Question
Asked 16th Jul, 2022

Hello. Is it a must to derive the independent and dependent variables from the topic? must my variables (words) be included within the topic?

Say, I have two topics;
1. the survival of kittens and the parent's breed
2. the government's contribution to service provision
Thank you

Most recent answer

21st Jul, 2022
Florence Nambooze
Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)
Thank you Sridhar Mulakaluri and Aduku A Akubo I am following closely

All Answers (7)

16th Jul, 2022
Nicolò M. Villa
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
I'm not sure what you mean by "topic" but from the two lines you've written I cannot understand what is the dependent and independent variable you're addressing. If you mean a research topic, of course you must formulate a research question that investigates the relation between an independent variable that you're manipulating (in literature also termed "perturbation", "explenatory variable" or "regressor") and a dependent variable ( also termed "random variable" or "response variable") that you're measuring or assessing. They should be clearly stated in the abstract, introduction and possible the title, although some opt for a more catchy title.
In the first there is no relationship between what I imagine are the variables. I think it could be more helpful if you try to first to formulate research questions instead of titles. (Ex. "does the breed of parents affect kittens survival?"). Then you express the relationship between the variables (ex. "Effect of parental breed on kittens survival"). From this title is clear that the breed is the independent variable and the kittens survival the dependent one.
In the second I can guess that the government contribution is the independent variable and the service provision the dependent one, but I can't understand what type of variable they are because it's too vague. Contribution as funds? as laws?
Hope it's helpful
1 Recommendation
18th Jul, 2022
Sridhar Mulakaluri
Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB)
As well explained by Nicolò M. Villa what you try to achieve in a research project is to explain a phenomenon , either observed or theorized through a relationship of factors or variables , to establish the phenomenon as a fact. This means you need to have those factors and variables expressed as a relation. Do you need to add them to the title? It is an option, but helps clarify your position.
21st Jul, 2022
Aduku A Akubo
Kogi State University
In carrying out a research it is required that your topic should have a dependant and independent variable. This will enable you to establish a relationship. You may have a problem of validity if the two variable are not complete.
1 Recommendation
21st Jul, 2022
Aduku A Akubo
Kogi State University
In carrying out a research it is required that your topic should have a dependant and independent variable. This will enable you to establish a relationship. You may have a problem of validity if the two variable are not complete.
21st Jul, 2022
Florence Nambooze
Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)
Thank you Sridhar Mulakaluri and Aduku A Akubo I am following closely
21st Jul, 2022
Florence Nambooze
Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)
Thank you Sridhar Mulakaluri and Aduku A Akubo I am following closely
21st Jul, 2022
Florence Nambooze
Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)
Thank you Sridhar Mulakaluri and Aduku A Akubo I am following closely

Similar questions and discussions

How to fix error issue when attempting to calculate the counterposie with G09?
Question
3 answers
  • Jason HerbJason Herb
Hello,
I am attempting to compute the counterpoise correction for several pure sulfuric acid clusters. We have been able to completely compute (H2SO4)1-5, but are having issues beyond this. Despite using the fully-optimized clusters by #PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd)/auto opt freq. The issue occurring is the error message of after leaving link 122....
Basis read from rwf: (5D, 7F)
No pseudopotential information found on rwf file.
The combination of multiplicity 1 and 65 electrons is impossible.
Now the cluster is charge neutral...
the input information is as follows.....
%mem=800MW
%nproc=8
#PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd)/auto counterpoise=6 SP
Required
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
S(Fragment=1) 5.63290100 0.52591500 0.76587900
O(Fragment=1) 4.63936500 1.16263000 -0.08688600
O(Fragment=1) 6.05347300 -0.83160800 0.13301600
O(Fragment=1) 6.94306300 1.33994500 0.65171200
O(Fragment=1) 5.25034000 0.34952700 2.16284200
H(Fragment=1) 7.39300400 1.00699600 1.51062400
H(Fragment=1) 5.24104300 -1.41327900 -0.08587100
S(Fragment=2) 1.31089800 1.96295600 0.00138900
O(Fragment=2) 2.60913400 2.66555700 0.48177000
O(Fragment=2) 0.29223700 2.99563700 0.02151000
O(Fragment=2) 1.54793500 1.26440500 -1.25355300
O(Fragment=2) 0.92009900 0.93747700 1.11423800
H(Fragment=2) 2.05312200 -0.23818000 -1.58451200
H(Fragment=2) 1.34967300 0.03539000 0.93617400
S(Fragment=3) 2.64973400 -2.01929800 -0.53556800
O(Fragment=3) 2.37814300 -1.16712900 -1.81864300
O(Fragment=3) 2.08092000 -1.34570000 0.62717700
O(Fragment=3) 1.92873900 -3.35507800 -0.82178700
O(Fragment=3) 4.05756700 -2.36541000 -0.47035000
H(Fragment=3) 3.43328000 2.09364100 0.29286500
S(Fragment=3) -1.59995000 -2.19358300 -0.59944000
O(Fragment=4) -1.63664300 -2.02052800 0.94452000
O(Fragment=4) -0.92396300 -0.88719400 -1.16007100
O(Fragment=4) -0.65874400 -3.25555200 -0.88460700
O(Fragment=4) -2.94534700 -2.31840700 -1.13075700
H(Fragment=4) -2.46136200 -1.46572700 1.22444700
H(Fragment=4) 0.91162300 -3.25800500 -0.83419000
H(Fragment=4) -1.56635800 -0.12145800 -1.23668400
S(Fragment=5) -3.06860300 2.37293800 -0.79259600
O(Fragment=5) -2.46789700 1.25244000 -1.47857300
O(Fragment=5) -2.93579700 3.56475300 -1.84378800
O(Fragment=5) -4.44404000 2.30367100 -0.35339800
O(Fragment=5) -2.23238800 2.81962200 0.43482600
H(Fragment=5) -1.22163100 2.84246600 0.24659300
H(Fragment=5) -2.34377200 3.08871200 -2.45853500
S(Fragment=6) -5.08346100 -0.82219700 1.28284900
O(Fragment=6) -3.64784100 -0.55065400 1.47057800
O(Fragment=6) -5.78111100 -1.60969300 2.24616600
O(Fragment=6) -5.82094300 0.55602500 1.17969900
H(Fragment=6) -5.30047600 1.18573100 0.60420600
O(Fragment=6) -5.27474800 -1.40827400 -0.17138700
H(Fragment=6) -4.40490500 -1.75564900 -0.52936900
1 2 2.0 3 1.5 4 1.5 5 2.0
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8 9 1.5 10 2.0 11 2.0 12 1.5
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13 16 1.0
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15 16 1.5 17 2.0 18 1.5 19 2.0
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21 22 1.5 23 1.0 24 2.0 25 2.0
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23 28 1.0
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29 30 2.0 31 1.0 32 2.0 33 1.5
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I have attempted to to use
#PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd)/auto pseudo=read counterpoise=6 SP
and the file immediatley crashes eith error message
Standard basis: 6-311++G(3df,3pd) (5D, 7F)
======================================================================================================
Pseudopotential Parameters
======================================================================================================
Center Atomic Valence Angular Power
Number Number Electrons Momentum of R Exponent Coefficient SO-Coeffient
======================================================================================================
Wanted an integer as input.
Found a floating point number as input.
1 2 2.0 3 1.5 4 1.5 5 2.0
?
and also tired....
#PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd)/auto pseudo=read counterpoise=6 nosymm SP
and the following error message for the log file...
Standard basis: 6-311++G(3df,3pd) (5D, 7F)
======================================================================================================
Pseudopotential Parameters
======================================================================================================
Center Atomic Valence Angular Power
Number Number Electrons Momentum of R Exponent Coefficient SO-Coeffient
======================================================================================================
Wanted an integer as input.
Found a floating point number as input.
1 2 2.0 3 1.5 4 1.5 5 2.0
?
Does anyone have any suggestions to solve this issue
Thanks

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