Featured research (2)
Kinetoplastids are unicellular eukaryotic parasites responsible for such human pathologies as Chagas disease, sleeping sickness, and leishmaniasis. They have a single large mitochondrion, essential for the parasite survival. In kinetoplastid mitochondria, most of the molecular machineries and gene expression processes have significantly diverged and specialized, with an extreme example being their mitochondrial ribosomes. These large complexes are in charge of translating the few essential mRNAs encoded by mitochondrial genomes. Structural studies performed in Trypanosoma brucei already highlighted the numerous peculiarities of these mitoribosomes and the maturation of their small subunit. However, several important aspects mainly related to the large subunit (LSU) remain elusive, such as the structure and maturation of its ribosomal RNA. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy study of the protozoans Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma cruzi mitoribosomes. For both species, we obtained the structure of their mature mitoribosomes, complete rRNA of the LSU, as well as previously unidentified ribosomal proteins. In addition, we introduce the structure of an LSU assembly intermediate in the presence of 16 identified maturation factors. These maturation factors act on both the intersubunit and the solvent sides of the LSU, where they refold and chemically modify the rRNA and prevent early translation before full maturation of the LSU.
The 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly requires establishment of numerous interactions among eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), Met-tRNAiMet and the small ribosomal subunit (40S). Owing to several differences in the structure and composition of kinetoplastidian 40S compared to their mammalian counterparts, translation initiation in trypanosomatids is suspected to display substantial variability. Here, we determined the structure of the 43S PIC from Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease parasite, showing numerous specific features, such as different eIF3 structure and interactions with the large rRNA expansion segments 9 S , 7 S and 6 S , and the association of a kinetoplastid-specific ~245 kDa DDX60-like helicase. We also revealed a previously undetermined binding site of the eIF5 C-terminal domain, and terminal tails of eIF2β, eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3 c and d subunits, uncovering molecular details of their critical activities.