As someone who teaches Data Visualization, what I will start with (and I suggest you start with as well) is what is your goal in creating said visualization (i.e., what are you trying to communicate)? That is going to dictate how you visualize data more than any other single factor. The best visualization is the one that communicates the concept effectively and efficiently.
Some things to think about:
1. Whatever the point of the visual is needs to hit you like a freight train. As such, you need to have an intricate understanding of what it is that will trigger things being memorable in the viewer's mind. These get into visual pre-attentive attributes (things like color highlighting, symbology, etc.)
2. Explore the types of questions that people answer with particular families of visualizations. For example, you don't try to visualize clustering with a pie graph. You don't try to visualize a temporal concept with a map (unless there is an underlying spatial component). The point of this is that the structure of a type of visualization dictates the type of message it is capable of conveying quickly.
3. Sometimes you need multiple visualizations to work in tandem because you have a complicated interaction of things. This is the concept in a dynamci setting of dashboarding. For example, you may be worried about two distributions: one in space, and one numerically. That would seemingly require a map of some sort and a histogram or a pie chart (depending on the circumstance). Neither one can tell the story completely. It's a bit like when you evaluate regression models, you have to worry about several different possible challenges to the model, including things like leverage, Cook's distance, normalized residuals, R2, etc.
4. Try things out. You know what your message is (so you aren't very helpful for that), but people who are unfamiliar with what you are doing are particularly astute for this. Don't give them any context other than what the data itself represents - when you see this picture, what sticks out to you? Does that line up with the message you were trying to send? If it does, you have an effective visualization. Remember: the goal is communication. You can prototype that - it doesn't have to be real (back of the napkin type stuff).
Only once you are clear of what you want to do, then you can start thinking about how to actually go about constructing that thing. I would stay away from Excel for that as there are way better tools to work on visual things. Tableau, Power BI, and R all come to mind, though that list is not exhaustive.
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