The APA in text reference is in the format (author, date). When directly quoting from a text you must include a page number in the citation as given in the examples below. Including page numbers in all other circumstances is not required however, it is best practice to do so when referring to part of a work (e.g. a paragraph or chapter in a book). When referring to an entire work that covers a single topic (e.g. a journal article) it is not required.
Referencing an idea
The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson, 1999; Saggers & Gray, 1999; Thomson, 1995).
Anderson (1999), Thomson (1995), and Saggers and Gray (1999) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.
Referencing a quotation
Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source
Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:
(Halliday, 1987, cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)
Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment
Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The APA 6th style requires the references to be indented as illustrated below in the examples.
For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please see the complete guide. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary.
Lumby, J. (2001). Who cares? The changing health care system. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi.
Boughton, M., & Halliday, L. (2008). A challenge to the menopause stereotype: Young Australian women's reflections of 'being diagnosed' as menopausal. Health & Social Care in the Community, 16(6), 565-572. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2008.00777.x
Discusses the possibility of confusion between the statistical and empirical domains within behavioral science. Although the 2 domains influence one another, they are separate and obey different sets of rules. Examples of empirical–statistical confusion are encountered in the issue of 1- vs 2-tailed tests and the issue involved in the measurement-s...
A way is suggested out of the confusion resulting from the fact that so-called distractors sometimes do and sometimes do not lower efficiency, by using the term distractor to refer only to instances in which the stimulus in question does lower efficiency of performance, without reference to hypothetical effects on attention. (PsycINFO Database Reco...
The hypothesis that left–right confusion in children is determined by correspondence to the bilateral symmetry of the nervous system was tested by presenting left–right and up–down discrimination-learning problems to 80 preschoolers (mean age = 4.25 yrs) who viewed these stimuli from either an upright or 90°-rotated body position. The data clearly...