Question
Asked 25th Feb, 2012

I want to study the REM stage of sleep. Which useful and simple tools can be appropriate for this research? What pattern do the eye movements have?

Tools other than EEG and I would like to observe pattern of eye movements by Naked eye(or by camera).

Most recent answer

12th Nov, 2014
Eddie Mr
University of Sussex
I was wondering if this study ever went any further Adyan, hopefully you could help me I am in the position you were when you posted this.

All Answers (21)

27th Feb, 2012
Andres Marin
Instituto de medicina comportamental del sueño
well you're an observational study of rapid eye movements, you can do with a camera as you say, the other is that the methodology used is the eye pattern measured by EOG, Electroencephalography not as you say and is the most widely accepted standard, it is also good to know for you want to measure and what is the aim of your measurement
27th Feb, 2012
Ingrid LC Nieuwenhuis
University of California, Berkeley
Hi,
The eye movements have to rapid (hence Rapid Eye Movement: REM), as opposed to rolling eye movements, which are common at the transition from sleep to wake. And you can also see small muscle twitches sometimes.
However, also other sleep stages can have eye movements, and REM sleep can take place without eye movements at all. The be able to determine if REM sleep is really taking place, you need at least 1 EEG lead (C3 or C4 referenced to the opposite ear or mastoid) as well as 2 electro-oculogram (EOG) leads and a submental electromyography lead.
Good luck
Ingrid
1 Recommendation
27th Feb, 2012
Graeme Smith
If you put the person in a dim and unchanging room, and pry their eyes open you can use a camera aimed at the eyeball to detect eye movement, by default though REM is thought to mean Random Eye Movement so looking for patterns might be a bit of a stretch. on the other hand, I have recently heard it said that the eye actually has a different level of ionization at the back rather than at the front, and so it is possible with just a couple of contacts at the outsides of the eye, and one contact in the center, to get a right/left estimate of the eyes direction, with an up/down one as well, you should be able to detect the 2 dimensional vision field at any point in time. Word is that the face is very noisy because it has all sorts of small muscles to monitor. YMMV.
You could try a Zeo. It's a headband with 3 contacts at the front to measure EEG, EOG (eye movement) and EMG (muscle activity). I think it's fairly reliable - at least that is what the company says (!). I am trialling wearing one for work and it's not uncomfortable to wear. You can buy it on the internet. I also detects non REM sleep.
But with the Zeo you won't be able to study the pattern of eye movements per se (unless you work out some way to get at the raw data) - just an indication that the person is in REM sleep. I think the gold standard is as advised by Ingrid.
27th Feb, 2012
Mark Levin
Sigmund Freud University Vienna
To what end is this research being conducted, the current tools of EEG and EOG etc seem to be quite sufficient, no?
27th Feb, 2012
Andres Marin
Instituto de medicina comportamental del sueño
I agree with my colleagues, to say sleep is essential as EEG and REM sleep slack chin is very important, as measured by EMG. Of course, if you want to differentiate movimietnos EOG eye pattern is important, it makes a difference, but again the same thing which is the objective of the study and we could recommend other measurement variables.
27th Feb, 2012
Ignacio Taboada
Central University of Venezuela
I agree with other posts. EEG, EOG and chin EMG are the best tools for your study. If you want to be exhaustive you can HD video on the subject eyes, but you are going to stay axake a lot.
27th Feb, 2012
Halasz Peter
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The main question is what is your research question. What would be the question you look for an answer. Methodology should be choosed allways according to the question. So what is your question??
27th Feb, 2012
Luke Schmitt
Tufts University
You can use the dipole movement in the EOG to track the relative motion of the eye, though it is most sensitive to rapid saccadic eye movements and tends to drift over extended periods. This method is by far the least invasive since corneal reflection analysis (which can be performed using commercially available automated systems) requires the eye to be open, leading to discomfort and potentially disrupting sleep. In any case, as several above have said, specific analysis of REM does require EMG and EEG to determine when reduced muscle tone is present during desynchronized EEG in order to discriminate eye movements occuring during REM from those occurring during transient partial awakenings (in which EMG amplitude is higher).
27th Feb, 2012
Luke Schmitt
Tufts University
I should add that in some animals (such as cats) REM sleep is sufficiently deep that it is possible to gently open the eye when reduced muscle tone is observed (i.e. when the cat sprawls out) without disturbing the animal. In early studies, this method was used along with visual observation to track eye movements however this method is labor intensive and somewhat unreliable due to experimenter error.
27th Feb, 2012
Lya Botler
Federal University of Pernambuco
Several articles about REm sleep where you will get answers about this issue.
28th Feb, 2012
Daniel Tarquinio
Center for Rare Neurological Diseases
RE: "I have recently heard it said that the eye actually has a different level of ionization at the back rather than at the front, and so it is possible with just a couple of contacts at the outsides of the eye, and one contact in the center, to get a right/left estimate of the eyes direction, with an up/down one as well, you should be able to detect the 2 dimensional vision field at any point in time"
EEG typically records eye movements due to the positive polarity of the anterior retinal cells - as the positive anterior moves closer to the electrode in question, this results in a relative local positivity. You can record this phenomenon accurately with only 2 electrodes (one above the left outer canthus, the other below the right outer canthus) and, of course, reference and ground. Eye movements can be determined based on the field detected in these electrodes being in or out of phase (Bell's phenomenon vs. saccades, etc).
28th Feb, 2012
Luke Schmitt
Tufts University
Re: EEG typically records eye movements due to the positive polarity of the anterior retinal cells. . . I have no direct experience with this technology but I would be interested to know how it works in practice. How accurate is tracking using two electrode EOG? I have read that rapid sacadic eye movements, which produce signals int he movement of the polarized retina/corneal dipole as well as myographic potentials from by the underlying muscle which can be removed as artifacts is much easier to detect than slower gaze shifting. Is it possible to determine eye path and gaze direction in two dimensions with only two electrodes? If so, does the position tracking need to be calibrated following changes in the potential related to dark current? I've always wondered if it might be possible to infer the experienced dream "path" based on tracking of eye position during REM. If possible this method might be useful in research related to replay phenomenon. For instance, if research participants were sent through a virtual maze (in a computer generated environment) some semblance of the sacadic movement pattern related to the left/right turn sequence of the artificial environment might be re-capitulated in eye movements observed in subsequent REM.
28th Feb, 2012
Graeme Smith
I doubt that 2 electrodes would allow you to measure 2 dimensions, however if you had 2 electrodes for each eye, placed a set distance vertically from each other the differential, between the vertical sensors might allow you to triangulate to get the relative up/down orientation as well as the right/left orientation. relative that is to the contact on the center and to ground. Total 5 sensors.
Removing the muscle noise, would help of course, but telling the difference between slow eye movements and the natural drift of the system would be difficult.
28th Feb, 2012
Graeme Smith
I was wondering if the two eyes track the same way during REM as they do awake, it might be possible to use the EOG with only three sensors (two on one eye and the reference in the center) as long as both eyes track the same direction during sleep.
28th Feb, 2012
Graeme Smith
Excuse me for being dense, of course you get the same benefit with one above and one below the opposite canthus. My error.
28th Feb, 2012
Zubia Veqar
Jamia Millia Islamia
EOG is used to study REM sleep. you can not study REM with naked eye.Do you plan to study REM without EEG? It is not a good idea to do sleep study with EEG.
28th Feb, 2012
Mostafa Daryadar
Islamic Azad University
Thanks to you all
12th Nov, 2014
Eddie Mr
University of Sussex
I was wondering if this study ever went any further Adyan, hopefully you could help me I am in the position you were when you posted this.

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