Lab

Rosario Ortega-Ruiz's lab

Featured projects (1)

Project
In a changing and interconnected society, paying attention to the elements that guarantee the development of its individuals becomes a priority element of attention. Phenomena such as bullying place boys and girls in adversity that results in negative consequences for all those involved and leads to the learning of unethical behaviors, isolation or moral indifference that they will incorporate into their repertoire of behaviors. Attending to the processes that make up the immoral and destructive phenomenon of bullying has been a priority task for several decades. It has been shown that the development of risk behaviors in which respect and affective consideration for the other with whom one interacts is not taken into account, far from being perceived as harmful in the context of youth culture, can be seen as appropriate and morally justified. Research advances recognize that it is necessary to pay special attention to the peer group, where a complex relationship system is being developed, whose analysis will allow us to find many of the keys to why bullying, face to face or through the Internet, is occurring. This project arises with the purpose of explaining how the interactive dynamics evolves between the forms, styles and contexts of coping in the implication of adverse phenomena of bullying among equals, a phenomenon that due to its social nature is interactive and changing. Specifically, it is expected to observe what is the evolutionary pattern in the involvement in school bullying based on the moral characteristics and motivations of its protagonists and what processes of selection and influence between the different groups (of reference, prestige and friends) accentuate or mitigate involvement in bullying roles. We hypothesize that, together with the diversity of individual moral and motivational characteristics, there is a certain interdependence of the stable peer groups that boys and girls share. Possible differences based on sex and age will be taken into account. The development of three studies is proposed: 1) a study will be carried out in four stages, each separated by an interval of twelve months.

Featured research (34)

Background/Objective The present study aims to explore the dynamics of social anxiety profiles in adolescents over time and the psychosocial effects these dynamics have. Method A representative sample of Andalusian (southern Spain) adolescents in Secondary Education was drawn. The study used single-stage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 2,140 students aged 11-16 years (47% girls; MageT1 = 13.68, SD = 1.27) were involved at two time points with a six-month interval. Results The results provided a four-profile structure: low social anxiety, moderate cognitive disturbance, high with difficulties in new situations, and high social anxiety. The latent transition analysis showed a stability in the social anxiety profiles of between 58%-61%. Those adolescents who remained in or transitioned to profiles with higher social anxiety scored worse on peer adjustment, peer victimization and subjective well-being. Conclusions The study may contribute the improvement of the psychological treatments in social anxiety and reduce adverse effects on peer relationships and well-being by distinguishing the profiles and their dynamics.
Normative adjustment stimulates the development of attitudes and behaviours that promote school climate. Previous research has shown that it is a relevant factor in preventing involvement in risk behaviours that affect the quality of peer relationships in classrooms and schools. Previous the development of behaviour adjusted to the norms which promotes interaction processes fostering a positive atmosphere in the classroom and in the school. The aim of this study is to analyse the prospective influence of norma-tive adjustment on bullying perpetration over four time periods spaced six months apart (18 months). A total of 3017 adolescents between 11 and 16 years (49.5% girls; M ageT1 = 13.15, SD = 1.09) are involved in the present study. The Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Model results indicate an influential bidirectional association between normative adjustment and bullying perpetration over time. When the adolescents' normative adjustment increases, their involvement in bullying perpetration decreases six months later. On the other hand, when the adolescents' bullying perpetration increases over time, a decrease in nor-mative adjustment is evident later. The unconditional univariate growth results report that normative adjustment increases, while bullying perpetration decreases. These findings are discussed in terms of the need to consider contextual factors and how they interact in our understanding and prevention of bullying in schools. El ajuste normativo estimula el desarrollo de actitudes y comportamientos que promueven la convivencia escolar. Estudios previos subrayan su relevancia para prevenir la implicación en comportamientos de riesgo que afectan a la calidad de las relaciones entre iguales en el aula y en el centro escolar. El objetivo del estudio es analizar la influencia prospectiva entre el ajuste normativo y la perpetración de acoso durante cuatro períodos de tiempo con un intervalo de seis meses (18 meses). Han participado un total de 3.017 adolescentes entre 11 y 16 años (49.5% niñas; M edad T1 = 13.15, DT = 1.09). Los resultados del Modelo Random Intercept Cross-Lagged indican una asociación bidireccional entre el ajuste normativo y la perpetración del acoso a lo largo del tiempo. Cuando los adolescentes aumentan su ajuste normativo, disminuye su participación en la perpetración del acoso seis meses después. A su vez, cuando aumenta la implicación en agresión, se registra una disminución en su ajuste normativo a lo largo del tiempo. Los resultados de crecimiento univariado incondicional informan que el ajuste normativo aumenta mientras que la agresión en acoso escolar disminuye. Los hallazgos se discuten en términos de la necesidad de considerar la interacción longitudinal con factores contextuales para comprender y prevenir el acoso escolar en las escuelas.
Objective: Moral disengagement is one of the most explored cognitive strategies for understanding why adolescents engage in aggressive behavior. Moral disengagement research has been lacking in Latin American countries, as there is limited research on cultural differences between adolescents. The moral disengagement scale (MDS) is the most commonly measure used but previous studies applied different factorial structures. This study aimed to compare the three commonly used the factorial structure of MDS-24 in a confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) and its association with bullying. Using a cross-sectional design, the study also explored the cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) in MDS-24 and the differences between Spanish and Colombian adolescents. Method: Data were collected from Spanish (n = 1,396; Mage = 13.6; 49% girls) and Colombian adolescents (n = 1,298; Mage = 14.12; 49% girls). Results: The CFA showed that the eight-factor structure had the best model fit. The eight moral disengagement mechanisms were positively associated with both bullying perpetration and victimization. Furthermore, moral disengagement mechanisms evidenced their predictive utility for Spanish and Colombian adolescents’ involvement in bullying perpetration, once the effects of gender, age, and bullying victimization were controlled for. After confirming cross-cultural MI, Colombian adolescents generally reported higher levels of moral disengagement mechanisms than their Spanish peers. Conclusions: The findings contribute to the development of a measure of a cognitive risk strategy for bullying behavior. It also provides a valuable exploration of the MDS among Spanish-speaking adolescents and contributes to the scarcely explored field of cross-cultural differences in justification of transgressive behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
The present study aims to examine the issue of peer aggression and victimisation in early childhood, with a focus on the associated social behaviour strategies (aggressiveness, prosociality, dominance and social insecurity). A sample of 227 children (58.1% girls, n = 132) between the ages of 4 and 7 years (M = 5.61; SD = 1. 03) participated in the study. Teacher reports and peer nominations of physical and verbal aggression and victimisation were analysed. Results showed an association between aggressiveness and insecurity and being nominated as a physical and verbal aggressor by peers. Being nominated as a physical victim was associated with aggressiveness and dominance; and for verbal victim with aggressiveness and prosociality. Differences were found between boys and girls in verbal aggression and victimisation. The current study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of peer aggression and victimisation in relation to social processes in early childhood and has implications for the prevention of the later appearance of bullying.
Digital media have acquired a key role in the social dynamics among adolescents, increasing the prevalence of risk behaviors such as cyberbullying. Although its study has increased in recent decades, there are still few studies focused on the effects of a specific type of cybervictimization, such as cyber-rumor. The aims of this study were first to examine whether victims of cyber-rumor have higher levels of internalizing symptoms and second to explore whether resilience mediates this association, controlling for the sex effect. A total of 558 students (54.3% girls) aged between 10 and 17 years old (M = 14.57; SD = 1.30) participated in the study. Data processing followed a mediation model through PROCESS. The results evidenced that both girls and cyber-rumor victims presented higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress. The mediation models showed that resilience only mediated the effect that being victim of cyber-rumor had on levels of depression and anxiety, but not on stress levels. Sex was not found to moderate such effects. In conclusion, these results underscore the importance of attending to cyberaggression phenomena given their effects on social and emotional well-being identified in this study. This suggests the need to design prevention programs that include among their strategies the promotion of skills for coping with cyber-rumor.

Lab head

Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
Department
  • Department of Psychology
About Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
  • Gracias Simon ¡¡¡

Members (23)

Izabela Zych
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)
Eva María Romera Félix
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)
Gamal Cerda Etchepare
  • University of Concepción
Jose A. Casas
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)
Juan Calmaestra
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)
Mauricio Herrera López
  • University of Nariño
Francisco Córdoba Alcaide
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)
Carmen Viejo
  • University of Cordoba (Spain)