scientific advance, when these limitations exist, focuses on already consolidated centers, which receive public funds with minimal effort, compared to lower-level centers, which are taking off, and which have very little access to public research funds.
1 Recommendation

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Can an information (particularly a physical law itself) be some special kind of matter and transform into energy and mass?
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  • Anatoly A KhripovAnatoly A Khripov
Dear Sirs,
In the below I give some very dubious speculations and recent theoretical articles about the question. Maybe they promote some discussion.
1.) One can suppose that every part of our reality should be explained by some physical laws. Particularly general relativity showed that even space and time are curved and governed by physical laws. But the physical laws themself is also a part of reality. Of course, one can say that every physical theory can only approximately describe a reality. But let me suppose that there are physical laws in nature which describe the universe with zero error. So then the question arises. Are the physical laws (as an information) some special kind of matter described by some more general laws? May the physical law as an information transform to an energy and mass?
2.) Besides of the above logical approach one can come to the same question by another way. Let us considers a transition from macroscopic world to atomic scale. It is well known that in quantum mechanics some physical information or some physical laws dissapear. For example a free paricle has a momentum but it has not a position. Magnetic moment of nucleus has a projection on the external magnetic field direction but the transverse projection does not exist. So we can not talk that nuclear magnetic moment is moving around the external magnetic field like an compass arror in the Earth magnetic field. The similar consideration can be made for a spin of elementary particle.
One can hypothesize that if an information is equivalent to some very small mass or energy (e. g. as shown in the next item) then it maybe so that some information or physical laws are lossed e.g. for an electron having extremely low mass. This conjecture agrees with the fact that objects having mass much more than proton's one are described by classical Newton's physics.
But one can express an objection to the above view that a photon has not a rest mass and, e.g. rest neutrino mass is extremely small. Despite of it they have a spin and momentum as an electron. This spin and momentum information is not lost. Moreover the photon energy for long EM waves is extremely low, much less then 1 eV, while the electron rest energy is about 0.5 MeV. These facts contradict to a conjecture that an information transforms into energy or mass.
But there is possibly a solution to the above problem. Photon moves with light speed (neutrino speed is very near to light speed) that is why the physical information cannot be detatched and go away from photon (information distribution speed is light speed).
3.) Searching the internet I have found recent articles by Melvin M. Vopson
which propose mass-energy-information equivalence principle and its experimental verification. As far as I know this experimental verification has not yet be done.
I would be grateful to hear your view on this subject.
Discrepancies in degradation test parameters of ORR Pt/C catalysts (and electrocatalysis reasearch in general)
2 replies
  • Szymon SmykałaSzymon Smykała
Hello everyone,
My PhD research includes degradation and stability study of fuel cell Pt/C catalysts for ORR. This is a new area of research, both for me (I'm coming from TEM background) and my lab, which is why I'm learning most experimental procedures and parameters from papers rather than more experienced colleagues.
Unfortunately, it seems to me that there's no agreement in electrochemical community regarding said procedures/parameters and here I would like to specify what causes my confusion:
- regarding CV and LSV procedures, from what I've already read and from my experimental data, it seems that scan speed influences ECSA data (extracted from H2 adsorption region on cyclic voltammograms) and activity data (extracted from linear scan voltammograms). Yet, I see different papers publishing data obtained with different parameters, which for me makes the results virtually impossible to compare. Additionally, some procedures include the so called electrochemical cleaning and stabilisation of the working electrode by performing 40-100 CV scans with higher speeds (100-200 mV/s), yet some papers seem to omit it. With LSV some procedures call for background subtraction of LSV data obtained from the measurement performed in N2 saturated electrolyte but again, not all papers include that step (yet both approached seem to be acceptable for publication).
Regarding accelerated degradation testing, the procedures seem to be a lot more all over the place:
-different scan speeds
100-500 mV/s, and from my experimental data I already see that scan speed influences degradation rate,
-different approaches to experiment
continuous scan vs 'sample and hold' (square wave) scan,
-different potential ranges
lower limit being 0,4 - 0,6 V, higher 0,9 - 1,2 V for operating condition testing, start-stop testing seems to be consistant 1 - 1,5 V,
-different "atmosphere" of electrolyte
O2 saturated, deoxygenated and "as prepared" electrolyte, all of those seem to be leading to publishable results.
So to sum up my stream of consciousness:
I'm not looking for specific experimental parameters (although getting some suggestion on those would be more than great) but rather some insight on the general consensus in electrochemical community regarding said parameters and why discrepancies in them seem to be widely accepted. Also, if someone feels like they have more spare time than they can utilise, I would be more than willing to participate in an internship in a unit focused on degradation/stability study of catalysts.
Thank you and have a great day,
Scientists Support Ukraine
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