a smart textile, generally, an external functionality is added like electronic components, special polymeric substances, special finishing. In technical textile, textile materials are designed in specific ways (nonwovens, wovens, braiding, composites, etc) such that it can be used for a specific technical application. Certain smart textile material can be used for certain technical applications, however, at the core they are different.
Often the name technical textiles is used for textiles for technical applications (agriculture, road, etc.), while the name smart textiles is used instead for textiles that react with the environment (temperature, light, heartbeat, etc.).
Technical textile means the textile materials which are used for technical issue not for clothing or fashion. For example, when Sewing thread is used in garments making it is not a technical textile. But when it is used as surgical suture then it is called technical textile. Besides, when a braid (draw-string) is used in a hoodie it is not a technical textile. But when it is used for a load bearing purpose it is called technical textile. etc. Moreover, there are a lot example for technical textiles regarding their definition. As: Agrotech, Geotech, Meditech, Automotive tech, etc.
Smart textile means the textile materials which are environmentally sensitive. Textile materials which can react in the presence of various stimuli are called smart textiles. For example, when a textile material can change its behavior in the presence of acidic and alkaline medium individually it is called smart textile. Besides, some textiles can change its behavior in the presence of temperature, light, blood circulation, air pressure, water pressure, etc. are called smart textiles.
Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM
If you characterize technical textiles with their use in technical, not fashion/garment applications (as stated by Abdur Rahim Munna), then you can't put smart textiles as a subcategory of technical textiles as they can also be used for non-technical applications in the form of smart clothing/garments. Rather, smart texiles can be technical textiles and technical textile can be smart textiles but not all smart textiles are technical textiles and vice versa.
In addition, I would add that although most definitions of smart textiles only require a (predictable) response to external stimuli, other sources only include those with digital components (also labeled e-textiles), for example a report by the european commission found here:
If you want to form a link between smart textiles and other textile categories, instead of smart textiles being a subcategory of technical textiles, they are a subcategory of functional textiles - textiles that possess additional functions apart from the basic textile functions of (basic) protection, wellbeing and fashion.
smart textile are the textiles which can sense its surrounding and can react with it by changing its shape, state, color, or other behaviors on the other hand, technical textile are the textiles used for fulfillment of specific purpose(s) rather than aesthetic appearance or use like textiles use for transporting energy, geotextiles, agrotech, sport-tech etc.
Self functionality clothing such as color changing fabrics are Smart Textiles, while technical textiles is a broad field which also includes smart textiles, any fabric not naturally originated, created for purpose is known as technical textiles, for example if we are doing wet extrusion for Polyester and mixing it with spandex fiber its a technical textile, whereas if we mix same polyester with electro-luminicent category now it became smart textile, self sensing.
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