Discussion
Started 9th Mar, 2020

Potential Cheap and effective Drug for COVID-19

Dear colleagues,
Since 2017, in Redox Research Center, we are working on the use of hydrogen gas as a protective agent for preserving food products. Up to now, we have found an extraordinary effect of hydrogen gas on protecting the property of foods (see our publications in google scholar).
Since 2007, many studies were performed for using hydrogen gas as a therapeutic agent in different illnesses. From these studies, many ones confirmed the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protective effects of hydrogen on cells and organs. Some studies reported the protective effect of hydrogen against irradiation lung damage (Terasaki et al., 2011), amelioration of hyperoxic lung injury (Kawamura et al., 2013), and reduction of the HBV DNA level in CHB patients (Xia et al., 2013)(refer to the links below). One of these studies reported that "patients receiving hydrogen treatment had improved tendencies in the liver function and HBV (hepatitis B virus) DNA level when compared with patients undergoing routine treatment" and they concluded that "Further study with long‐term treatment with hydrogen‐rich water is required to confirm the protective effect of hydrogen on the liver function and its suppressive effect on viral replication" and " hydrogen‐rich water may attenuate the oxidative stress and have the potential to improve the liver function and reduce the HBV DNA level in CHB patients." (Xia et al., 2013).
I invite the colleagues who work on the viral pathology, especially the COVID-19, to conduct assays on the possible application of hydrogen (in inhalation form, or intraperitoneal and oral administration of hydrogen‐rich water) as a potential and inexpensive treatment of COVID-19.
Please share this message with your colleagues to reach all the researchers and groups working on COVID-19 topics. Any potential use of this cheap treatment for COVID-19 treatment could help thousands of patients and all humanity to win the war against this fatal risk.
Best health for all
Duried Alwazeer
References:

Most recent answer

3rd Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
Hi Tyler, Enjoyed your podcast, didn't realize your link with the H2 Foundation. I will be following all this research activity with great interest. Meanwhile I am one of those people out there eating 50-70g fibre a day and producing vast amounts of intestinal H2.
1 Recommendation

Popular replies (1)

14th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Dear Dr. Alwazeer,
Thank you for opening this discussion forum. Based on my reading, molecular hydrogen has been studied extensively for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation associated organ injury since the first publication in 2007 in Nature Medicine [1]. Please see a review article by Qiu et al.[2]. The Chinese medical team has recommended use of 66.6% H2 / 33.3% O2 for inhalation for treatment of COVID-19 patients in the 7th edition of new coronavirus pneumonia guideline [3]. Since molecular H2 is safe and can reduce free radicals and inflammatory cytokines [2], the inhalation treatment is expected to significantly improve the condition of cytokine storm.
This treatment is cheep and and effective, as you suggested, physicians in other countries surely can follow Chinese team's lead to apply H2 containing gas to treat in-patients.
[1] Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, et al. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic
antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;
13: 688-94.
[2] Qiu P, Liu Y2, Zhang J. Recent Advances in Studies of Molecular Hydrogen against Sepsis. Int J Biol Sci. 2019 May 11;15(6):1261-1275. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.30741. eCollection 2019.
[3] In Chinese
9 Recommendations

All replies (217)

12th Mar, 2020
Nour El Houda Bousnane
Université Batna 2
Thank you for sharing
14th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Dear Dr. Alwazeer,
Thank you for opening this discussion forum. Based on my reading, molecular hydrogen has been studied extensively for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation associated organ injury since the first publication in 2007 in Nature Medicine [1]. Please see a review article by Qiu et al.[2]. The Chinese medical team has recommended use of 66.6% H2 / 33.3% O2 for inhalation for treatment of COVID-19 patients in the 7th edition of new coronavirus pneumonia guideline [3]. Since molecular H2 is safe and can reduce free radicals and inflammatory cytokines [2], the inhalation treatment is expected to significantly improve the condition of cytokine storm.
This treatment is cheep and and effective, as you suggested, physicians in other countries surely can follow Chinese team's lead to apply H2 containing gas to treat in-patients.
[1] Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, et al. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic
antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;
13: 688-94.
[2] Qiu P, Liu Y2, Zhang J. Recent Advances in Studies of Molecular Hydrogen against Sepsis. Int J Biol Sci. 2019 May 11;15(6):1261-1275. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.30741. eCollection 2019.
[3] In Chinese
9 Recommendations
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Hi Xiao,
I am so happy to hear this news. Did the Chinese authorities use hydrogen gas for treating covid-19 infected people? How were results ? Did was effective? Please provide us more information about this issue for helping others people and countries.
Best wishes and health for all
Duried
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Dear Xiao,
Can you please share the reference 3 you cited i.e. new coronavirus pneumonia guideline (in Chinese). I will try to translate it to English by Google translate. You also can help us in this issue.
Best wishes
Duried
14th Mar, 2020
Alma Mehmet
Iğdır University
I think we can discuss the corona mechanism first
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
That's right Dear Rector Prof Alma Mehmet. It will be a good idea.
14th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Hi Duried,
Yes, the H2/O2 gas inhalation is recommended by Chinese medical authority to treat COVID-19 patients. I heard that they have translated the document to various languages to help other countries. But I do not know where to find the translated versions. Here is the web link to the Chinese document: http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202003/46c9294a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml
Since the document was prepared by an expert committee, I believe there may be some promising results in a pilot study, at least it is based on promising clinical trial results of other studies.
For ref. #3, it may be translated to
[3] New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline, the 7th Trial Edition, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, 2020-03-05 (In Chinese).
Shirley Wu
5 Recommendations
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Thank you very much Dear Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Dear Colleagues,
First of all, I would thank Dr. Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu to kindly providing us the document original (in the Chinese language) entitled " New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline" that discuss the Chinese experience in the treatment of the Covid-19 using different methods based on promising clinical trial results.
I tried to translate this valuable document to common languages by using the translate tool of Google. As you know this is not the perfect translation method but some people can use it to have an idea about this program for treating covid-19. We hope as soon as possible to have the official translation version of this document in different languages.
Duried
14th Mar, 2020
Shakir Tuleab
University of Anbar
Medications that increase the body’s immunity and some vitamins that act as antioxidants
1 Recommendation
14th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
This is an improved version translated from the original Chinese document entitled " New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline".
15th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
I did not find the rate of oxygen and hydrogen proposed for treating covid-19 patients in the English-translated version of the "New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline". Is there any research paper published about this rate of gases ( 66.6% H2 / 33.3% O2 )?
I think the rates of 66.6% H2 / 33.3% O2 are very high. According to the literature, I found rates ranged from 2 to 4% H2 in inhalation treatment. I think this low rate is sufficient for the application of hydrogen gas in a biological system due to the potent reducing capacity of this gas (hydrogen) as well as the safety concerns.
what do you think?
15th Mar, 2020
Alma Mehmet
Iğdır University
I think this viruse is seriously affected by oxygene. Therefore oxygene - rich water could be used effectively.
15th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
The document indicated 66.6% H2 / 33.3% O2 ratio is the composition of the gas for inhalation. It did not specify the gas pressure or flow rate, which is subject to the standard practice and physician's judgement, I assume.
You are right, the literature reported H2 inhalation therapy is 2 - 4% H2, which may contain some air with O2. For COVID-19 patients, supply of extra O2 is important due to dysfunction of the lungs.
Should you or physicians in your country need to know the detailed procedures, you may obtain consultation via WHO and National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. You may also be able to obtain the Treatment Guideline document in English or other languages via these organizations.
1 Recommendation
16th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
I have found the latest WHO treatment guidance which provides detailed parameters of clinical operations:
Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected
Interim guidance
13 March 2020 | Publication
Hope it is helpful.
1 Recommendation
16th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Thank you a lot dear Xiao for these useful links and documents.
I found the English version of the document entitled " New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline" at the following link:
1 Recommendation
16th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
 Chinese researchers develop paper strips for COVID-19 detection.
16th Mar, 2020
Mohammed Bhia
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Dear Dr. Alwazeer,
As you mentioned the word "cheap", there is a drug come to my mind. Pleaee check this publication:
This paper was published in 2006 discussing the antiviral activity of Indomethacin on SARS. I'm not sure if there is a strong evidence in this publication to apply it to clincal settings, but is a place to start further research. Also, Indomethacin could be used for fever and pain.
1 Recommendation
16th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
That's right, dear Dr Mohammed Bhia, according to the abstract of this paper it seems to be an interesting drug for treating SARS patients. A study has to be conducted on covid-19.
1 Recommendation
16th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Thank you very much, Dr. Alwazeer, for finding the English version of New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline (7th edition)!
1 Recommendation
18th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Useful document
A useful information about the protection of covid-19 contamination in public places is available in the document entitled "Notice on the Issuance of the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Health Protection Guide for Public Spaces" published by the Chinese State Council Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Epidemic Joint Prevention and Control Response Mechanism.
1 Recommendation
18th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Another useful document about the best mehods for controlling and preventing covid-19 is available in the document entitled "Notice on Further Efforts to do a Good Job of Epidemic Prevention and Control Work in Rural Areas" published by the Chinese State Council Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Epidemic Joint Prevention and Control Response Mechanism.
18th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
For persons working in medical establishments:
This document entitled "Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Provisional 6th Edition)" provides useful information about covid-19 after the Chinese experience.
19th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
I have found a good summary of therapeutics for COVID-19:
COVID-19 Science Report: Therapeutics
by NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health
as of 12 Mar 20
2 Recommendations
19th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Thank you very much Dear Dr Xiao. I have already skimmed this document. It is a very interesting and updated review of covid-19.
19th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Thanks, Dr. Alwazeer. It has mentioned a number of repurposing drugs that are inexpensive and have shown promising results.
1 Recommendation
19th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
That's right Dear Dr Xiao. For this reason I recommended the reading of this document especially by the medical staff. It's very interesting.
That's a lot again for sharing it.
21st Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Per Ma Yun Foundation's invitation, a group of physicians in the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, China, has compiled a Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment, according to their clinical experience. They hope this handbook can help hospitals, physicians and nurses in other countries to manage COVID-19. The document can be found from Google search:
Global MediXchange for Combating COVID-19 https://covid-19.alibabacloud.com/
1 Recommendation
21st Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Thank you very much Dear Dr Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu for sharing this extraordinary Handbook. It is an excellent reference for all medical workers especially doctors and nurses. This high invaluable reference is very useful and helpful for all medical staff and authority.
Best thanks for the editor, doctors, experts, and sponsors who provide this handbook for free to everyone.
I would like to cite this sentence extracted from this handbook. "This pandemic is a common challenge faced by mankind in the age of globalization. At this moment, sharing resources, experiences and lessons, regardless of who you are, is our only chance to win. The real remedy for this pandemic is not isolation, but cooperation. This war has just begun".
I would like to share the note of Prof. Tingbo LIANG the Handbook Editor:
"Faced with an unknown virus, sharing and collaboration are the best remedy.
The publication of this Handbook is one of the best ways to mark the courage and wisdom our healthcare workers have demonstrated over the past two months.
Thanks to all those who have contributed to this Handbook, sharing the invaluable experience with healthcare colleagues around the world while saving the lives of patients.
Thanks to the support from healthcare colleagues in China who have provided experience that inspires and motivates us.
Thanks to Jack Ma Foundation for initiating this program, and to AliHealth for the technical support, making this Handbook possible to support the fight against the epidemic.
The Handbook is available to everyone for free. However, due to the limited time, there might be some errors and defects. Your feedback and advice are highly welcomed".
I selected some Figures of this reference.
1 Recommendation
21st Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
International Medical Expert Communication Platform
Connecting medical heroes across the world with DingTalk
In order to combat the coronavirus outbreak head on as a world united, we are connecting medical heroes from around the world with our DingTalk messaging platform. The Medical Expert Communication Platform was launched in DingTalk to help medical experts from all over the world share resources and information as well as their experience and know-how, all of which will empower medical teams on the frontlines of the COVID-19 emergency.
As soon as medical teams join the Communication Platform, they can immediately start to use the instant messaging and video capabilities of DingTalk, receive guidance from world experts already on the platform, and obtain a medical treatment guide compiled by some leading world health experts. The platform allows for instant communication across borders with the added support of AI-powered real-time translation, remote video conferencing capabilities, and several other features designed to help world medical experts implement effective interventions and provide quality treatment.
Alibaba and the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University jointly established the International Medical Expert Communication Platform. We welcome all medical institutions to join the platform to share and exchange valuable experience in fighting the epidemic, and help medical staff around the world to implement effective prevention and treatment measures during the best treatment period.
1 Recommendation
23rd Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Dear Dr. Duried Alwazeer ,
Thank you very much indeed for disseminating the useful information!
Hope the users at this platform would further spread the information to their countries to help management of COVID-19.
1 Recommendation
23rd Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
I agree with you Dear Dr Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu , our goal is to exchange the knowledge and experiences for fighting this common mankind enemy covid 19. We hope all users will share this information with their colleagues especially with workers in healthcare and medical fields.
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
This a very useful thread. Thank you Duriel and Shirley.
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Dear Geoff Taylor,
Thank you very much for collecting the very useful refs about COVID-19 treatments and trials! Given the rapid spread of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) globally, near 400,000 confirmed cases, and over 17,000 deaths, hope our effort can be of a bit help.
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
A useful review published on PubMed website entitled "Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19)" prepared by Italian medical experts.
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Two useful posters:
* Stop the spread of germs
* Symptoms of Coronavirus 2019
1 Recommendation
24th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
An updated review published by BMC entitled " The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status".
25th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
Re the March 16 reply by Shirley stating that the document recommended 66% hydrogen mixed with 33% pure oxygen. The lower explosive limit for hydrogen in oxygen is 4% (as it is with air), but the upper explosive limit is 94% with oxygen, versus 75% with air. Either way the mixture is highly explosive, and would need extreme care in its use and the choice of fittings and clothing to reduce static electricity.
I seem to remember reading not so long ago about the intubation equipment of a patient who was on oxygen catching fire.
2 Recommendations
25th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
You are right, the safe limits of hydrogen for mixing with air or oxygen are generally lower than 4% . All the scientific papers concerning the potential application of hydrogen as a therapeutic drug have tested hydrogen levels ranged from 2 to 4%. In the previous answer, Dr Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu admitted these limits of hydrogen i.e. 2-4% but he recommended a higher level of oxygen because the covid-19 patients suffer dysfunction of lungs. However, I don't know why the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of Chin recommended this high level of hydrogen i.e. 66.6%. I don't find any document concerning this issue. If Dr Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu can kindly ask the Chinese commission for more information about the inhalation therapy by hydrogen and its effectiveness in covid-19 patient treatment.
25th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
I have just read the ventilation section of the handbook in English version but can find no mention of the use of hydrogen.
25th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Dear Geoff Taylor I found the citation of hydrogen treatment in the handbook of
Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Provisional 7th Edition). You can see it in the attached image.
Duried
25th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
Thanks for that Duried
26th Mar, 2020
Grace Russell
University of the West of England, Bristol
Hi, thought I'd pop in on this discussion as I am looking into this topic presently. I have also received a communication from a colleague that states on March 14th H2 treatment was certified by the Peoples Republic of China as an important supplement to O2 therapy. H2 was listed as one of the basic treatment methods for COVID 19. The letter also alleges that engineers have resolved the issue of flammability in H2/O2 mixtures.
1 Recommendation
26th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Hi Grace Russell have you the document or any reference about this information to share it here in this forum?
Best regards
Duried
26th Mar, 2020
Grace Russell
University of the West of England, Bristol
Sure, it seems to be a personal communication, so I have added the full Trial (Version 7) that states the ratio 66%:33% H2/O2
2 Recommendations
26th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Dear Grace Russell Thank you very much for sharing this useful document. According to this document, the clinical results of the application of H2/O2 for treating covid-19 patients are very promising. One issue is still unclear in this treatment. According to the scientific reports, the recommended hydrogen levels range from 2 to 4% balanced with air or oxygen; however, in the handbook of the National Health Commission Office of National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the H2/O2 levels are 66.3/33.3 (%, v/v). If it is possible, can you please communicate with Xin-Yong Lin for giving more information about this issue?
Best regards
Duried
1 Recommendation
26th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Thank you for joining the discussion and obtaining more information about the H2/O2 gas mixture for treating COVID-19.
2 Recommendations
26th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
Duried
Can you please give me the URL for the edition of the FAHZU guide you are looking at? Thank you
27th Mar, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Dear Duried Alwazeer thank you for bringing up the discussion of the potential use of molecular hydrogen. Typically we use 2-3% H2 since it is below the flammability level ( ). . However, we have also used the 66% in other studies (e.g.
However, this can be difficult because 1) we are required to either purchase mixed medical gas air containing the desired percentage of each gas, which from experience can be expensive and difficult, and/or 2) we need to have all the approvals to bring in tanks of pressurized (and explosive gas) into the lab/facility/clinic, etc., and the appropriate knowledge and use ofgas regulators to ensure that the percentage of H2 gas is correct in conjunction with the rate of respiration, etc. In contrast, using the machines that simply use electrolysis of water to make the gas has several advantages i) easy to ship/transport, re-locate, maneuver, ii) produces H2 on demand with little set up, iii) ensures a sufficiently high enough H2 concentration to the patient, iv) possible additional benefit of the increased oxygen levels, and v) these machines have been donated by the company for this research. --I imagine that the recommendation to use 66.7%H2/33.3%O2 is because this is the combination produced from the machines used, and so to be congruent with what was used, the recommendation reflecting that was made. It is not clear that an electrolysis machine was used in the report. The letter to posted by Grace is from the CEO of the company to professor Sun about the work that they have done.--
Nevertheless, there is still the issue of flammability,and I am not convinced that the additional oxygen is always beneficial (in some cases it may be, and in other cases it could be harmful). However, since H2 gas diffuses very quickly (thus diluting below the flammability level) the explosive area is confined to the cannula and the top part of the unit where the gas first mixes. The machine adds humidity to the mixture, thus preventing static electricity from forming/discharging, and making it rather difficult to ignite the gas inside the cannula. If, however, this still occurs, a relatively small (likely not significantly dangerous) explosion ensues. This has been tested by the company manufacturing these devices, and they sent me videos before we used their machine in some of the animal research cited above. In short, the concern may not be as great as it initially appears on the surface, but safety and precaution are still warranted because it is still a very flammable gas. The company has a good reputation amongst many researchers because of their support to researchers in donating machines, following Chinese regulatory approvals, and supporting academic/medical symposia. You can read about the company here: http://www.asclepiusmeditec.com
We still don't know the optimal administration method, concentration, frequency, or duration. We reported that inhalation of only ≈ 1.3% H2 (10 min; twice daily) was not effective in Parkinson's disease despite this still being more molecular hydrogen then is often ingested via oral consumption of hydrogen-infused water, which was very effective in an animal-model of Parkinson's disease whereas inhalation was not ( ). In cell culture studies we have found that there is often (not always) a dose-dependent effect, and, therefore, inhalation of 66% H2 may increase the probability of a beneficial effect. However, it is also possible that simple oral ingestion of high concentration hydrogen water can also exert similar or even greater effects than inhalation due to its ability to induce different 2nd messenger molecules, and more rapidly increase the plasma/cellular H2 concentration, which pulse/intermittent exposure of H2 seems to be important for its signal-modulating effects.
3 Recommendations
27th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Thank you very much Dr Tyler LeBaron for this detailed information about the recommended practices and properties of hydrogen when medical applications are envisaged. Dr Tyler LeBaron is the Founder and Executive Director of the Molecular Hydrogen Institute, and he is the author and co-authors of many publications about the potential applications of hydrogen in the health field.
I would ask Dr LeBaron about the possibility of the application of hydrogen gas combined with oxygen for treating covid-19 patients. According to the clinical results reported in the letter of Xin-Yong Lin, the director of Shanghai Asclepius Meditech Co., it seems this method is promising in this issue. Have you, Dr LeBaron, more information about this issue? Can we use both the inhalation and the hydrogen water together in the treatment administration of covid-19 patients? Can we recommend hydrogen water as a preventative method against covid-19 contamination?
Best Regards
Duried
27th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
There are many types of hydrogen-enriched water in the literature i.e. hydrogen-rich water (HRW) produced by bubbling method, electrolyzed reduced alkaline water (ERAW) and magnesium stick water (MSW). The property of each hydrogen-enriched water differs according to the technique used in the preparation with a common characteristic of molecular hydrogen content. All these different hydrogen-enriched waters were evaluated in scientific research for their potential healthy benefits. However in the case of covid-19, which type of them could be more advantageous for prevention or treatment concerns?
1 Recommendation
27th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
You can find the URL for the edition of the FAHZU guide below.
Duried
1 Recommendation
27th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
Thanks Duried
28th Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
Duried
The ventilation instructions in the current manual which come up in your link do not include hydrogen therapy.
28th Mar, 2020
Grace Russell
University of the West of England, Bristol
The machine adds humidity to the mixture, thus preventing static electricity from forming/discharging, and making it rather difficult to ignite the gas inside the cannula. If, however, this still occurs, a relatively small (likely not significantly dangerous) explosion ensues. This has been tested by the company manufacturing these devices, and they sent me videos before we used their machine in some of the animal research cited above.
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Very useful information concerning the Chinese experience in the evaluation of the covid-19 and the different treatments performed by the Chinese medical teams are found in the presentation entitled "Perspectives of the management of COVID-19 infection in China" Prof. Dr. Nanshan ZHONG, Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, Director, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Professor of Respiratory Medicine , Guangzhou Medical University.
You will find the H2/O2 treatment of covid-19 patients at the 34 minutes 48 seconds of the presentation.
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
A clinical trial investigating the use of hydrogen in covid-19 patients is found in the report entitled "COVID-19 trials registered up to 8 March 2020—an analysis of 382 studies" prepared by Jeffrey K Aronson, Robin E Ferner, Nicholas DeVito, Carl Heneghan and published by Oxford covid-19 evidence service. This report describes the medicines that are currently undergoing clinical trials or have trials planned in the management of COVID-19, due to the single-stranded RNA virus 2109-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2). The mechanism of action of each medicine was also provided. From these medicines, Hydrogen was listed under Inhaled gases category and it was proposed to have an anti-inflammatory effect.
3 Recommendations
29th Mar, 2020
Sita Sharan Patel
Directorate of Health Service, Madhya Pradesh, India
Human plasma of recovered patients
29th Mar, 2020
Robert Bryant
Asheville Flavor Innovations LLC
I suspect few hospitals would allow use of 66% H2 gas however, 2-4% sounds reasonable as does its provision by electrolysis vs tanks. However, electrolysis makers need to provide metering to mix the H2-O2 product with the inhalation gas the patient is to receive. I've used H2 gas in anaerobic microbial incubations and it's a bit tricky and scary. Remember the Hindenburg. Low levels of H2 exposure via inhalation at 2-4% or in water/saline at 1 mM, sounds like it could have many clinical applications, especially where inflammation/cytokine storms could be involved. Easier, safer delivery methods are needed.
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Thank you very much for finding very useful information and sharing with others about COVID-19 treatment!
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2020
Christian S Yorgure, Ph.D.
Walden University
Hello Duried, thank you for initiating the discussion on the benefits of hydrogen in these unusual times. I am a Partner and CTO at H2 UNIVERSE, LLC., www.h2universe.com, where our goal is to advance the public knowledge of Hydrogen Therapy. Our current product--True Hano H2 - a capsule format, is a dietary supplement that boosts the immune system; it is an anti-oxidant, -anti-inflammatory, and provides all the benefits that you listed in your piece.
Driving the knowledge to fellow human beings is still a challenge, but people who are aware that the secret to fighting viral diseases is to boost the immune system have been using our capsule daily. We believe that 2 pills daily may boost your immune system to fight viral infections. We are launching another product - a pain-relieving hydrogen-generating patch in the coming weeks.
Our goal is to develop novel and therapeutic products on the platform of hydrogen, and we have several products in the pipeline.
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Hi Christian S Yorgure,
Thank you for sharing this useful information. Was the True Nano H2 product approved by the FDA?
That's true, there are many products/processes to produce hydrogen gas and all these products possess beneficial effects for health.
29th Mar, 2020
Christian S Yorgure, Ph.D.
Walden University
True Nano H2 is a dietary supplement and did not go through the FDA. However, we are currently seeking investors for two other products under development and shall require FDA approval.
29th Mar, 2020
Robert Bryant
Asheville Flavor Innovations LLC
Do we know how much H2 is present in a capsule. A ml of H2 saturated water at room temp would have 4 micrograms of H2. A quick look at some of the literature indicated people were drinking at least 500 ml of H-water and would be consuming 2 mg of H2.
29th Mar, 2020
Robert Bryant
Asheville Flavor Innovations LLC
Sorry, its 2 ug/ml not 4 ug/ml.
29th Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
There would not be much H2 in water as the water solubility of H2 at 20 C is 0.00016 g/100 g of water, as compared to O2 (0.0043 g/100 g of water) according to the following reference:
Reference: G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby, "Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants," 15th ed., Longman, NY, 1986, p. 219.
1 Recommendation
30th Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
A very useful and interesting video demonstrating the measures SAHZU has taken to manage its patients, protect its medical staff and apply information technology to cope with the outbreak of COVID-19.
The presentation entitled " Hospital Strategies to Prevent and Control COVID-19 " was presented by Professor Jian'an Wang President of SAHZU, Chief Physician, direct and oversee all COVID-19 affairs at SAHZU; Chair SAHZU COVID-19 Prevention and Control Steering Committee.
1 Recommendation
30th Mar, 2020
Christian S Yorgure, Ph.D.
Walden University
@Robert Bryant - 1 mg of H2 as an active ingredient. You can find this information on the box when you purchase it. - www.h2universe.com
31st Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
What does anyone think this means from the China National Health Commission 3.3.20 guidance:
” lopinavir or ritonavir (200 mg/adult 50 mg/grain, every time 2 grain, 2 times daily, ”
What do they mean by “grain”, do you think?
31st Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
This English translation may not be accurate. Here is the description quoted from
the Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment by Liang et al., p24
"Antiviral Treatment
At FAHZU, lopinavir/ritonavir (2 capsules, po q12h) combined with arbidol (200 mg po q12h) were applied as the basic regimen. From the treatment experience of 49 patients in our hospital, the average time to achieve negative viral nucleic acid test for the first time was 12 days (95% CI: 8-15 days). The duration of negative nucleic acid test result (negative for more than 2 times consecutively with interval ≥ 24h) was 13.5 days (95% CI: 9.5 - 17.5 days).
If the basic regimen is not effective, chloroquine phosphate can be used on adults
between 18-65 years old (weight ≥ 50 kg: 500 mg bid; weight ≤50 kg: 500 mg bid for first two days, 500 mg qd for following five days).
Interferon nebulization is recommended in Protocols for Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19. We recommend that it should be performed in negative-pressure wards rather than general wards due to the possibility of aerosol transmission.
Darunavir/cobicistat has some degree of antiviral activity in viral suppression test in vitro, based on the treatment experience of AIDS patients, and the adverse events are relatively mild. For patients who are intolerant to lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ cobicistat (1 tablet qd) or favipiravir (starting dose of 1600 mg followed by 600 mg tid) is an alternative option after the ethical review. Simultaneous use of three or more antiviral drugs is not recommended."
1 Recommendation
31st Mar, 2020
Robert Bryant
Asheville Flavor Innovations LLC
Christian, Thank you so 1 mg would make about 500 ml of H2 sat'd water.
31st Mar, 2020
Geoff Taylor
Independent researcher
The FAHZU quote doesn’t mention the amount of active ingredient per capsule, Shirley.
Going back to the NHC document, I think it means 50mg per tablet, 2 tablets each time, two times daily, giving a total daily dose of 200mg. FAHZU is probably also saying that.
31st Mar, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
No Gas No Gain: Flatulence is Hydrogen and is most likely has anti-inflammatory effects: Colonic fiber fermentation produces large amounts of H2 gas constantly for most of the day following consumption of high fiber foods. Similarly Acarbose, an alphaglucidase inhibitor increases expired H2 excretion throughout the day as well. Just published study on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effect of H2 in allergic airway disease:
2 Recommendations
31st Mar, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
More rationale and references for intestinal generated hydrogen: https://www.lonjevity-foods.com/post/no-gas-no-gain-hydrogen-is-medicine
2 Recommendations
31st Mar, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
Double anti-inflammatory benefit from microbial accessible carbohydrate fermentation are the Short Chain Fatty Acids produced along with hydrogen. Butyrate is a powerful HDAC inhibitor and signaling molecule with widespread anti-inflammatory effects including Treg stimulation and IL10 production in Bregs.
2 Recommendations
31st Mar, 2020
Jack Silver
Teledyne ISCO, Inc
I'm reading a small volume of hydrogen gas is needed at a given time, if used in ventilation. If so, would something such as an "H-cube" work? It is used by chemists to generate hydrogen as needed for hydrogenation reactions from water, instead of using a tank.
1 Recommendation
31st Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
The source of hydrogen or the process producing it is not important in the case of the health application of hydrogen. The amount of molecular hydrogen available in the product as the case of HRW (hydrogen rich-water) at the time of use and its stability are the key factors in this issue. In the case of inhalation, the hydrogen level besides the oxygen is the key factor.
31st Mar, 2020
Jack Silver
Teledyne ISCO, Inc
Duried Alwazeer I agree with everything you say. Making hydrogen as needed alleviates the fear of the "Hindenburg syndrome", and eliminates the need for a large tank when only a small amount of gas is needed. However, if the volume needed is small enough, a simple "classroom" cylinder is fine, too.
1 Recommendation
31st Mar, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Jack Silver I agree with you.
31st Mar, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Thank you for sharing the useful information and papers about anti-inflammatory effect of H2 administered in water or saline. Given the oral administration of low concentration of H2, the amount of H2 absorbed through the GI tract may be minimal. It is possible its effect is more on the modulation of immune environment in the gut, leading to systemic effect ?
1 Recommendation
31st Mar, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
Exhaled H2 concentrations after prebiotics are quite high, proving absorption into bloodstream is high as well. In fact much higher and longer than with drinking hydrogen water
1st Apr, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Few studies were performed for comparing between the exogenous and indigenous hydrogen for its potential effects on different diseases. The study of Kajiya et al. (2009) may be the only report treating this issue. According to the results of this study, although the amount of hydrogen taken by water or gas is much less than that produced by intestinal bacteria, the exogenous hydrogen demonstrates a more prominent effect.
What do you think?
1st Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
The amount of H2 systemically available from exogenous or endogenous (gut derived) can be directly measured in exhaled breath. Endogenous H2 is always much higher than drinking H2 water, just measure exhaled breath H2 levels.
1st Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
Funny that milk acts as a prebiotic in those who have lactose intolerance i.e. it is fermented rather than digested.
1st Apr, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Hi Gerry Davies I agree with the results you provided. However, some reports indicate that the bioavailability and biological effects of exogenous hydrogen are more potent than the endogenous one produced by gut bacteria (see for example Kajiya et al., 2009; Slezák et al., 2016). What do you think about this point?
1st Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Gerry Davies and Duried Alwazeer this is a great discussion. This is one of the enigmas that we see with molecular hydrogen research. The normal healthy intestinal bacteria may produce over 10 liters of H2 per day, yet ingestion of HRW only provides less than 0.1% of that amount of molecular hydrogen. Nevertheless, as I mentioned earlier HRW may be more effective than inhalation (especially if inhalation is continues) (Article ).
There are a few observations that may help us to understand the ostensible discrepancy. 1) The cited article (as well as other non-published data from several research groups) have observed that when H2 is administered continuously the therapeutic benefits seem to initially occur and then slow decrease and then are eliminated. It appears that the rapid intermittent/pulse type exposure of H2 is important. Ingestion of HRW can double the cellular H2 concentration within a couple minutes (e.g. 10 uM to 20 uM) whereas inhalation of say 3% H2 would take nearly 20-30 minutes to reach the 20 uM level according to Henry's law (and published animal data, which we discussed here: ). So it appears that neither the total volume or duration of H2 matters more than the tangent/rapid rise in exposure of H2. This may partly help explain why H2-infused in water may be more effective than H2-produced via bacteria. Nevertheless, as illustrated in the articles that each of you cited, the intestinal H2 production may also provide therapeutic effects.
1 Recommendation
1st Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
btw re the graph of the H2 production of the milk. Consider that the graph is going out many hours. We are most interested in zooming in to say the first 20 minutes. Now compare breath H2 exhalation following ingestion of 0.8 mM H2 and that of prebiotic-milk in this 20 min window, and the peak rise in of HRW (≈2-15 min) and the area under the curve (in this window) is significantly greater. Hope that helps!
1 Recommendation
1st Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
The idea that a short burst of H2 is the most beneficial is tenuous at best. is it even plausible? Much more work needed
2nd Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Hi Gerry Davies, we would have to define what you mean by “short burst” since obviously a 1 sec exposure is unlikely to provide any effect. I am only reporting what has been demonstrated in the literature. As mentioned in my above comment, in at least the Parkinson’s disease model, neither a continues exposure of H2 nor H2 produced from intestinal bacteria was effective. However, intermittent exposure such as from intermittent inhalation or better from ingestion of HRW was effective. Also consider this article: where the researchers initially tried H2 gas continues exposure but learned that intermittent was more effective. Dr. Ohta and I discuss the “behind the scenes” about that here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Up2i35MLdw. Additionally, we have found that we can exert a biological effect in cell culture with physiologically relevant H2 concentrations with only a 5 min H2 exposure. It appears that after a 24/7 exposure for many weeks, the benefits of H2 seem to disappear. This is in line with other signal modulators and their expected molecular biology. Nevertheless, as I said above, H2 from intestinal production (or constant exposure of H2) may still be effective in at least some (obviously not all) cases, and perhaps even more effective in some (again obviously not all) cases. BUT there are currently NO studies to suggest that the conjecture that a constant/continues 24/7 H2 exposure from birth-to-earth, from cradle-to-grave, from sperm-to-worm is more effective than an intermittent H2 exposure. Indeed such a proposition would be considered tenuous at best. To be clear, I am not saying that you made that claim but merely pointing that out for added clarity. Hope that makes sense!
1 Recommendation
2nd Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
There appear to be different mechanisms at work, signaling and free radical neutralizing. Not much work on gut derived H2. But H2 might be one of the reasons for the beneficial effects of high fibre diets. All speculative but the cheapest and most convenient source of H2 is fibre fermentation.
1 Recommendation
2nd Apr, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
The discussion with Dr. Shigeo Ohta, Professor at the Department of Neurology, Junendo University, is really very interesting and provides a huge amount of information about hydrogen properties and its biological effects according to the 40-years experience of Dr. @shigeo Ohta. At 38 minutes 04 seconds of the video, Dr. Ohta discusses the difference between hydrogen produced by intestinal bacteria and that taken by exogenous source i.e. hydrogen rich water or inhalation. The youtube link was given above in the comment of Tyler LeBaron .
I give it here again:
1 Recommendation
3rd Apr, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Dr. Duried Alwazeer , Thank you very much for sharing this very interesting interview video of Tyler LeBaron with Dr. Ohta!
Dr. Ohta mentioned that drinking H2 water was more effective than inhaling H2 gas in his animal studies. Is it possible the gut bacteria processed H2 and generated cascade effects?
1 Recommendation
3rd Apr, 2020
Gerry Davies
www.Fiberflour.org
You sell H2 water and I sell Fiberflour https://www.lonjevity-foods.com/
Therefore, Hope constant high levels are beneficial.
3rd Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Gerry Davies As mentioned, H2 from intestinal bacteria has also been demonstrated to be therapeutic. BTW, neither Dr. Ohta, nor myself "sell H2 water" (maybe you were referring to someone else? Anyways, we shouldn't dismiss the potential of H2 from bacteria...it seems that different methods of administration gives a different effect. For example: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25707580/
2 Recommendations
3rd Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu Yes, it appears that mode of action of molecular hydrogen is via its influence on signal transduction and gene expression. So H2 produced via bacteria will still work though this mechanism, but as mentioned, the different methods of H2 exposure may results in different effects.
2 Recommendations
3rd Apr, 2020
Tyler LeBaron
Southern Utah University
Duried Alwazeer, Gerry Davies Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu, this discussion promoted me to make a short video about COVID-19 Pathophysiology & the Rationale for why Molecular Hydrogen is being clinically investigated. Please see video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oh9Ztgjm4A
3 Recommendations
3rd Apr, 2020
Duried Alwazeer
Igdir Üniversitesi
Tyler LeBaron thank you very much for sharing this video. It is a very good explanation about the possible mechanism of molecular hydrogen action on the covid-19.
2 Recommendations
3rd Apr, 2020
Xiao Yu (Shirley) Wu
University of Toronto
Tyler LeBaron , Thank you for making the very informative video. Also thank you for promoting the science and technology of molecular H2 therapy that may help patients with COVID-19. I also believe that locoregional treatment by inhalation of H2-containing gas would generate greater therapeutic effect on conoravirus pneumonia, as I indicated in my early communication with Duried Alwazeer .
In your video, patients treated by Zhong Nanshan with inhalation of H2-O2 mixture felt significant improvement in chest pain and breathing. Given the lack and availability of effective drugs for COVID-19 and viral infection induced ROS, inflammation, cytokine storm and multi-organ failures, broader application of H2-O2 gas inhalation may save many lives. Hope the company making that equipment, shown in your video, can increase production and more patients can use it.
1 Recommendation
Can you contribute to the discussion?

Similar questions and discussions

Which factors could influence the outcome of COVID-19 patients and which alternative intervention possibilities could be applied?
Discussion
5 replies
  • Rosita DangmannRosita Dangmann
Dear colleagues,
Which factors could influence the outcome of COVID-19 patients, especially when invasive mechanical ventilation is required, and which alternative intervention possibilities could be applied?
N-Acetylcysteine:
The condition of hypoxia in COVID-19 patients leads to an increase of insulin secreation via ROS (reactive oxygen species) and HIF-1a (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha) [1–3]. It is known that insulin is upregulating the genexpression of vascular AT1 receptors (angiotensin II receptors typ1) [4]. An increase of AT1-receptors is related with an higher risk for lung pathologies [5]⁠. AT1-receptor blockers have been shown to be efficient against diaphragm dysfunction, provoked by artifical ventilation [6]⁠. It was demonstrated that AT1-receptors modulates tubular kidney injury [7]. During invasive mechanical ventilation the risk of AKI (acute kidney injury) triples [8]. Besides other factors (insulinresistance, ect.) is the increase of AT-1 receptors involved in the possible development of hyperglycemia during artifical ventilation [9].
In a study, published 2017, it was shown, that 89% of the arifical ventilated patients (n=174) became hyperglycemic and the mortality rate increased significantly (35.1% vs 10.5%, P < .05), when the blood glucose level increased >140 mg/dL [10,11].
Not only AT1-receptor blockers, such as Losartan, wich inter alia increase the insulin sensitivity and therefore improve the glucose homeostasis, but also NAC (N-Acetylcysteine) should be recognized in the prevention and also in the therapy [12]⁠.
Especially as NAC functions as a powerful radical scavenger and could have a major impact in the beginning of the cascade, namely by reducing the ROS and thus reducing the further stress of the insulin – renin – angiotensin – aldosterone system. Aldosterone could cause cardiac arrythmias, cardiac arrythmias were seen in COVID-19 patients [13,14]⁠.
Up to now NAC is not routinely used in patients with ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrom), although scientific publication already mentioned it and classify it as medication of particular importance for ARDS, because of it‘s well-established safety profile and promising preliminary clinical data [15]. However, not only the good tolerability and minimal side effects, but also the inexpensiveness and high availability should raise greater awareness towards NAC at this time. Recently, publication 2019, it was shown, that NAC could attenuate AKI in a cisplatin induced AKI mouse model by inhibiting the C5a receptor of the complement system [16]. The high relevance of blocking the signal chain of C5a and therefore suppression of the cytokine storm in ALI (acute lung injury) as a result of influenza A viruses H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus was mentioned in a publication of the year 2015 [17]. Worth mentioning is, that the blockage of C5a could decrease heart injury due to hypertension [18]. Although it seems that COVID-19 patients rather develop a hypotonia [5]⁠. This fact, besides that virus (SARS-CoV-2) binds to ACE2, made the use of ACE-inhibitors and sartans, such as Losartan, questionable as these medications could promote the activity and expression of ACE2.
At this point only one intervention possibility for an multifactorial system is shown, but this could be very promissing as it acts at the beginning of the cascade.
Flavonoids: Rutin/Querectin and other querectin-derivates:
Flavonoids are known for there anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-virale mode of action [19]⁠. Rutin, quercetin-3-O-b-rutinosid, could suppress an isoproterenol induced angiotensin II and aldosteron increase and showed a protective effect for lung tissue during ALI [20]⁠. In an experimentell trial kaempferol, a metabolit of rutin, turned out to be helpfull against ALI, probably via MAPK and NF-κB [19,21]. Just as quercetin, a further metabolit of rutin, appeared to be protective against pneumotoxic substances [19,21]⁠. Regarding the oral administration and bioavailibility of rutin by daily intake of 500mg rutin over a period of six weeks evokes an 2,5-fold quercetin, 3-fold kaempferol and 10-fold isorhamnetin plasma level increase [21]⁠. Besides the possible application of rutin, respectively quercetin, against symptomatic problems during a SARS-CoV-2 infection, it also could be a candidat to directly combat the viral load. Recent molecular docking research, not yet peer-reviewed, with Autodock 4.2 showed besides Nelfinavir and Lopinavir, also kaempferol and quercetin as possible inhibitors for the SARS-CoV-2 main protease [22]⁠. And in direct correlation with this study, a study from 2006 should be mentioned, in which quercetin-3-b-galactoside was identified as inhibitor for 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV [23]⁠. Important to mention the further findings of this study: “(1) removal of the 7-hydroxy group of the quercetin moiety decreases the bioactivity of the derivatives; (2) acetoxylation of the sugar moiety abolishes inhibitor action; (3) introduction of a large sugar substituent on 7-hydroxy of quercetin can be tolerated; (4) replacement of the galactose moiety with other sugars does not affect inhibitor potency.“ [23]⁠.
Furthermore quercetin, as well as Chloroquin, has a zinc ionophore activity [24]⁠. Zinc has an inhibiting effect on the RNA-polymerase of corona-virus and blocks replication in cell culture [25].
At the moment the Canadian researchers Michel Chrétien and Majambu Mbikay explore in Wuhan the antiviral competence of isoquercetin in relation to SARS-CoV-2.
Dietary supplements are freely available. It could be of global significance, in the area discussed here.
Kind regards,
Rosita Dangmann
For the bibliography please open the pdf.

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