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Introduction/Objective Babesia microti, a zoonotic intraerythrocytic parasite, is the primary etiological agent of human Babesiosis in the United States. Human infections range from subclinical illness to severe disease resulting in death, with symptoms being related to host immune status. Despite advances in our understanding and management of B. microti, the incidence of infection in the United States has increased. Therefore, research focused on eradicating disease and optimizing clinical management is essential. Here we review this remarkable organism, with emphasis on the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of human disease. Methods A 71-year-old Asian man presented to the emergency department in our San Francisco East Bay community hospital in July 2019 with complaints of high fever and chills for the last five days. The patient is a resident of Taiwan. He was visiting his daughter in New Jersey where he worked in her garden. He came to California to visit his son when he noted feelings of excessive tiredness, muscle aches, and headache. He also described a decrease in appetite and nausea with vomiting and diarrhea. Results His chest x-ray showed increased diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrate. He has a history of coronary artery disease post stent placement in 2011 and history of benign prostatic hypertrophy post transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) On physical exam, He was febrile (103.1°F) and scleral icterus was identified. Laboratory workup revealed findings suggestive of hemolysis including increased LDH (401 U/L) and increased unconjugated bilirubin (1.7 mg/dL), critically low platelets and white blood cells of (32 and 2.9), while hemoglobin & hematocrit values in the normal range (13. g/dL & 36.8%, respectively). Elevated liver enzymes were also noted; AST 72 U/L and ALT 59 U/L. Upon examination of the blood smear, Malaria -like organisms were detected, and Maltese cross forms were also visible in the red blood cells. Those findings were also seen using Giemsa stain and were confirmed at the Alameda county lab. PCR was also positive for Babesia microti. Investigation for concurrent infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi was negative. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of timely and effective collaboration between the laboratory staff and clinicians.
Introduction/Objective Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one the most prevalent bacterial infection in the world, affecting more than 50% of the world’s population. H. pylori are gram negative bacteria usually found in the stomach, penetrate the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus. After many years, they can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of your small intestine. For some people, an infection can lead to Gastric cancer which is the second most common cancer worldwide Objectives: The aim of this study is to predict the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastrointestinal tract patients in Egypt. Methods Subjects and methods: A total of 1120 patients were enrolled in this study from The Delta region in Egypt. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to detect H. pylori stool Antigen. Among the 1120 patient; 301 patients (26.9%) were males, 510 patients (45.6%) were females and 309 patients (27.5%) were children with age range from 1 years to 76 years. The mean of the age was 8,35,34 for children, males and females respectively. Results The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 52%. Among the 1120 patients, 576 patients (48%) were negative while 624 patients (52%) of the patients were Positive. It was observed that 169 patients (51.6%) of males were positive,275 patients (52.9%) of females were positive and 135 patients (41%) of children were positive. Furthermore, 133 patients (48.4%) of males were negative, 227 patients (47.2%) of females were negative and 181 patients 59% of children are negative. Conclusion This study revealed that the incidence and prevalence rates of H. Pylori in Egypt are relatively high. The high H. pylori prevalence is related to poor standard of living, low socio-economic conditions, poor sanitation and fecal contamination of food or water. It is crucial to launch educational awareness program for H. pylori in Egypt.
Introduction/Objective Warm autoantibodies are usually IgG-class and/or IgA-class immunoglobulins. may be classified as agglutinins or hemolysins, which may be incomplete or complete, depending on in vitro serology; they almost always bind complement. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with only warm IgM autoantibodies is extremely rare. Methods A 91-year-old Caucasian male with hypertension presented with non-productive cough for two weeks, associated with shortness of breath and fatigue. He has a paste history of medical history of high degree AV block with sick sinus syndrome and bradycardia. Results He had blood pressure of 111/53 and heart rate of 50. Laboratory investigations showed leukocytes count of 7, Hemoglobin level of 5.6 g/dl, hematocrit level of 15.5%, platelets count of 267, total bilirubin of 5.6 mg/dL, direct bilirubin of 0.7 mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of 372 U/L and IgM titer for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 1493 units/mL (Ref < 770). He was transfused four units of packed red blood cells as emergency release due to a positive antibody screen. His hemoglobin level increased from 5.6 g/dL to 7.2 g/dL then it decreased from 8.2 g/dL to 5.6 g/dL the next two days. Direct antiglobulin test was 3+ positive for C3d and Negative for IgG. He finished a 7-day course of antibiotic treatment. The results the Cold-agglutinin titer and thermal amplitude test were suggestive of an IgM warm autoantibody and a cold agglutinin of a moderate titer. The results exclude a diagnosis of cold agglutinin syndrome. Conclusion Mycoplasma pneumonia is mainly associated with cold agglutinin syndrome but it is very rare to be associated with WAIHA. WAIHA with a DAT positive for C3 only is relatively rare with an incidence ranging between 6% and 13% and can have a clinical picture ranging from mild to severe anemia. Severe symptomatic hemolysis can be treated with Rituximab, cytotoxic agents or plasmapheresis.
Introduction/Objective Introduction: Type-2 diabetes have a risk factor of multiple complications such as coronary artery diseases (CAD), premature atheroscalerosis and diabetic retinopathy. IGF-1 is regulated by a balance of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin. It is important that circulating IGF1 in serum has normal levels to maintain glucose metabolism. Objectives: Monitoring of IGF-1levels in T2DM with macrovascular complications (CVD) and microvascular complications (retinopathy). Methods Subjects and methods: The collection of samples started in June 2018 and ended in December 2018. A total of 114 subjects were enrolled in this study; 98 clinically diagnosed T2D patients who were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Diabetes and Endocrinology “NIDE”, in addition to 16 healthy comparable control subjects (without diabetes). The subjects divided into 3 groups. Group 1; a population of 44 T2D patients with macrovascular complications (28 females and 16 males), the mean age was 57.4 years. Group 2; a population of 54 T2D patients with microvascular complicatios (34 females and 20 males), the mean age was 59.1 years. Group 3; a population of 16 healthy subjects (12 female and 4 males), the mean age was 59.2 years. Levels of FBS, C-peptide, HbA1c, Lipid profile, lipoprotein(a), hs-CRP and microalbuminurea were measured in all subjects. Seum concentration of IGF-1 was measured by commercially immunoenzymatic ELIZA method. Results It was found that serum concentration of IGF-1 decreased in diabetic patients groups compared to the control one. The mean±SD of group 1, group 2 and group 3 were (332.2±152.2), (316.9 ±142.2) and (625.4 ± 257.7) respectively. Conclusion It was observed that there was a negative correlation between serum IGF-1 levels in T2D patients compared to the control group. Also, it was found that T2D patients with microvascular complications had lower IGF-1 levels than patients with macrovascular ones. It seems that IGF-1 strongly involved in the incidence and pathogenesis of T2DM complications.
Abstract Introduction/Objective Bacterial adaptation to antibiotics has been very successful. Over the past decade, the increase in antibiotic resistance has generated considerable medical problems. UTIs are one of the most common community-onset infections. The emergence of resistance to all classes of antibiotics in previously susceptible bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. Thus, it is important that we forcefully implement strategies to reduce the rate of appearance and spread of resistant bacteria to allow new drug discovery to catch up with bacterial resistance development. Objectives: Methods The aim of this study is to predict the percentage of urine cultures antibiotic resistance in patients with UTIs in Egypt. Subjects and methods: A total of 200 subjects were enrolled in this study from The Delta region in Egypt; 38% males and 62% females with a median age of 39 years and 35 years respectively. Identification of the isolated organisms was identified by the cultural characters (Morphological characters of the purified bacterial isolates were carried out according to the colony characters, Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests for each organism using a standard semi-automated technique Results 98 cultures (49%) were observed to have resistance to 3- 5 classes of antibiotics including, 98% Cephalosporins, 85% β-lactam inhibitors and 71% fluoroquinolones; 66 females (57 gram -ve stain and 9 gram +ve stain) and 33 males (27gm -ve stain, 6gm +ve stain). 82 cultures (41%) were not resistant to any classes.; 32 males (28 gram -ve stain and 3 gram +ve stain) and 50 females (45 gram -ve stain and 5 gram +ve stain). 19 cultures (9.5%) were observed to be resistant to all antibiotics.; 12 males (11 gram -ve stain and 1 gram +ve stain) and 7 females (2 gram -ve stain and 5 gram +ve stain). Conclusion This study highlights the highest antibiotic resistance associated with urinary tract infection in Egypt as well as the classification of the organisms. The high resistance percentage is due to the overuse of antibiotics by public and inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotics are unregulated and available over the counter without a prescription in Egypt which makes it easily accessible. We recommend regulating the use of antibiotics and lunch antimicrobial stewardship programs in Egypt.