Question
• Voorhees College, Vellore, India

# How do I calculate nanocrystallite size by Debye‐Scherrer equation using XRD?

how to calculate nano crystallite size by Debye‐Scherrer equation using XRD ?

6th Mar, 2020
Md Saiful Alam
University of Chittagong
I think Scherrer’s equation is using to calculate crystallite size, not particle size. The crystallite size and particle size is not same. So, Scherrer’s equation is not valid for both. If I want to calculate the particle size, which formula is better?@ Imane Mayouf @ Ahmed I. Osman
1 Recommendation

24th Jul, 2016
Ahmed I. Osman
Queen's University Belfast
Hi
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
Have a very good day and best of luck
132 Recommendations

26th Jun, 2015
Yanchun Zhou
Aerospace Research Institute of Materials & Prcessing Technology
When using the Debye-Scherrer equation for calculating particle size (D=Kλ/(β cos θ)
Select a approiate peak that is not overlapp with others, then be sure
D and λ have the same unit  (e.g. nm )
FWHM is the full width at half maximum of the peak (not half of it) in rad.
then you can calculate.
I have attached my early papers.
3 Recommendations
26th Jun, 2015
Volker Klemm
Hi PRASANNA NITHIYA, use better a modified Williamson–Hall dependence, compare for instance:
1 Recommendation
By applying Scherrer equation on the XRD pattern, the particle size can be calculated:
(D=Kλ/(β cos θ)
Where D is the mean size of crystallites (nm), K is crystallite shape factor a good approximation is 0.9, λ is the X-ray wavelength, B is the     full width at half the maximum (FWHM) in radians of the X-ray diffraction peak and θ is the Braggs' angle (deg.)
2 Recommendations
29th Jun, 2015
D.Vasanth Raj
PSG College of Technology
D=Kλ/(β cos θ) use the formula to calculate the nanocrystallite size
2 Recommendations
1st Jul, 2015
Manzhang Xu
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Scherrer equation D=Kλ/(β cos θ)
D is the average thickness in vertical direction of the crystal face
K is Scherrer constant. (if β is FMHM,K=0.89.   if β is integral height to width of the diffraction peak, k=1 )
λ is the wavelength of X-ray
β is the half high width of the diffraction peak of the sample
θ is diffraction angle(deg)
2 Recommendations
3rd Jul, 2015
Anil Kumar
Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute
Scherrer formula is used to calculate the average size in vertical direction  of crystal.
D=Kλ/(β cos θ).
For cubic crystal structure, K =0.94, λ is wavelength of X-ray.
2 Recommendations
19th Mar, 2016
Chetan B Palan
By using eq. D=0.9λ/(β cos θ) one can calculate the nanocrystallite size
2 Recommendations
24th Jul, 2016
Ahmed I. Osman
Queen's University Belfast
Hi
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
Have a very good day and best of luck
132 Recommendations
28th Jul, 2016
Ahmed I. Osman
Queen's University Belfast
Thanks
6th Nov, 2016
Zia UL Mustafa Shakil
Dear Fellows:
There are more than one peak for a given sample... then which peak should be selected to calculate particle size using scherrer's equation?
3 Recommendations
6th Nov, 2016
Ahmed I. Osman
Queen's University Belfast
Dear Zia,
use the dominating peak for the phase that you want to calculate the particle size.
9 Recommendations
26th Dec, 2016
Mustafa K. Ismael
Middle Technical University
Hi,
Be aware that Sherrer's formula not really applicable for nano size and also not calculate larger size more than 0.1-0.2 micrometer.
Mustafa
4 Recommendations
10th Jan, 2017
Dheeraj Kumar
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
25th Feb, 2017
L. Slewa
For nano size crystal  its difficult to study them with xrd
try to use TEM or FESEM
1 Recommendation
using xrd spherical particles can be calculated by the equation
8th Mar, 2017
Siddharth Sourabh Sahu
Uppsala University
Ahmed's answer explains the calculation quite well. I would like to add that this method of calculation, when applied to thin films, can sometimes yield the particle sizes which are of larger dimensions than the thickness of the films. This is not a discrepancy as the crystallites are assumed to be cylindrical plates in an extension to Scherrer's equation by Smilgies.  [D.-M. Smilgies, J. Appl. Cryst. 42, 1030 (2009)]
1 Recommendation
28th Jul, 2017
Heshmatollah Sepahvand
You can calculate FWHM using Origin software, but you should find the reference peak that reported in corresponding literature.
4th Oct, 2017
Nauman Khan
we have to used dominating peak for the phase that we want  to calculate the particale size
1 Recommendation
Dear Zia Ul, Use the peak which is dominating or better use the peak which is in between 30 to 45 degree.
23rd Dec, 2017
Saeed Kakaei
Nuclear Science and technology research institute
have good time
28th Dec, 2017
Elmustapha Feddi
Mohammed V University of Rabat
2 Recommendations
24th Jan, 2018
Essam R. Shaaban
Al-Azhar University
I confirm Prof Ahmed I. Osman to convert from angle to rad
But for calculating the crystallize size with high precision
crystallites size (Dv) can be calculated by analyzing the XRD data using the Scherrer's formula, Dv = kλ/βcos(θ), where β is the structural broadening, which is the difference in integral X-ray peak profile width between the sample and a standard (silicon) and is given by β = [(βabs)2-(βstd)2]1/2
4 Recommendations
24th Jan, 2018
Ravi Ananth
OnSight Technology USA
"how to calculate nano crystallite size by Debye‐Scherrer equation using XRD ?" You do not and you cannot. Do edit your original question to avoid this misnomer.
However, if you used the Scherrer equation (carefully) instead, you may be able to relatively compare samples. There are too many assumptions involved with the Scherrer approach that make it untenable like:
1. Shape factor
2. Size factor
3. Strain factor
4. Preferred orientation factor
5. Instrumental factor
You may need the help of the W-H technique to separate (deconvolute) some of the above mentioned factors. Learn more here:
"B = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad)"
This is the most common error while using many of the XRD "formulae". None of the "formulae" that I'm aware of, use the FWHM. Instead it is the "INTEGRATED BREADTH". They may be close but are not the same. You'd need the Bragg profile shape to convert FWHM to INTEGRATED BREADTH (Beta, β). If your diffractogram is digital then computing integrated breadth may be easier than figuring out FWHM :-)
E.g., for a Gaussian distribution, the integral breadth, β, is related to the FWHM peak width, H, by β = 0.5 H (π / loge2)1/2.
42 Recommendations
27th Jan, 2018
Ravi Ananth
OnSight Technology USA
"use the dominating peak for the phase that you want to calculate the particle size."
Only if you assume that the diffracting domains are spherical and/or if you are interested in size only along that crystallographic direction.
Post your XRD data as Excel file so others might help you too :-) I also suggest you include additional relevant topics up top in your question to share with a larger audience of XRD experts on RG. Refer to this discussion noted below to see some other topics to include. You may include up to 15.
3 Recommendations
22nd Feb, 2018
Elakkiya Rajasekaran
SRM Institute of Science and Technology
how to calculate the angle?
23rd Feb, 2018
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
What are you talking about? This discussion is about XRD; the angle is the parameter which is being varied during the measurement.
2nd Mar, 2018
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
1. Different diffraction angles will provide different FWHMs, when the crystal is not spherical. This is logical, as the number of lattice planes contributing to the diffraction determines the peak width. However, if you get different results from XRD software and from Origin, there must be a difference in data processing. Maybe Origin uses standard deviation instead of FWHM? You should check that.
2. Of course, FWHM has to be converted to radians. If you don't do that, you obtain a mismatch of dimensions in the formula.
3. λ must have the same dimension as the desired dimension of the crystal size. You can also fill in the wavelength in nanoinches and obtain the crystallite size in nanoinches as well.
5 Recommendations
29th Apr, 2018
Maykel Manawan
Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia
Why u wanna use Scherrer Formula for powder XRD data instead modified WH-plot or WPPM ?
FIrst of all u have to substract the instrument broadening by using the SRM where u have to chose the same peak position as ur sample (exactly). And as rule of thumb u have to go to higher angle, but the peaks intensity decrease, broader and highly overlap. Yet u have to take into account the others contribution as mentioned by Dr. Ravi.
Unless u work with graphane kind of structure and thin film, Do not use Scherrer Formula manually, use software, use all the peaks and substract the instrument contribution (except those software that use FPA).
Look for advance method such as WPPM (size distribution), BGMN (isotropic or anisotropic mean size), Maud (mean and graphical size), GSAS (mean size), Topas (mean size), HSP (mean size), etc
1 Recommendation
29th Apr, 2018
Andrew Ryan Garcia
University of Florida
Ravi, it depends on your definition of calculate.
30th Jun, 2018
Mostafa Y Nassar
Benha University
2 Recommendations
24th Jul, 2018
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur
First Calculate the FWHM from XRD plot and then put the value in D=0.9λ/(β cos θ) . β is the line broadening at half the maximum intensity (FWHM) . θ is the Bragg angle. λ is the X-ray wavelength;
2 Recommendations
25th Aug, 2018
Abhay Suresh Zambare
National Tsing Hua University
How to calculate FWHM in Origin
and use Debye‐Scherrer equation to calculate crystal size
3rd Sep, 2018
Ravi Ananth
OnSight Technology USA
Andrew R Garcia - "Ravi, it depends on your definition of calculate."
No matter the etymology of "calculate", the phrase "Debye‐Scherrer equation" is a misnomer, isn't it? Yet, it seems to perpetuate past all these admonishments. Is it deliberate or sub-conscious or something else? Do folks on RG even know the "Edit" option exists? Amazingly fundamental! :-)
Here's another one: "β is the line broadening at half the maximum intensity (FWHM)" - WRONG! It is "INTEGRATED BREADTH" not "FWHM"! Only for those who know not the difference are they the same. You are obviously not even reading the past comments Himadri! Do yourself a favor and read prior posts when convenient. Avoid embarassment. Learn to use the "Edit" option as well. The words on RG posts are not PERMANANT :-)
I notice that most XRD users here on RG are still "groping in the dark" (still using a conventional point counter) without having the advantage of seeing and visualizing the XRD phenomena. Still practicing it as a "dark" art which it was never meant to be. The Braggs clearly visualized it a century ago.
Are you folks not even reading what Maykel has posted? Come on fellows be considerate. Don't be lulled by the comfort of reading only your own words. Let's wake up and face modernity and reality.
2 Recommendations
8th Sep, 2018
Nikoo Soltani
Razi University
HOW CAN I CALCULATE THE BRAG ANGLE?
5th Oct, 2018
Ibrahim Alghoraibi
Damascus University
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
5 Recommendations
8th Oct, 2018
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
I wonder how many more times the Scherrer formula will be posted here.
25th Nov, 2018
Yassine Slimani
Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University
Scherrer’s equation: Particle Size Dxrd = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKalpha) ==> 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
note that Θ = 2θ/2
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad).
To convert from angle to rad; Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
1 Recommendation
26th Nov, 2018
Manu Chaudhary
Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya
Thanks a lot
27th Nov, 2018
S. RAJIV Gandhi
C. Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering and Technology
I asked that if any possible to find the size metal complexes by using scherrer's equation. In case what are the range of size in metal complexes compare with nanocrystalline form
1 Recommendation
11th Dec, 2018
Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology (SLINTEC)
I agree with Dr. Ahmed ,Osman and Slimani. It is easy to find by following those.
In XRD pattern, You should select most relevant and high intense peak for the calculation. Then, You can use above methods to calculate. It will be easy.
2 Recommendations
11th Dec, 2018
Ministry of interior
to converts angstrom to nanometers divide to 10 .........1 λ /10
FWHM divide to 57.3 to convert to radias ........2 FWHM/ 57.3
then application Scherrer’s equation
3 Recommendations
12th Dec, 2018
Maykel Manawan
Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia
why do you keep answering this post? it is overly simplistic and outdated approach.
1 Recommendation
12th Dec, 2018
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
I wouldn't say that, Maykel! The complex conversions from angstroms to nanometers and from degrees to radians maybe completely new concepts for some readers ;-).
3 Recommendations
19th Dec, 2018
Mostafa Y Nassar
Benha University
Yes, I agree with Claus Moseke. It is a confusing point for some researchers!
2 Recommendations
19th Dec, 2018
Kohat University of Science and Technology
Particle Size Dxrd = (0.95 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKalpha) ==> 0.95 x λ = 1.46357
Θ = 2θ/2
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad).
7 Recommendations
19th Dec, 2018
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
This is getting absurd!
1 Recommendation
19th Dec, 2018
Luma M. Ahmed
University of Kerbala
Hello,
See CH2 in the attachment thesis.
2 Recommendations
5th Jan, 2019
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Scherrer introduced the equation taking into account the integral breadths (β) and never mentioned FWHM values. So, in order to "estimate" the crystallite size (not particle size!) you first must eliminate the instrumental contributions (veryyy important) to β_sample using the instrumental function,
β_sample =  β_experiment -  β_instrumental.
where β_instrumental is a function that are unique for a certain XRD diffracto-meter. So you should measure line position and line shape crystallographic standards for the powder diffraction in order to obtain the parameters that describe your function and so your diffractometer.
Finally, you can use Scherrer as follows:
L_hkl = k * lambda /  β_sample * cos (theta).
1 Recommendation
8th Jan, 2019
Upendra Mahatme
K.Z.S.Science College,Bramhani (Kalmeshwar)
20th Jan, 2019
Mohamed Ibrahim
Kafr El-Sheikh University
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
21st Jan, 2019
Maykel Manawan
Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia
Oh c'mon... @#\$%
1 Recommendation
21st Jan, 2019
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
This is like facebook, when someone presents a stupid riddle asking for some number. People will keep on typing in the numbers for days and weeks, and if only to prove that they can c&p.
3 Recommendations
21st Jan, 2019
Alan F Rawle
Retired
As well as C & P, previous answers remain unread or not understood....
1 Recommendation
6th Feb, 2019
Fatameh Mostaghni
Payame Noor University
See the attachment paper.
1 Recommendation
14th Mar, 2019
Paramasivam Balasubramanian
Pusan National University
Use the attachment
6 Recommendations
19th Mar, 2019
Mitulkumar A Patel
Purdue University
Paramasivam Balasubramanian , Nice job making an excel
Alireza Bargahi
Thank you guys, nice discussion.
20th Mar, 2019
Hirra Anjum
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
29th Mar, 2019
30th Mar, 2019
Kohat University of Science and Technology
It is Scherrer’s equation, not Debye-Scherrerr:
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
10 Recommendations
It is Scherrer’s equation, not Debye-Scherrerr:
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
5th Apr, 2019
M. R. Mozafari
Australasian Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative
I had a look at your paper. Can you explain equation (1) in that paper in more details? Also, can this equation be used to calculate size of soft and spherical objects like biological cells, drug delivery vesicles, etc. ?
1 Recommendation
17th Apr, 2019
Ranjeetkumar Gupta
National Composites Centre
If you have access to Origin software, then this tutorial video can give you a quick snap of what to do, and its easy. This way of analysis makes it more applicable.
2 Recommendations
26th Apr, 2019
Somenath Chatterjee
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology
The Debye-Scherer formula in very simple way one may calculate:
1 Recommendation
26th Apr, 2019
Claus Moseke
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen
I just don't understand it, why STILL people post an answer to a question which has been answered YEARS ago. And - for the hundredth time: It is called SCHERRER formula, not Debye-Scherrer. How difficult can this be?
2 Recommendations
29th Apr, 2019
Abhay Suresh Zambare
National Tsing Hua University
See this video
How to Calculate FWHM in XRD
then you can use this value for further calculation
1 Recommendation
24th May, 2019
Youssef Dabaki
Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale (ULCO)
To calculate strains in a material using XRD I will suggest you to have a look at the following link which is a discription of Williamson-Hall Plot
Determination of Size and Strain
And to calculate crystallite size you can use Scherrer Equation and Modified Scherrer Equation for nano-crystallte sizes. Go through the following paper by Ahmad Monshi et al.
1 Recommendation
25th May, 2019
Luma M. Ahmed
University of Kerbala
6th Jun, 2019
Judit Nuñez
University of Twente
Scherrer equation: τ = K*𝜆/(β *cos(θ))
Where
𝜆 (wavelength): 0,154 [nm] (but depends on your equipment)
β (FWHM: line broadening at half the maximum intensity): ..... [rad] --> remember divide it into 2 because the angle recorded is 2θ
θ (angle): ...... [deegres]
K (shape factor): 0,9 [- ]
τ (particle size): ...... [nm]
1 Recommendation
6th Jun, 2019
Alan F Rawle
Retired
Judit Nuñez Welcome to the fun!
9th Jun, 2019
Arshia Khan
Scientific Age Research and Testing Lab Pvt Ltd
It is not possible to calculate the particle size of an amorphous compound by
Debye‐Scherrer eqN because XRD can only determine crystalline compounds or substances. Hence no data will be available if an amorphous compound will be analysed under XRD spectra
1 Recommendation
10th Jun, 2019
Upendra Mahatme
K.Z.S.Science College,Bramhani (Kalmeshwar)
Agreed to the answer of Mr. Ravi Ananth
14th Jul, 2019
Abbas Jassim Lafta
University of Babylon
Crystal size of crystalline materials can be calculated using Debye-Scherer equation if it is homogeneous then take (k=0.94) and if it heterogeneous (k=0.89). Thi can be indicated from SEM images for the investigated material. then beta(FWHM= β) converts from deg into radian scale and applying Scherer equation:
1. D=(k λ / β Cos Theta)
18th Jul, 2019
Firas Abdulrazzak
Karkh university of sciences
use all the peaks that you take from patterns and compare it with SEM or TEM in 100 nm range
1 Recommendation
29th Jul, 2019
Mohsen Miraali
This is a new and improved method of Sherer's equation, I suggest studying it.
DOI:10.4236 / wjnse.2012.23020
Modified Scherrer equation to estimate more accurately nano-crystallite size using XRD
2 Recommendations
4th Aug, 2019
Siddique Shah
Scherrer equation
T = Kλ/(β cos θ)
Where
2 θ = 7.210
So θ=3.6050
And
cos(3.605)=0.998
D=(0.9*0.154)/(0.00285 x cos(3.605))=48.729 nm
D=(0.9*0.154)/(0.00285*0.998)
D = 48.729 nm
2 Recommendations
6th Aug, 2019
Ali Taha Saleh
University of Misan
DOI 10.1007/s10853-016-0017-2
6th Aug, 2019
Alan F Rawle
Retired
Siddique Shah You quote D = 48.279 nm. Do you know what the diameter of a hydrogen atom is? You should reconsider the number of decimal points you are stating.
6th Aug, 2019
Alan F Rawle
Retired
Abbas Jassim Lafta If you've read the previous answers you'll know that there's no such animal as the 'Debye-Scherer equation' or even the Debye-Scherrer equation. It's solely the Scherrer equation with all its foibles.
2 Recommendations
5th Sep, 2019
SASTRA University
Dear Researchers,
The formula is not "Debye-Scherrer formula". Its simply "Scherrer formula"
2 Recommendations
6th Sep, 2019
Ambesh Dixit
Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur
I agree with Jayadheepan that there is NO such Debye-Scherrer formula and misleading so should be avoided.
Additionally while using Scherrer’s equation: Particle Size = (K x λ)/ (FWHM cosθ), few points to be considered:
(i) A care must be taken in converting degree into radians and also writing the final answer with errors, as without errors, the number may be misleading. Also if possible, this should be crosschecked with microscopic (TEM) measurements.
(ii) Usually K is considered constant and taken 0.9 (which is true for spherical particles), and for different shaped like cube and rod a smaller K value should be used.
The standard reference by J. I. Langford and A. J. C. Wilson "Scherrer after sixty years: A survey and some new results in the determination of crystallite size" J. Appl. Cryst. (1978). 11, 102-113, should be used for better analysis.
Best
3 Recommendations
7th Sep, 2019
Silesian University of Technology
You can solve this automatically by Using Jade Software
By Jade You can calculate 2 theta, Intensity Peak ,HKL, Lattice parameters, Stress constant, and peak etc
1 Recommendation
8th Sep, 2019
M. R. Mozafari
Australasian Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative
Hi, You may find this interesting:
"The equation is Dhkl = Kλ/(Bhklcosθ), where Dhkl is the crystallite size in the direction perpendicular to the lattice planes, hkl are the Miller indices of the planes being analysed, K is a numerical factor frequently referred to as the crystallite-shape factor5, λ is the wavelength of the X-rays ..." Source: Holzwarth, U., & Gibson, N. (2011). The Scherrer equation versus the'Debye-Scherrer equation'. Nature Nanotechnology, 6(9), 534. Webpage: https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2011.145
1 Recommendation
12th Sep, 2019
Vishnu Kumar
University of Delhi
Hi, I find W-H plot more accurate method to calculate crystallite size. In Scherrer equation, we use the most intense xrd peak. In W-H plot, we use average 4-5 peaks.
I have made a tutorial video on W-H plot for XRD analysis to calculate crystallite size, strain and find the FWHM of each peaks using Gaussian Peak fitting method.
18th Nov, 2019
Luma M. Ahmed
University of Kerbala
27th Nov, 2019
Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Debye was Scherrer's PhD mentor. He obtained his PhD in 1916, while he published his landmark equation in 1918. Debye-Scherrer equation does not exist.
4 Recommendations
28th Nov, 2019
Engin Çiftyürek
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
@ Ravi Ananth
Preferred orientation factor or in order way to say is texture development, which is not expected commonly unless a special treatments applied.
Instrumental factor, should be the same form to batch to batch.
I agree, d = the full width at half maximum intensity is not integrated/integral Breadth, which is required for calculation.
20th Dec, 2019
Università degli Studi di Torino
see the attached document for guidance.
regards
Santanu
1 Recommendation
6th Jan, 2020
Kohat University of Science and Technology
Agree with @Ravi
3 Recommendations
9th Jan, 2020
Imane Mayouf
Ferhat Abbas University of Setif
I'am agree with Jeyadheepan Karu it's Scherrer formula
you need to be attention th the value of λ = 1.54060 Å, if you want to get the crystallite size directly in " nm " you must put λ = 0.154060 nm.
2 Recommendations
10th Jan, 2020
Maykel Manawan
Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia
Guys have u ever read the recent publications on this ?
Are u really wanna calculate it manually just with a single information ?
Read the size-strain round robin article from IUCR website below as well as find all the related information, instead discussing this obsolete method.
Serch for whole powder pattern modeling as well as an advance recent method.
1 Recommendation
10th Jan, 2020
Silesian University of Technology
I have calculated the crystalline size by MDI Jade 6.5 this version calculate the Size, lattices, hkl,angles values and many more
I have added a photo of demo material with its crystalline size
22nd Jan, 2020
Alexei Yu. Kuznetsov
National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro)
16th Feb, 2020
Dogan Kaya
Cukurova University
Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis thank you for your fact.