22nd Feb, 2018

International Society of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics, Treviso, Italy

Question

Asked 15th Jul, 2014

A snowflake is either a single ice crystal or an aggregation of ice crystals which falls through the Earth's atmosphere. They begin as snow crystals which develop when microscopic supercooled cloud droplets freeze. Snowflakes come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Complex shapes emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and humidity regimes, such that individual snowflakes are nearly unique in structure. Snowflakes encapsulated in rime form balls known as graupel. Snowflakes appear white in color despite being made of clear ice. This is due to diffuse reflection of the whole spectrum of light by the small crystal facets. (Wikipedia)

**Get help with your research**

Join ResearchGate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work.

"Indeed, at the end of the day the real reason about fractals in snowflakes is to be discovered."

Fractals is strictly connected with deterministic chaos, entropy and information, therefore it would be interesting to face the topic with all these details. For example, if we have a look on Emoto crystals, we can perceive self-similarity properties in the crystals, we can think of fractals too, and we know that those crystals come from informed water. Information means "to give form", to in-form, as suggested by David Bohm too. A snowflake can be viewed also as all the set of information that give it form during the path. In nature all snowflakes are different each other, each snowflake is unique. This is why snowflake is a typical example of an element in nature with SDIC (sensitive dependence on initial conditions), i.e., with deterministic chaos.

1 Recommendation

This question allows for two quite different answers, and yet equally valid - provided that one either takes one or the other; not both at the same time.

First, snowflakes are indeed based on fractal geometry - if one takes fractal geometry in an ontological sense. Various authors can be cited to support this line.

Yet, on the other side, one can safely say that, on the contrary, it is thanks to fractal geometry that we can explain the structure of figures such as a snowflake. Again, a number of texts ban be cited here as support.

3 Recommendations

This question allows for two quite different answers, and yet equally valid - provided that one either takes one or the other; not both at the same time.

First, snowflakes are indeed based on fractal geometry - if one takes fractal geometry in an ontological sense. Various authors can be cited to support this line.

Yet, on the other side, one can safely say that, on the contrary, it is thanks to fractal geometry that we can explain the structure of figures such as a snowflake. Again, a number of texts ban be cited here as support.

3 Recommendations

google scholar fractal snowflake

The first hit is Mandelbrot's book, the second in a 1983 paper by Stanley's group:

'nuff said.

I intend this answer as an elaboration on Carlos's answer.

Based on? In one sense, no. When a snowflake forms, it is rotating while falling through high-humidity cold air. The snowflake grows at its perimeter. The heat released from the phase change creates little plumes or vortices that are thought to be what makes it rotate. This isn't a fractal-creating process per se, as compared with the turtle geometry algorithms used to mimic seashells, or the recursive use of a linear function to generate a fractal. Snowflakes don't have perfect symmetry.

However, it is a remarkable fact that fractals can very closely approximate real snowflakes. When a simple mathematical model accurately captures 95% or 99% of the structure of a natural phenomenon, there usually is a deep insight about the physical process to be gained. In that sense, yes.

The last time I studied this phenomenon, it was still not understood why many snowflakes have 6-fold symmetry. (Not all of them do). Hydrogen bonds explain that on the molecular level, of course, but they don't explain it at all on the macro level. As an analogy, a shape cut out from a square mesh need not be a square. As a closer analogy, if you put a bunch of square tiles together, you don't necessarily get a square shape. So as best I know, the deep insight explaining why fractals so closely approximate snowflakes has not been discovered.

4 Recommendations

Fantastic, dear Craig. Thank you so much. A very helpful elaboration. Indeed, at the end of the day the real reason about fractals in snowflakes is to be discovered. As yet, fractal geometry is a far better approximation to understanding such phenomena - as it has been largely shown in the literature.

2 Recommendations

How to replce nucleotide in PyMol 2.3?

Question

4 answers

- Asked 22nd Apr, 2020

- Andrey А. Buglak

I need to build a combination of two oligonucleotides which are complementary to each other through cytosine-cytosine base pairs. So I need to replace guanine with cytosine.

1. I load a PDB file.

2. I open Wizard and select Mutagenesis.

3. I select guanine residue in PyMol viewer.

4. Then I select "Mutate to cytosine" option.

5. I click on Apply and Done.

Then both guanine and cytosine residues disappear instead of replacement.

The mutation in the case of peptide is simple. There is even a tutorial video on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-VCBz83nfs

In the case of nucleic acids the situation is different. Please, help!

How to re-number the chains in PDB file?

Question

8 answers

- Asked 18th Mar, 2020

- Xu Zhang

So the protein has two chains A and B (dimer), I want to combine the chains into one and re-number the chain B from 920.

I know pdb-tools can do this ( https://github.com/haddocking/pdb-tools ), however the scripts just doesn't work for me. Is there any other way to do this? any pymol command?

Article

- Jan 2019

Fractals, complex shapes with structure at multiple scales, have long been observed in nature: as symmetric fractals in plants and sea shells, and as statistical fractals in clouds, mountains, and coastlines. With their highly polished spherical mirrors, laser resonators are almost the precise opposite of nature, and so it came as a surprise when,...

Preprint

Full-text available

- Sep 2018

Fractals, complex shapes with structure at multiple scales, have long been observed in Nature: as symmetric fractals in plants and sea shells, and as statistical fractals in clouds, mountains and coastlines. With their highly polished spherical mirrors, laser resonators are almost the precise opposite of Nature, and so it came as a surprise when, i...

Article

- Jun 2010

This paper puts forward an algorithm for simulating radar meteorologic nephogram which applys fractal interpolation theory to construct the contour of the radar meteorologic nephogram. The experimental results show that the method is simple and can create real-time, vivid meteorologic nephogram.

Get high-quality answers from experts.