How we can reach the food security in country 90% is desert ?
Libya such as many Arabic countires import about 80% of food requirment , the peoblem of the water in Libya is the majar problem in the country resources of water are so limited the climate of the country is not suitable for produce some crop and also many kind of fruit because the temperature is hight specialy in summer season my suggestion is food for oil ( Petrolum) becuase as country is so poor of water 90% is desert in the same time Libya is more than rich of oil with small size of population just 6.7 Million of people
Just think if EVERY rooftop in Morocco or Tunisia or Libya, had a rain water collection tank or barrel... to collect all that water falling on the roofs of the estimated one million building in your country, that could produce billions of liters of water that could be used to water a garden and maybe flush the toilet? Image of water barrel from https://fcmponline.com/products/rc4000-rain-catcher-rain-barrel
Libya is already applying the Irrigation Pivots cultivation system, well-mechanized and technified systems. For this, they use electrical energy efficiently and it has been designed to minimize the loss of water by evaporation, with a sprinkler irrigation system distributing the water from the head of the Pivot to the final closing barrel of the crop, irrigating in circles.
I am no agronomist nor hydrologist but excessive water abstraction appears to be a global issue with severe long-term ramifications. Jam today rather than tomorrow. It is perhaps worth noting that in Roman times, North Africa was the bread basket of the Empire and, in Spain, during the Islamic era (711-1492) irrigation systems were well-advanced. Perhaps, we need to reflect on the sustainability of current agricultural and water management practices?
Ecological restoration of the barren desert areas with local native plants... to be able to harvest the Indian monsoon moisture that flies over each summer, and cannot form rain clouds. See https://www.ecoseeds.com/cool/html
So here is the plan:
1.) Stop the Civil War... and divide the country among the combatants, otherwise your energy and funds go into fighting each other, than fixing your environment,
2.) Barren soils absorbs heat... which changes the dew point, so rain clouds cannot form. The native vegetation insulates the soil to bring down the heat.
4.) Once the rainfall starts again, start replanting the wadis... with the native riparian vegetation, to slow down and stop any flash floods, and will help soak the rainfall back into the aquifer, and
Just the replanting a small area as a test... a few thousand square meters with low growing native plants, up to 1/2 meter tall in a barren area, can change the weather over that area--cooler maximum temps. and better dew points for cloud formation, and if Pseudomonas host plants are add, may start producing its own rain clouds.
In Libya, the country is already divided into occupied sections... and all that needs to be done, is all of the parties meeting and deciding like Czechoslovakia did in 1993, and quietly divided into new countries with recognized borders, like they did with Czechia and Slovakia?
Map made a few years ago... shows the country already divided between the government, anti-government and Jihadists. The only wild card will be the Europeans and Americans greed, to put the country back together under a dictator, so they can manipulate for the oil and gas resources?
I think if all of the combatants... agree to sit down, and everyone bar the Europeans and Americans from getting involved, by the end of this year, they could quietly divide Libya into maybe 5-6 new countries with firm agreed on borders, with new flags and names for each.
Then, they could all work together to start fighting... the real fights for their survival, get themselves out of the pandemic, and start the ecological restoration of their new countries, so that more rainfall will occur, the the maximum temperatures decrease, and put solar panels on every rooftop to start lowering their own carbon footprints and at the same time shade the buildings so they need less power to cool in the summer, so they can continue to live in a better way?
Parts of the Sahara desert were NOT a desert until about 5,000 years ago. There should be water resources at some depth. Use geophysics to find them. Saudi Arabia is turning green in some places using this method. Deserts are a temporary phenomenon. My area was a desert during the 1930's. Since then rains have returned.
Other than Americans and Europeans thirsting after the Libyan oil and gas, the Chinese?
I still think that during the Covid crisis, that warring parties could come together with masks on and hammer out to divide the country and establish the new borders for Libya? Then, the critically important work on the environment and to take care of the health of the people, should be more important than constant warfare, and battles back and forth for territories?
Unless we start getting the arid lands of the planet revegetated... with the local native plants, we are slipping towards the barren, dusty wastelands of Mars. Without the native vegetation and the Pseudomonas host plants to produce the clouds for us, we will not be able to survive in those areas in the future.
Attached is the difference from today... that replanting the native vegetation can do to lower the temperatures and also produce the rainfall that Libya and the other arid countries need right now.
hello SIR Craig Carlton Dremann i apprecaited your intersting answers Libya is so poor country if we are talking about water resoures But in the same time Libya rich country if we are talking about underground water share about 97 % of the water resoures in my country , the story started since 1950 In the 1960s, as oil exploration moved further south into the Libyan Desert in search of new oil fields, drilling rigs revealed the presence of immense underground water reserves. This discovery was an important trigger for the establishment of a major civil engineering project in the country, the so-called "Great Man-Made River Project". Moreover, the expanding economy led to a growing population along the fertile coastal strip, although the traditional water supplies in the region were inadequate for the needs of the growing population. Therefore, the need to develop and exploit the desert's water resources was recognized by the state leadership and detailed studies were undertaken to determine how they might be exploited in a cost-effective manner
Yes, there is fossil water underground... and we have been harvesting that here in the arid west for decades, but that is all that it lasts, usually less than 2-3 generations. Until you start the recharge of those aquifers by replanting the native vegetation the create the rain clouds to produce the rain?
Plus, the extra benefit for the hot deserts of the world... that global warming is getting the heat levels in summer close to the thresholds that humans can withstand and still survive--the native vegetation can cool down those maximums to 10-20% cooler that they occur currently.
we sorry i mean they established ( gaddafi government) the biggest civil project the project started in 1984 finished in 2010 but because of the revolution in Libya everything is stopped , however from my pointe of view this progect is unsucessful Libya has the longest coast mediterranean sea we can desalination the water from sea instead to bring the water from south of the country about 4000 km of pipeline 6 M 3 of water daily pumped from south to north ever day he was supposed( Gaddafi ) to leave the water in the south of Libya and take advantage of big spaces to establish agricultural projects so the south of Libya become the Libyan FOOD BASKET
I WOULD LIKE TO LEAVE THIS VIDEO JUST KNOW ABOUT THE GREAT MAN MADE RIVER
FOSSIL WATER or DESAL both take a massive amount of energy... because a liter of water weighs one kilo so in California for example 8% of all of our electricity use is to move water around. INSTEAD why not get all of the dry wadis in Libya, in Saudi Arabia, in Morocco with flowing water again naturally?
And at the same time, lower the maximum summer daytime temperatures by 10-20%?... And the money that would be spent on deal or completing the pipeline, used to buy each home and commercial building solar panels, to shade the building and keep it cooler, and at the same time provide free electricity, and lower the carbon footprint?
Since Libya is going to start again from scratch... after the country is divided into new countries by the combatants, it is a chance to rebuild it from the ground up, and do not waste the windfall from the oil revenue on things that will not make the new countries self-sufficient in the future?
And each new country should decide to not have standing armies... so that your oil money can be spent on REAL National Security items, like free health care for all, free education into college, and adequate housing for all, plus, a sanitary place to take a poop, and most importantly, restore the native grasslands and savannah and the natural environment, to cool the climate and bring back the rain clouds, for example?
LIBYA - A perfect example is the town of Bani Walid that exists from the water produced by the relatively tiny watershed, that originates only a few kilometers to the west.
If the residents of that town or whomever is in charge of the watershed lands, decided to set aside that whole watershed as an "Ecological Restoration Preserve"... then the process of restoration could get started. Images of the town, close up of the watershed and of the whole watershed attached.
The process would get started with NO domesticated grazing animals allowed anywhere within that watershed.
Then, adding shallow rock check-dams... only about 15-30 cm tall across every stream channel in an inverted V-shape, to slow down the water when it does rain, to slow it down so it percolates into the aquifer, instead of running off as a flash flood.
Then, start harvesting seeds of the local native trees... like the the three kinds of Acacias or the Lalob (Balanites aegyptiaca) but avoid planting any French Tamarisk (Tamarix gallic), and start planting a forest just on the edge of each of the wadi stream beds, spacing seedlings about 20 meters apart along the banks.
When you put the trees in... put a straw mulch around their bases about 10 cm deep and a circle about a meter in diameter. And when you dig the hole, put a little manure at the bottom and mix it with the soil at the bottom, to feed the tree.
You may need to put plastic tree trunk guards... to protect the trunks for the first few years, against anything from eating the bark and protect if from the sun.
And whatever manure, fertilizer and straw... you can place on the bare soil elsewhere on the watershed Ecological Restoration Preserve, will help conserve the rainfall and lower the air and soil temp. and help the native plants to regrow naturally. You add a thin layer of the manure and/or fertilizer, than place the straw upright into the ground, called "vertical mulch" and it slows down the winds speed and keeps dust from getting airborne.
If you want to harvest some native grass seeds... get some Panicum turgidum mix them with some organic compost and some fertilizers when you plant them, and they can also help cover the soil, and lower the temperatures. Or grow seedlings and plant out like the trees, and add the layer of mulch around them too. See http://www.fjexpeditions.com/frameset/florafauna.htm for pictures.
This grass is known by a number of common names, most widely as Taman, tuman, or thaman in Egypt and Arabia; merkba or markouba in Mauritania and some Saharan Arabics; and afezu, and can grow and stabilize sand dunes and acts as a nurse plant for other plants and trees to grow.
the average of rainfall in Libya is so so meager just someplace received 100_ 150 mm per year in the northeast of the country near the border with Egypt , in the south part near Sabha and Murzuq the averge is 0 also in the northeast we can not depend on Rainfed agriulture , this the big reason the agriculture sector consume about 70% of the water
The low rainfall or complete lack of rainfall, is because of the lack of the native vegetation to create the rain clouds... You do not need a big area of natural vegetation to create a lot of rainfall. The 8 km. by 40 km. area of natural vegetation in Oman in the mountains above Salalah, produces rivers and lakes and streams?
Whereas just outside that natural vegetation zone... is the most barren desert area on the planet, the famous "Empty Quarter" of Saudi Arabia--- that is so desolate that it was the last desert in the world to be crossed by anyone, even the local people. Image attached showing within the natural vegetation area, and just outside of Salalah. That is part of my paper at https://www.ecoseeds.com/cool.html
So start replanting the native vegetation? Cool the climate, and get the rainfall to come back. If you look at the above image taken this week of the surface temp, any replanted native vegetation like the Acacia trees, are going to lower the day time temps, like you can see in the Nile delta where the farm fields are planted.
An excellent example of what I am describing, has happened in Tunisia at their Sidi Toui National Park... that was established in 1993 and in only six years, the natural vegetation grew back, when it was not being grazed by domesticated animals any more.
One of the best uses of the oil money... would be to pay and convert the grazing people to ecological restoration people, so that the rainfall could return to the whole country. And then set aside as much of the desert area, to protected Ecological Restoration Preserves, and see what could happen in only a few years, like the Tunisia National Park?
Then, instead of grazing the natural grasslands...once the rainfall returns, irrigated pastures get established in the now water-flowing dry wadis, so that the uplands grassland vegetation can be preserved to bring the rainfall back to the entire country?
I did my deep DNA a couple of years ago, and on my mother's side I am 61% Tuareg from the Fezzan region of Libya... so it would be very nice if my ideas could help the lives of my relatives that still live in that part of the world, that could be much nicer for them, if the native grasses, wildflowers and native trees could be allow to regrow, and the extra rainfall refills the dry wadis?
It is so interesting to have such discussions and learn the new aspects and techniques to cope up with the problems of Food and water security. I believe that several numbers of steps taken carefully can bring a lot of change in the coming decades:
i. The focus can be given to the rural communities in order to restore the Land and upscaling interventions to meet the massive needs of food.
ii. We have to focus on sustainable land management and capacities development
iii. We should also focus on the non-timber forest products to support economic growth and sustainable management of natural resources.
Desert farming can perhaps set a good example. For instance, the integrated approach combined with technologies can be used to generate electricity from concentrated solar power, desalinate water for irrigation, and operate salt-water-cooled greenhouses for growing cucumbers and other high-value vegetable crops. Also, automated water recovery can be used to revegetate and improve the soil conditions of the surrounding lands. The system enables crops to be grown year-round, produces sizeable yields, and halves water use.
i am so happy to get many anserws from different prof i appreciate that so much i would like to say especially thanks for Craig Carlton Dremann he reply me water and food have big issus BUT from my view water more importante because if we do not have water we can not do any thing water = life in a few words
The increase in natural vegetation WILL BRING the extra rainfall that Libya or any Sahara county would need? ...Then you leave that natural vegetation alone and protect it from grazing, like they did in the park in Tunisia, to keep the rainfall coming every year during the summer monsoon season.
And then you could start planting pastures, and make new croplands... in what have been dry wadis for hundreds and thousands of years. Like the Tunisia park that fenced off and just by protecting the land from grazing, you can make the change in less than 5 years!
The Indian monsoon moisture goes overhead over Saudi Arabia and the Sahara each summer... just needs the natural vegetation to bring it back to earth.
What is important, is who in Libya owns the barren lands that need fencing from the grazing herds?
And would there be money to pay for the fences and to pay the herders... for taking that land out of grazing, and pay for people to do daily monitoring of the fences so they are not cut?
If you plant trees in a desert- provided you can find some water at depth- the rains will start coming down sooner or later. It has been tried before with some success. Some people suggest that you are not rich to start drilling. However, you can invite agencies that carry out that kind of work through UN. Many people, universities and food organizations would like to take part on projects like this.
In a desert, you NEVER start with the native trees... because the trees and shrubs are not the colonizing and pioneering plants that start the ecological restoration processes. You need to get the annual local native plants and the herbaceous local native perennials going first, like are shown in the picture of the Tunisian parklands.
There is an interesting article on Research Gate at
PLUS you NEVER want to start any desert Ecological Restoration process that would take any extra human efforts... to do anything but plant some local native seeds and protect them from domesticated grazing animals. Otherwise, you cannot get the scale accomplished you need, to bring back the rains quickly. You should be able to go from the current few mm of annual rainfall, to maybe 35-60 cm or more.
A good starting point, would be to examine the difference Confluence.orgimages taken from around the country at http://confluence.org/country.php?id=122 -- And chose an area that still has at least a little vegetation. Otherwise, along with the local native seeds, you need to add fertilizers plus organic matter to get the ecosystems restarted.
You might want to run some of the ideas of my answers... past Manam W. B. Saaed and Rebeh Rahil who are both at your University, but not on Research Gate as individual researchers, plus, Manam W. B. Saaed who is at The Higher Institute of Agricultural Techniques, Al-Marj, Libya.
i suggested to Libyan Government planting more date palm trees for production , date palm needs less water also in Libya we looking for tree nedd less water because of limitation of water , if we compare another kind of crops or tree in the same time help to reduce the degree especially in fezzan region , after years could be Libya number 1 in the world to export date why not ?
i know the date palm need water but not alto of water if we compare with another crops if we compare between date palm with barley or wheat .....ecc and the ponit is because where i was bron in murzuq city in fezzan region date of palm can bear the difficult climatic conditions such as Limited of water high Temperatures
Planting ANY crop, without increasing the annual rainfall in that area...is a losing battle for the last remaining water. You must replant the native annual plants and the herbaceous perennials first, that then increases the flows in the wadis. Then utilize the wadis for pastures and crops. Plopping date palms in the middle of 5 mm of annual rainfall in the middle of the Sahara will never work.
It is like building a city from scratch, first you need the infrastructure like a water supply, before you can build a city. The trees are the very last items that go into a functioning ecosystem-
PART 1 - -First, every square meter of BARE ground MUST be covered... by some kind of local native vegetation, and protected from domesticated grazing animals. Ideally there are still native seeds in the soil, like in the Tunisian parkland, that in less than 5 years, revegetated itself just by putting a fence around it?
PART 2 - Set aside and fence off areas where the Ecological Restoration will occur, and the resulting native plants will be able to grow unmolested by any grazing animals.
PART 3 -- Then, when the water flow returns to the wadis, inverted V rock dams only 50 cm tall, need to put every 100 meters down the wadis, to slow down the flow, so that water flow instead of rushing off as a flash flood, ends up lingering and soaking in, and raising the water table.
PART 4 -- Replanting the banks of the wadis with the local native plants and protecting those banks from grazing animals. Protecting the wadi banks, keeps the action of arroyo-cutting from happening, because the lower the wadi bed erodes down, that lowers your surrounding water table.
PART 5 - Plant pastures, crops, dates within the wadis, and keep the domesticated animals from eating the native plants growing along the banks and none of the native plants covering the upland areas. All grazing lands need to be wadi-water few, never grazing the former desert lands any more.
PART 6 - To accelerate the covering of the land with the native vegetation, selectively grow out the local native seeds in bulk, for replanting over large areas in the future. Avoid yummy forage plants, concentrate on weedy colonizer plants. One suggestions could be choosing at least one local native that produces a lot of seeds, from different plant families--Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Papaver, Sisymbrium, from the bean family like native Lotus, Medicago, Trifolium or Vicia. In the mustard family, if locally native then the Alyssum and Capsella would be good colonizer choices. Then, if the Erodium is native that is an excellent colonizer, plus Linum, and any local native in the mint family to provide nectar for pollinators. There will probably be a lot of choices in the sunflower family for good colonizers. A few choices should be made in the onion and lily families. In the grass family, if they are local natives, then the Avena barbata and and if the Bromus any were native would be good colonizers, as they are here in California as bad weeds. If Peganum is native or if there are native cucurbits, those would also be good choices to try.
PART 7 - Start from the north at the edge of the existing native vegetation, or at the headwaters of wadis, and sow the local native seeds you grew out in bulk, and add organic matter and fertilizers, to get the process moving quicker.
PART 8 - Establish the restored areas as "Sacred Lands" where people could come and worship? Because getting the barren desert to grow back into meadows grasses, and to have the rivers to flow again, could have a sacred and religious meaning to people? Plus it might be considered a sacred act, to help send down rain from the sky and help the springs and rivers flow again? By becoming "sacred lands" then people may have respect for them, and protect them that way. That is why the forests of the Western Ghats in India still exist, because the people there consider them sacred?
PART 9 - A Ecological Restoration institution in Libya could be established, to be the center for converting barren deserts back to grasslands and savannah, and then, people from China, India, the Middle East and North Africa could come to learn to do the same ecological restoration methods in their own countries?
PART 10 - Carbon credits and carbon sequestration? -- Once the grasslands and savannah are restored, calculate how many tons of carbon are being sequestered per hectare, and sell those carbon credits to Europe and other countries? And then see, that by replanting the barren desert parts of the planet, could sequester most of the CO2 we produce each year?
Plus, so you do not kill the crop with excess mineral salts, the water quality needs to be a relatively low-mineral content--
Plus, 1,000 cubic meters of water is equal to one MILLION liters!
Water quantity consumed per ha of Deglet Nour date palm at Tozeur (Tunisia)
Consumed Quantity (m3/ha)
January - 1339.2
February - 1693.4
March - 1874.8
April - 2073.6
May - 2142.7
June - 2073.6
July - 2410.5
August - 2410.5
September - 2332.8
October - 2142.7
November - 1814.4
December - 1339.2
Annual consumption - 23,647.4
Invest in the ecological restoration using local native plants... to increase the overall rainfall for the country, instead of trying to do something with the current meager amount-- that the human population and animal grazing pressures will keep decreasing the fresh water supply---until the large scale ecological restoration is started?
acutally rihgt now i doning online course with Florence university the name of the course is water harvesting microclimate management 2019 2020 the course it is so interesting and what you mentioned i mean the pictures you mean harvesting of water BUT i agina my country so poor of surface water share just 3% of the water resources in Libya Craig Carlton Dremann
I am not talking about HARVESTING water..just creating the conditions to increase the annual rainfall amount that falls...and then when it does fall, it does not rush off the land into the wadis as flash floods. And the rock check dams helf do that. You could potentially double or triple that amount.
Then, allowing the natural vegetation to recover the land...by protecting the land from grazing animals, lowers the maximum temps., keeps the dust from getting airborne, and helps change the dew point---so rain clouds can form whenever the moisture comes over from the Indian monsoons.
Plus, planting back the Pseudomonas native host plants, will encourage the formation of rain clouds that way also.
Picture attached of rain clouds being born in the hills where I live in California, from the Pseudomonas bacteria that live on the tree leaves.
Need to secure food supply from friendly countries through an exchange of oil for food. There are countries that have food but no energy resources. Security can be secured if you diversify supply to a few countries. Since you have access to sea water that might provide a source of water after treating it and growing certain crops that dont need so much water.
Just narrow down the grazing areas and allow the native plants to revegetate, so that your wadis will fill with water again, and you have have your crops and pastures there, after being dry for many thousands of years.
Could you get a grant to do some test plots on the plateau east of the airport near the town of Ar-Rajmah? ...That plateau not too long ago, had a massive amount of water flowing through those channels, up to 4-5 meters deep or more! And could flow again if the project was done correctly? I would have someone work with you, who could do plant phytolith studies, and also radiocarbon date the phytoliths, to determine what vegetation grew there originally and how long ago?
Ar-Rajmah is a in a beautiful plateau, and easy access where your are located.
My choice is based on all of the massive number of stream beds, and their depth, means that the rains stopped filling those wadis not so long ago, whereas the further east from Bengazi, the rains maybe ended several thousand years ago.
In fact there are a few dams across the wadis... on the western edge of that plateau, like the old silted up one at Lat 32.056 and Long. 20.324 that has silted up to create a very nice pasture now.
So Bengazi gets 45 days of rainfall a year for a total of only 10 inches (25 cm)... whereas Al Bayda with more natural evegation around it gets double 21 inches (52 cm). The rainfall maybe a meter a year, wants to come and rain on your entire county every summer, but your people are stopping that by eliminating the natural vegetation with grazing.
Maybe a ten year importation of your meat products...to replace the meat that was produced in the new Ecological Restoration Preserves, plus the 1/2 meter tall check dams in all of that plateau's wadis, could create the wadi-watered meadows like that concrete dam created, so only the wadi-meadows would be used for all of Libya's grazing needs, and all the natural vegetation outside of the wadis could be preserved solely for several purposes--
1.) Creating more rainfall, easily produce 50 cm across the whole country and in the northern half, maybe up to one meter... and 2.) cool the summer maximum temperatures, 3.) Go from zero rainfall May to October, start harvesting the Indian monsoonal moisture that could produce rain clouds, 4.) eliminate dust storms and atmospheric dust clouds, that also eliminate the rain cloud formations.
So if I was running Libya and had some oil money to invest--
---Eliminate all of the grazing from 31.75 degrees and going north to the Sea for the next ten years...and pay the people currently grazing whatever profit they would have made, and use that money to hire them to build all of the 1/2 meter tall wadi check dams instead. Designate that area as a Permanent "Ecological Restoration Preserve", with agriculture and grazing only conducted in the wadis in the future.
--- Import the missing balance of meat products that the elimination of grazing will produce.
--- The grazing can return to the wadis ONLY ....when the meadows are created, so the former grazing people will have a very strong incentive to build good check dams to start creating those meadows.
--- Every flat roof across the whole country of Libya...gets a free solar panel and hooked up to the grid. The solar panel will produce electricity, and at the same time shade the roof so that the summer electricity cooling needs will be significantly reduced.
Plus start converting Libya's electric generation from the current 100% oil or natural gas, to as close to 100% solar and sell the oil and gas to Europe, so you can buy more materials to recover your country with natural vegetation.
Your country is like living on the Titanic that is has already 98% sunk.. with only a thin sliver of vegetation brings you any rainfall each year. You need to increase that sliver, until you get the whole country recovered in the natural vegetation, so all of Libya can get that meter of rainfall across that whole area?
Look at today's map around India... all of that rain wants to come and rain on your country too, but it need that natural vegetation cover back on the land, to come and visit you.
Craig Carlton Dremann WHEN i was PHD student at Pisa University in Italy i done mathematical model through this model i foud out the relationship between population growth and the demand of the water for 3 kinds of water agricultural water use domestic water use and the last one industrial water use i using time series also the do forcasting until 20250 for 3 kind of the water , my view prof we have realy problem we need for solve today better then tomorrow in the morining better than afternoon , However the water resources divided into 2 typs conventional and non-conventional bythe way the groundwater share about 97 % of the water Resources in my country WE HAVE , WE SHOULD , WE MUST
Mange this water i mean here ground water in right way in the in the meantime we have to focused on vegetation to increase rainfall in Libya from my view it is long term solution in libya some times 1 liter of drinkable of water more expensive of 1 liter of benzene in some places
In your chart, you have non-conventional water sources…and list desalination plants, which Libya already has 21 of those, whose cost of water production is very high at about $3 per cubic meter.
However, cleaning up waste water and reusing that water… is what we have been doing here in Southern California for a long time. You already have the wastewater treatment plants in place, just need to add some extra equipment to the already existing plants to recycle all that valuable water that is currently being poured back into the Mediterranean Sea?
The largest operating wastewater treatment plants in Libya… are located in Tripoli, Misurata and Sirte with a design capacity of 110,000, 24,000 and 21,000 m3/day respectively. This would be an excellent short-term solution, until you get your natural vegetation back in place across your whole country, and could be built in the next six months to a year.
You can see the clear and direct relationship between natural vegetation and rainfall in your country?… Double the amount of natural vegetation between Bengazi and Al Bayda, and you double the amount of rainfall. Allow the grazing animals to eat the natural vegetation to dust in 98% of the country, then 98% of the country receives close to zero rainfall.
The choice is not how you divide the fossil ground water… but short term, adding the extra water treatment equipment to the already existing plants is the low-hanging fruit to pick in your country and also for many of the arid countries around the world.
1.) Add the extra treatment equipment to the wastewater plants…over the next year, so that massive amount of water can supplement the immediate needs.
2.) Round up all of the grazing animals and establish an Ecological Restoration preserve for all of the lands in Libya above 31.75 degrees North latitude…where grazing will be prohibited until the new “Wadi-Meadows” are created.
3.) Pay the people who formerly grazed, what is now the Preserve, for the next 25 years…to build the ½ meter tall rock wadi check dams every 100 meters, up every wadi in the country.
4.) Buy organic fertilizers and animal manures and produce local bales of native-grass straw…to add to the land in the barren areas, to help the natural vegetation to recover the lands faster. The native grass straw should be cut when the seeds are still attached, so when you scatter the straw, there are some native seeds being sown at the same time.
5.) Bales of other natives plants could be planted as crops like broadleaf natives and cut and baled… when they are producing seeds, then scattered on the barren lands.
Stopping the Dust Clouds from forming…needs to be the ultimate goal to fix your rainfall and water supply, by getting enough natural vegetation replanted and protected across the whole of Libya. The Dust Clouds are the most powerful weather modifier on the planet and I have several reports attached to my Research Gate under my Publications at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Craig_Dremann/publications
Including -- Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea cyclone interactions with the Arabia-Pakistan Dust Cloud 2007-2015, from the archived "Storm Relative 16 km Geostationary Water Vapor Imagery"
Craig Carlton DremannTO sovle any problem in our life we have determine the probelm correctly Water scarcity a fundamental problem in Libya and most parts of the world Water shortage are often due to problems of uneven distribution and the management of existing Water supplies in Libya could be improved, Like most countries in the Middle East and North Africa, Libya is mostly arid and semi-arid covers a total of 1,759,540 square Kilometres , The cultivable area of the Libyan state is estimated to be about 2.2 million hectares(1.2% of the total area) (NASID,2006) Groundwater is the main source of fresh Water in the country, more than 80%of agricultural production achieves from irrigated agriculture, also under conditions of the rapid growth in the population Water demand exceed 83% of the total annual consumption
Rapidly increasing population in many parts of the World place growing demands on Water for agricultural, domestic, and industry use Responses to these increased demand include not only steps such as well drilling, and dam construction, but also improved management of available fresh water .So the continue increase of population will increase human need for water , demand for fresh water escalated so the ground water resources were gradually exploited . The Great Man-Mad River project was carried out to transport Fresh water from underground reservoirs in south Libya to more fertile and cultivable land where most people live , through a network of pipes that are buried at a depth of 7 meters under the ground, The pipe is 1.600 km long and its inner diameter is 4 meters, After the termination of all its network the pipes will be approximately 4.000 km long which make it the largest artificial irrigation network in the world The growth of Water demand has a marked impact on the water resources of Libya which suffered serious depletions and quality deterioration , The common benchmark for water scarcity is 1000 cubic meters /years /person . In Middle East and North Africa 53% of the people are said to live with less than 100 meters cubic meters /years person, water availability in Libya is very low and does not amount to 1000 cubic meters /years /person were 538 and 154 cubic meters/years / person in 1960 and 1990. respectively , in Libya the amount of water withdrawal is over eight time its renewable water resources however, we must search for non – conventional sources. for example, water transfer schemes (The Great Man-Mad River Project) desalination plants, wastewater conservation .Globally agriculture is the largest water consuming sector, accounting for approximately 70% of all fresh water extraction , HOWEVER The quantity alone is not the problem associated with water, but the quality of the water from the rivers, lakes and the aquifers are also a problem. The water withdrawals for agriculture in various regions are up to 85% in North Africa, 86% in the Arabian Peninsula, 92% in Iran and the 86% in the Near East. However, these levels vary greatly among the countries of the regions such as North Africa and the Middle East. For example, the withdrawal is 44.5% in Bahrain, 92.1 % in Iran, 85% of the total water used in Egypt, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, and it is over 70% in Libya, Tunisia, the UAE, Iraq, and Turkey With very limited perennial water resources, Libya depends almost completely on non-renewable fossil groundwater resources. Water resources have impacted not just the physical geography, but also the human geography. The availability and quality of water have strongly determined the establishment on human settlements and have very strongly influenced the ability of the societies to thrive in their environments
IN THE END Libya is currently facing great challenges in meeting the growing demand for safe water. Libya is one of the driest regions on earth. It suffers from a severe shortage of water resources, despite the efforts that include construction of dams, desalination plants for making seawater fit for human consumption, and water treatment plants. Therefore, there is an urgent need to control the consumption of this important and vital resource. Controlling the use of water in the agricultural sector, which places the greatest demand on the available water resources in the country, is especially challenging because precise estimates of water demand and supply that are necessary for such control at the national level are always difficult to make. This is due to the lack of accurate statistics, especially in developing countries like Libya/
So, if Libya is currently facing great challenges in meeting the growing demand for safe water... there why not get more from the rain clouds, so that Libya STOPS being, one of the driest regions on earth.
Libya may be suffering from a severe shortage of water resources... despite the efforts that include construction of dams, desalination plants for making seawater fit for human consumption..HOWEVER---
Libya has NOT STARTED to start cleaning up and reusing its wastewater resources yet, and has NEVER CONSIDERED Ecological Restoration of the native plants, especially the Pseudomonas host plants -- that create the rain clouds, to produce more rainfall naturally, ever in the past?
And with the increase of the rainfall in Libya after the natural vegetation is able to recover the land, then, your groundwater resources will go from "fossil" resources to real-time-replenished resources?
my point of view we should install destination plant water along the Libyan coast Libya has the longest on the 2000 km on The Mediterranean , instead of bring of the water from the south to north 4000 km , I think this the first step for solve the probelm and then for long time we have to cover our country i mean vegetation Craig Carlton Dremann
All of the Libya wastewater plants, could easily add on the next level of water treatment to be able to produce drinking-quality water, and it will be much cheaper than adding any more DESAL plants?
In the meanwhile, every night right now in Benghazi... your temperatures are very close to the dew point! So, by adding some vegetation mulch on the land like some grass straw, you could lower the air temp from 70 deg. F. to the proper dew point of 60 deg. F. (21 deg c. to 15 deg c.).
Just by lowering the day and night air temp. by insulting the soil with straw...you will start the moisture-precipitation process, from the moisture that is already in the air!
You could start with a hectare of barren soil... and add different amounts of mulch, like 2 cm. 5 cm., 10 cm.. And then check the daytime and night time surface and air temps with the mulched area vs. the barren soil nearby, and see what amount of mulch can get you to that dew-point sweet spot of 15 deg. c air temp. at night?
You should start producing dewfall at night...then when you expand the area, may start producing fog or rain clouds at night in the future?
Craig Carlton Dremann i come from south of the country my city name is Murzuq where i was bron and also where i spent more then 30 year of my life But now i i displaced because of war ,however when i was young i remember in our house we don not need to use the pump for water After the failed Gaddafi project, which is transferring water from the south to the north, more than 30 billion dollars of Libyan oil money has been spent on it.The water level decreased groundwater level you know how much m3 bring from south to north daily 6m3 . and then the the people in the south part of libya such as Murzuq sebha strat to use pump for bring the water in our house also we used tank for keep the water ,Hence, the problem began with the large withdrawal of groundwater from south to north, which led to the killing of most of the plants that covered this area, which increased the rate of desertification.
Can you put together a small scale experiment nearby where you are currently located...to see if you can lower the surface soil temperatures, just by adding a layer of straw mulch?
And measure the mulched vs. the unmatched barren soil nearby, in terms of daytime and night time surface temperatures, plus any changes in the air temperatures during the day and during the night?
I would add different thicknesses of the mulch, maybe start with 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm... and for each of these three plots, you only needs to cover a 5 x 5 meter area? And get an infrared digital non-contact thermometer..so you can measure the surface temperatures?
Have purchased one for myself recently, usually made in China and sold on EBAY for about $20 Digital LCD Infrared Thermometer.
Yesterday, I looked at the night temps in F. to find the parts of North Africa, Arabia and the Middle East, where if the soil was insulated with straw or native plants, how many degrees F. would you need to lower the air temp, to produce precipitations--and in many areas it was less than 10 degrees, which was very surprising!
You take the night low temp in degrees F. and using the percentage of relative humidity, calculate with a dew point chart what the dew point is.
The subtract the dew point from the night temp., and you know how much you have to cool things down in degrees F. to harvest that already existing moisture as rainfall.
By starting on the water's edge--the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, etc., that by insulating the land initially with straw mulch then over time, then using local native plants over time, we could bring back precipitation almost immediately, because that moisture is in the air, just needs the correct dew point night temperature to drop out as precipitation.
I am going to call this my "Morocco to India Rain-Making Project"
Plus, if we look at the Sahara as one big "cut" into the earth, just like wound-healing occurs, if we start at the northwenmost edge and the southernmost edge and work kilometer by kilometer towards the center, I think the whole Sahara could be converted back to a native grassland-savannah within a few decades.
Below are examples this week of where precipitation could occur with a 10 degree F. or less change in night time air temp. could start producing precipitation.
Algeria Algiers, Egypt Alexandria, Egypt Cairo, Eritrea Asmara, Libya Al' Urubah, Morocco Casablanca, Morocco Rabat, Oman Muscat, Oman Salalah, Palestine Gaza Strip, Palestine West Bank, Tunisia Tunis, W. Sahara El Aaiun, and Yemen Sana'a.
Since Libya already spent $25 billion on the water pipeline project, what about an investment in the natural environment... that could produce maybe a meter of rainfall all over the country, from the moisture that is constantly passing over, and can be made to form rain clouds as soon as the barren soil surface is cooled down by the insulation of straw and natural vegetation?
Here is a list of the Libya cities that already have the best night temperatures... and if the barren soil around them could be insulated with straw and native plants, it only requires only a 3-6 degree F. lowering of the night time temps. to get rainfall started.
MARJ, Ra's Lanuf, Al 'Urubah, Al Baida' (Bayda), New Brega, and Tobruk.
That cooling process could also be helped by adding solar panels... to every rooftop, both generating electricity PLUS shading the roofs. Also native trees could be planted densely within these cities to help the cooling process. AND, the wadis need the rock check dams built.
The ones listed above are the easiest ones to change the dew point to produce rainfall. The next layer are the cities that need a 10-20 degree F. lowering of the night time air temp.to start generating precipitation---
Ajdabiya, Derna, Misrata, Sirte, Zilte, Zuwarah, Khoms, and Tripoli.
Yes, very, very easy to do, just need to add the organic matter and fertilizers back, and protect the natural vegetation from domesticated animal grazing forever.
And when you build the rock 1/2 meter tall check dams in the wadis... they fill with silt and provide the irrigated forage for the grazing animals, so they can stop eating the natural vegetation that cools the land enough to make the rainfall occur.
The fertilizer is needed for two purposes--refertilize the land to replace what grazing has removed over the last 4,000 years, and fertilize the straw-production fields, so that you can double the output, so you produce extra above what is used normally for forage, and use the rest to insulate the bare lands.
And we would need to do some special soil tests... that cost about $100 each here in California. And the cost of fencing, and the cost of paying for the value of the grazing lands wherever the plots would be located.
It is like putting a bandage of a wound if done right you start the healing process within one year or less!
We need to have someone like yourself to get a grant for the next 4-5 years from whomever is currently in charge of research funds in Libya... to test this method on small scales in the various locations around the country, to prove that it can lower the night time air temp. low enough, to start the precipitation process again.
Libya has many choice spots to try. Also, if there were where money for solar panels on roofs, that would be a huge benefit to start to cool a couple of square blocks in a city to start?
I will give send you a list to get you started directly via your Research Gate direct contact email..
Basically you only need some straw bales, a infrared digital thermometer, and some barren soil area near where you live that will never have any domesticated animals grazing that area while you are doing the experiment.
Attached is the logo for this project that I am calling "Deserts to Grasslands"... with a native north African and Middle Eastern acacia tree and water flowing in a dry wadi, image is one of my paintings on canvas at https://www.ecoseeds.com/art.html
Invitation to join the "Deserts to Grasslands" experiment of increasing rainfall with native plants---
If anyone reading these answers, or if any of your colleagues... would be interested, I am putting together a protocol on how to do the experiment on increasing rainfall using native plants, so you can set up some plots yourself.
FOLLOW me on Research Gate, then send a message via Research Gate... if you are interested in setting up some small scale test plots in a barren desert wherever you are located?
The total costs for equipment and materials to get started, should be less than $1,000... and you would need a vehicle to move bales to straw to the site, and the site would need to have ALL domesticated grazing animals EXCLUDED during the experiment period.
The minimum experiment plot area should be 100 x 100 meters... but could be larger, but initially no larger than one hectare, and plots should be located where grazing could be excluded for 1-2 decades into the future, so that long term trends could be measured and recorded.
The land where the experiment is located...the researcher should have legal control over that spot for the next 2 decades ideally. So do not choose sites where building, tilling, agricultural planting or grazing would occur for at least 2 decades.
Conversely, if the site is "public" lands... make sure to have an agreement to allow the work on the plots to occur, and that the test plots will not be disturbed by others.
For example my 1993 plot in the Great Basin desert has been fenced... has signage and has been preserved as a permanent Natural Study Area by the US Government, and it is on Federal BLM lands.
A dry wadi located nearby would be ideal... so that test plots and 1/2 meter tall stone check dams could be set there as separate experiments.
TO include the solar panels for the "City-Cooling" portion of this experiment, enough solar panels to cover at least one city block of publicly-owned buildings, and the cost of the panels and installation being paid by the public agency, plus the costs of automatic temperature measurement recording equipment and the costs of monitoring, also being paid by the agency.
my problem prof is i am displaced if i still live in my city Murzuq we have our farm i can do what i want to do ANYWAY i will try to find also small size for our experiment , we need who can support me during this experiment
until now we talking now time for action@ Craig Carlton Dremann
Very similar to how the Nile flows today--its headwaters harvesting the monsoonal moisture, then flows across the desert to water the fields and cities of Egypt. I call these two potential rivers Nile-II and Nile III.
All that need to be done, is fix the headwaters and that opens the natural faucet to have Nile-like rivers flowing across the Sahara very quickly.
In Algeria, Morocco and Libya, expanding the natural vegetation southward from the coast would do the same thing, expand the already existing atmospheric moisture collection areas.
All of these restored areas would need to be off-limits to grazing and farming, EXCEPT in the restored wadis where the water starts flowing again. You cannot disturb the natural vegetation of the "Water collection" areas or you will shut down the natural faucets you are starting to open up after 5,000 years of being closed. Plus all of these areas need to be established as permanent "Ecological Restoration Preserves"
خريطة لنظام النهر القديم من https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770569/ تشبه إلى حد كبير طريقة زهور النيل اليوم - حيث تحصد منابعها الرطوبة الموسمية ، ثم تتدفق عبر الصحراء لتروي حقول ومدن مصر. أسمي هذين النهرين المحتملين النيل الثاني والنيل الثالث. كل ما يجب القيام به هو إصلاح المنابع وهذا يفتح صنبورًا طبيعيًا لتدفق الأنهار الشبيهة بالنيل عبر الصحراء بسرعة كبيرة. في الجزائر والمغرب وليبيا ، فإن توسيع الغطاء النباتي الطبيعي جنوبًا من الساحل سيفعل الشيء نفسه ، ويوسع مناطق تجميع الرطوبة الجوية الموجودة بالفعل. يجب أن تكون كل هذه المناطق المستعادة محظورة على الرعي والزراعة ، باستثناء الوديان المستعادة حيث تبدأ المياه في التدفق مرة أخرى. لا يمكنك إزعاج الغطاء النباتي الطبيعي لمناطق "تجميع المياه" أو ستغلق الحنفيات الطبيعية التي بدأت في فتحها بعد 5000 عام من إغلاقها. بالإضافة إلى أن كل هذه المناطق تحتاج إلى أن تكون "محميات استعادة بيئية" دائمة
SeetheYouTubevideoofchangingtheSaudiArabiadesertbacktoagrasslandat...https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T39QHprz-x8...By building stone check dams to slow down the water flowing in the wadis. The entire Sahara desert PLUS the entire Arabian desert, and many parts of the Middle East, could become a grassland-savannah very quickly, in only a few generations!
That is why you add the straw mulch and fertilizers to get the local native plants to cover the soil, and insulate the soil, to cool the air temp.... to change the dew point, to help it rain again! See the video, the nasty, rocky areas in Saudi Arabia they started with! A lot of places only need a few degrees F. cooler at night, to get it to rain again!
Rainfall anywhere between the equator and about 30 degrees north latitude is dependent on several items working together properly:
1.) What is the relative humidity at night?
2.) What is the temperature at night?
3.) What is the dew point at night?
4.) How far is the dew point from the air temp. at night?
5.) Do you have lush native vegetation, where you want rainfall to occur?
6.) Do you have barren soil that heats up when the sun hits it, because the grazing animals removed the natural vegetation cover?
7.) Do you have atmospheric dust, more than 20 micrograms per cubic meter, that increases the heat-holding ability off the air?
8.) Do you have a lot of native Pseudomonas host plants, that produce new rainclouds in your area, whenever rain does fall?
9.) Are you are within 500 km. of a sea or ocean coastline? If so, and if you are hot and dry like a desert, how come?
10.) Do all of your building roofs have solar panels and all of your city street shaded with trees to decrease the amount of heat island effects?
11.) Do you have airborne rivers of moisture moving over you in the summer, that could be harvested to increase your annual rainfall? The answer for the whole Sahara desert and Arabian peninsula is YES! You future is not limited by the current rainfall amounts, since you can harvest more in the future, what is flying overhead each minute right now!
يعتمد هطول الأمطار في أي مكان بين خط الاستواء وحوالي 30 درجة شمالًا على عدة عناصر تعمل معًا بشكل صحيح:
1.) ما هي الرطوبة النسبية في الليل؟
2.) ما هي درجة الحرارة في الليل؟
3.) ما هي نقطة الندى في الليل؟
4.) كم تبعد نقطة الندى عن درجة حرارة الهواء. بالمساء؟
5.) هل لديك نباتات محلية خصبة ، حيث تريد هطول الأمطار؟
6.) هل لديك تربة قاحلة ترتفع درجة حرارتها عندما تضربها الشمس لأن حيوانات الرعي أزالت الغطاء النباتي الطبيعي؟
7.) هل لديك غبار جوي ، يزيد عن 20 ميكروغرام لكل متر مكعب ، مما يزيد من قدرة الاحتفاظ بالحرارة عن الهواء؟
8.) هل لديك الكثير من نباتات Pseudomonas المضيفة الأصلية ، والتي تنتج غيوم مطر جديدة في منطقتك ، كلما سقط المطر؟
9.) هل أنت ضمن 500 كم. من ساحل البحر أو المحيط؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك ، وإذا كنت حارًا وجافًا مثل الصحراء ، فكيف يحدث ذلك؟
10.) هل تحتوي جميع أسطح المباني الخاصة بك على ألواح شمسية وكل شوارع مدينتك مظللة بالأشجار لتقليل مقدار تأثيرات الجزر الحرارية؟
11.) هل هناك أنهار رطوبة محمولة جواً تتحرك فوقك في الصيف ، ويمكن حصادها لزيادة هطول الأمطار السنوي؟ الجواب لكامل الصحراء الكبرى وشبه الجزيرة العربية هو نعم! لا يقتصر مستقبلك على كميات الأمطار الحالية ، حيث يمكنك حصاد المزيد في المستقبل ، ما يطير فوقك كل دقيقة الآن!
Another very interesting video by the same guy in the Arizona desert... where 3900 sq. feet of roof (1,000 square meters)collect rain water, that goes into rain tanks that total 11,000 gallons (44,000 liters).
For every 1,000 sq. feet of collection roof, will produce 600 gallons per inch of rain. Or, for the metric users of the world, every 1000 square meters will produce 7,200 liters of water for every 25 mm of rainfall.
Jamal Ali Mohamed Ehdadan -- That is why it would be so important for all of the people in the Libyan cities to have their own rooftop rainwater collectors--that was what the ancients used when they were under sieges by their enemies--some sort of independent internal water supply that could not be cut off by outside forces?
Graph at https://en.climate-data.org/africa/libya/tripoli/tripoli-6421/#climate-graph shows the Tripoli rainfall, and there is a ton of harvestable rooftop rainfall already. And if each city in Libya had street trees planted to cool the heat island effects, and native plants covering the soil for about 15-30 kilometers around the city, then there would be an increase in rainfall during the summer months, from the Indian monsoon moisture flowing overhead every day from May to October?
By using the native plants around the city and native street trees within the city, could produce rainfall conditions very similar to the mountains above Salalah Oman, image attached--where the area of natural vegetation only 8 x 40 kilometers produces rainfall year around, with flowing rivers and lakes. Image shows the difference in Oman without natural vegetation, and with.
Just get your natural vegetation growing back around the cities in Libya, within the cities of Libya, and recovering the deserts of Libya, and the produce a lush oasis across the whole country again? And Libya has the money to make that investment for the future, right now!
Tripoli with a population of 3 million, has many hundreds of thousands of buildings located outside of the Old City.. And from Google Earth, I do not see a single solar panel on any one of them, and expect that nobody has installed water harvesting panels on any roofs either? Since water is so critical in Libya and many of the other North African and Middle Eastern countries, plus the cost of cooling all of those building in the summer is very high, then ALL of those roofs to shade them, should have one or another installed within the next few years?
The solar panels will shade the roofs and help cool the buildings, and the water harvesting panels, if they are corrugated plastic panels, will also shade the roofs as they harvest the rain water... And instead of a complicated drinking water system, the water could be piped only for use for flushing the toilet, and watering the garden and shade trees?
I would skip adding solar panels or rainwater harvesting panels to the Old City... or other older parts of other cities, and concentrate on buildings built after 1940 or so.
And wherever new local native shade trees can be planted... then that will help cool the heat-island effects of the city, plus help increase the rainfall in the area too! -- Image of Tripoli from Google Earth.
طرابلس التي يبلغ عدد سكانها 3 ملايين نسمة ، بها مئات الآلاف من المباني الواقعة خارج المدينة القديمة .. ومن Google Earth ، لا أرى لوحة شمسية واحدة على أي منها ، وأتوقع ألا يقوم أحد بتركيب نظام حصاد المياه الألواح على أي أسطح أيضًا؟ نظرًا لأن المياه أمر بالغ الأهمية في ليبيا والعديد من دول شمال إفريقيا والشرق الأوسط الأخرى ، بالإضافة إلى أن تكلفة تبريد كل تلك المباني في الصيف مرتفعة جدًا ، فيجب أن يتم تثبيت كل تلك الأسطح لتظليلها. خلال السنوات القليلة القادمة؟
تعمل الألواح الشمسية على تظليل الأسطح وتساعد على تبريد المباني ، كما ستقوم ألواح تجميع المياه ، إذا كانت عبارة عن ألواح بلاستيكية مموجة ، بتظليل الأسطح أثناء حصاد مياه الأمطار ... وبدلاً من نظام مياه الشرب المعقد ، هل يمكن توصيل المياه بالأنابيب فقط لاستخدامها في تنظيف المرحاض وسقي الحديقة وتظليل الأشجار؟
كنت أتخطى إضافة الألواح الشمسية أو ألواح تجميع مياه الأمطار إلى المدينة القديمة ... أو أجزاء أخرى قديمة من مدن أخرى ، وأركز على المباني التي بنيت بعد عام 1940 أو نحو ذلك.
وحيثما يمكن زراعة أشجار الظل المحلية الجديدة ... فهذا سيساعد في تبريد تأثيرات الجزر الحرارية للمدينة ، بالإضافة إلى المساعدة في زيادة هطول الأمطار في المنطقة أيضًا!
PERSIAN GULF HEAT WAVES--2015 study in Nature Climate Change journal presented computer simulations that predicts a new breed of Super-Heat Waves affecting the Persian Gulf, which have not been seen while humans have been around.
The study co-author is Elfatih Eltahir, is a MIT environmental engineering professor.
According to the study, the “heat index”– a measure of what temperature it feels like outside – for Persian Gulf countries could hot between 74C (165F) and 77C (171F) for at least six hours during the middle of the day.
That is so hot that the human body cannot producing sweat to get rid of the heat, making it dangerous even for healthy people to stay outside for any length of time.
The heat index measures the impact of both temperature and humidity on people. With 50 per cent humidity, an air temperature of 45C (113F) would reach dangerous levels. But with 100 per cent humidity, that feels like 77C (170F) when temps. hit 35C (95F).
Eltahir and study co-author Jeremy Pal, of Loyola Marymount University, said that for people working outside, or with no air conditioning, it would be intolerable.
These Super Heat-Wave events could require a mass-exodus from the region, and have major implications when people flock to the Middle East, potentially causing many deaths, like during the annual hajj pilgrimage.
SW ASIA -Later in October 2015, Elfatih Eltahir’s and Jeremy Pal extended their predicted “Super Heat Wave” predictions to SW Asia in their article “Future Temperature in Southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability” at https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate2833. The threshold for human-survival is a “heat index” of 35C (95F), which is calculated by adding the percentage of relative to the shade air temperature.
NORTH CHINA added--In 2018, Eltahir’s prediction were extended to include “North China Plain threatened by deadly heatwaves due to climate change and irrigation”
Therefore, all of the parts of the world that will have the future “Super Heat Wave” air temperatures plus high humidity, MUST start replanting their local native plants along with their native Pseudomonas host plants, to drop both the maximum air temperatures and start precipitating that excess moisture into rain clouds?
Craig Carlton Dremann Libya is a country with absolute scarcity of water resource. But, even if Libya doesn’t have many water, it has two important resources: a lot of petroleum (black gold) and a lot of fossil water (blue gold). Giant underground aquifers are located in the south of the country. Thanks to the massive amount of money derived from the international oil trade, Gheddafi, the Libya’s dictator, had financed one of the biggest hydraulic engineering project: The Great Man-Made River. This is an huge aqueduct which has the purpose to bring the water at the cities in the north of the country from my view we must stop to transport the water from the south to North we have use it in the south of country for vegetation and the same time work to reach the degree of dew to increase the rainfall ,yesterday a larg amount of rainfall on the road linking between Tripoli and Misurata
In Libya and all of the other countries bordering the Sahara desert... the rainfall will come back, wherever the native plants are replanted so they cover the bare soil again, and cool the air to change the dew point.
The rainfall you talk about, could have rained across your entire country... the storm was trying to water everywhere, but the very hot, bare soil kept it from moving inland very far, image attached. All your country needs to have about one meter of annual rainfall on every square hectare, is to cover that bare soil with native vegetation, then the rain can come back!
Anyone reading this, who lives in a desert part of the Northern Hemisphere and is at a University, get a grant and we can work on some test plots together to prove this concept works!
في ليبيا وجميع البلدان الأخرى المطلة على الصحراء الكبرى ... ستعود الأمطار ، حيث تتم إعادة زراعة النباتات المحلية بحيث تغطي التربة المكشوفة مرة أخرى ، وتبريد الهواء لتغيير نقطة الندى.
أيضًا ، المقالة الموجودة على https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/does-rain-come-from-life-in-the-clouds تعني أنه يجب على شخص ما الخروج أثناء حدث المطر واكتشاف النباتات الأصلية تشكيل سحب المطر في منطقتك - تبدو الغيوم الجديدة مثل حرائق المخيمات الصغيرة التي تتشكل مباشرة بعد توقف المطر الغزير ، فهذه بكتيريا Pseudomonas تنتشر في الهواء وتولد سحابة مطيرة جديدة.
كان من الممكن أن تمطر الأمطار التي تتحدث عنها في جميع أنحاء بلدك ... كانت العاصفة تحاول أن تسقي في كل مكان ، لكن التربة الحارة جدًا والعارية منعتها من التحرك في الداخل بعيدًا جدًا ، الصورة مرفقة. كل ما يحتاجه بلدك إلى حوالي متر واحد من الأمطار السنوية على كل هكتار مربع ، هو تغطية تلك التربة العارية بالنباتات المحلية ، ثم يمكن للمطر أن يعود!
أي شخص يقرأ هذا ، ويعيش في منطقة صحراوية من نصف الكرة الشمالي وهو في إحدى الجامعات ، يحصل على منحة ويمكننا العمل على بعض مخططات الاختبار معًا لإثبات نجاح هذا المفهوم!
If you follow the storm on the "Storm Relative 16 km Geostationary Water Vapor Imagery" link... for the loop on that page, you can see the entire desert is covered with water vapor, and all that rainfall needs to provide rainfall for the whole Sahara desert, is a cooler soil surface. And that could occur at night, OR by replanting the local native vegetation, especially the grasses and the wildflowers. You only need a dense cover of native vegetation about 25 cm deep, to provide the insulating effect that the rain clouds need to form and produce rain.
I want to establish my "School of Grasses-Growing, Wildflowers-Blooming and Rivers-Flowing" in universities... all across the desert countries in the Northern hemisphere, because converting those deserts back to grasslands and savannah will be the easiest method to produce the rainfall that each country's agriculture also needs to thrive. The additional benefits, will be to cool the maximum daytime and night temperatures, and also sequester massive amounts of carbon in the soil.
مدرسة زراعة الأعشاب ، وتفتح الأزهار البرية ، وتدفق الأنهار
That huge storm coming off the Atlantic toward North Africa... is starting to rain on Casablanca right now, and the night temperatures in Tripoli are within 5 deg. F. of the dew point, so if it cools down just a little more, rain may occur the northern half of Libya in a few days?
Might be a good time to go out and see if you can spot the Pseudomonas rain clouds coming off the trees... and then go and get samples of those trees to identify which are the native host plants, that produce the rain clouds for your area? You will be the first person to find what native plants produce rain clouds, anywhere on the planet?
So, go out and see right after the rain stops, if you see the new clouds forming from the trees that have the Pseudomonas bacteria on their leaves, and if you do not know what kind they are, take samples to identify in the future. And take lots of pictures, you will be the first person to see a rain cloud getting born. Picture of the clouds here being born.
And if you look at the wadis running with water, you can see how the rock check dams, could slow that water down, to soak into the ground and help the native vegetation sprout?
لذا ، اخرج وانظر بعد توقف المطر مباشرة ، إذا رأيت السحب الجديدة تتشكل من الأشجار التي تحتوي على بكتيريا Pseudomonas على أوراقها ، وإذا كنت لا تعرف نوعها ، خذ عينات لتحديدها في المستقبل. والتقط الكثير من الصور ، ستكون أول شخص يرى ولادة سحابة مطر. صورة الغيوم هنا يولد.
وإذا نظرت إلى الوديان التي تجري بالمياه ، يمكنك أن ترى كيف تقوم الصخور بفحص السدود ، ويمكن أن تبطئ هذه المياه ، لتتساقط في الأرض وتساعد على نمو النباتات المحلية؟
Just think if EVERY rooftop in Morocco or Tunisia or Libya, had a rain water collection tank or barrel... to collect all that water falling on the roofs of the estimated one million building in your country, that could produce billions of liters of water that could be used to water a garden and maybe flush the toilet? Image of water barrel from https://fcmponline.com/products/rc4000-rain-catcher-rain-barrel
The discussion focuses on the analysis of comprehensive national water balances: underground and surface water "Blue Water", soil water reserves "Green water", and the net "Virtual Water" flux related to foodstuffs imports/exports; in order to conciliate in a sustainable way water resource supply with the whole demand, including food demand.
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This list outlines country-level initiatives from various academic institutions and research organizations, with a focus on programs and sponsorship for Ukrainian researchers: