Featured projects (1)
Concepts of non target methods and quality criteria for method validation of non target methods.
Featured research (5)
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This reference method is reliable and precise but laborious because of the necessary sample clean-up procedure and instrument requirements. This research investigates the possibility of predicting the acrylamide content from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra that are already recorded for other purposes of coffee control. In the NMR spectrum acrylamide is not directly quantifiable, so that the aim was to establish a correlation between the reference value and the corresponding NMR spectrum by means of a partial least squares (PLS) regression. Therefore, 40 commercially available coffee samples with already available LC-MS/MS data and NMR spectra were used as calibration data. To test the accuracy and robustness of the model and its limitations, 50 coffee samples with extreme roasting degrees and blends were additionally prepared as test set. The PLS model shows an applicability for the varieties C. arabica and C. canephora, which were medium to very dark roasted using drum or infrared roasters. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 79 µg/kg acrylamide (n=32). The PLS model is judged as suitable to predict the acrylamide values of commercially available coffee samples. On the other hand, very light roasts containing more than 1000 µg/kg acrylamide are currently not suitable for PLS prediction.
The food additive sorbic acid is considered as an effective preservative for certain cereal products, and propionic acid is commonly added in bakery wares, e.g. bread and fine bakery wares. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR) method for routine screening and quantification of sorbic and propionic acids in bread and several bakery products for quality control purposes. Results showed that none of the screened samples contained higher concentrations than regulatory maximum limits. However, for some samples, labelling of preservatives was lacking or they were used in food categories, for which the use is not approved. It can be concluded that the developed NMR method can be used for routine screening of bakery products.
Die zentrale Frage zur Verkehrsfähigkeit von Cannabidiol (CBD), sowie Produkten mit Hanfblüten und Hanfextrakt ist neben der notwendigen Novel Food-Zulassung die Prüfung der Einstufung als Betäubungsmittel, die nach Art. 2 Buchst. g der Verordnung (EG) Nr. 178/2002 einen sofortigen Ausschluss aus dem Lebensmittelbereich bedingen würde und die Produkte damit unmittelbar nicht-verkehrsfähig machen würde. Tatsächlich berichtete die Presse in den letzten beiden Jahren von einer ganzen Reihe von Polizeiaktionen in Hanfläden, bei denen die Produktpalette (zumeist Hanfblüten bzw. Hanftees aber auch CBD-Öle) mit dem Verdacht sichergestellt wurde, dass es sich dabei um Betäubungsmittel und keine Lebensmittel handele.
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for screening and authenticity testing. For this reason, we sought to validate an 1H NMR spectroscopic method for the routine screening of coffee for quality and authenticity. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate the influence of the NMR device, extraction time, and nature of coffee on the content of caffeine, 16-O-methylcafestol (OMC), kahweol, furfuryl alcohol, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in coffee. The method was successfully validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, and linearity of detector response. The proposed method produced satisfactory precision for all analytes in roasted coffee, except for kahweol in canephora (robusta) coffee. The proposed validated method may be used for routine screening of roasted coffee for quality and authenticity control (i.e., arabica/robusta discrimination), as its applicability was demonstrated during the recent OPSON VIII Europol-Interpol operation on coffee fraud control.
In cosmetic products, hydrocarbons from mineral oil origin are used as ingredients in a wide variety of consistency, from liquid oil to solid wax. Refined mineral oil hydrocarbons consist of MOSH (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and a low proportion of MOAH (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons). MOSH and MOAH comprise a variety of chemically similar single substances with straight or branched chains. In the context of precautionary consumer protection, it is crucial to determine hydrocarbons from mineral oil origin of inferior quality quickly and efficiently. This publication presents a rapid method for quantifying MOAH by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( ¹ H qNMR) in anhydrous cosmetics such as lipstick, lip gloss, and lip balm. A sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the complete removal of interfering aromatic substances to improve the robustness of the method for analysing compounded cosmetics. In preliminary trials using silica gel thin-layer chromatography, the retention behaviour of 21 common aromatic compounds was tested in eluents with different solvent strength including EtOAc, MeOH, cyclohexane, and dichloromethane. Based on these results, the SPE sample cleanup with silica gel and cyclohexane as an eluent was suggested as best suitable for the purpose. The SPE cleanup was successfully achieved for all tested potentially interfering aromatic cosmetic ingredients except for butylated hydroxytoluene. The recovery for lipophilic cosmetics is more than 80% based on naphthalene as calculation equivalent. Furthermore, a specific sample preparation for the examination of lipsticks was implemented. The SPE cleanup was validated, and the robustness of the method was tested on 57 samples from the retail trade. The ¹ H qNMR method is a good complement to the LC-GC-FID method, which is predominantly used for the determination of MOSH and MOAH. Chromatographic problems such as migration of MOSH into the MOAH fraction during LC-GC-FID can be avoided.
About Stephan G Walch
- Stephan Walch is the CEO of the Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe. Stephan is committed to research in Public Health, Life Science and Food Science. His interest lies in food safety, food fraud and authenticity, residues, and contaminants, but also in hygiene and AMR. He is member of different national and international committees (such as Ph.Eur., USP, WHO/FAO JECFA, ISO). Expertise in a wide array of analytical methods is also one of his traits.