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To quantify relative and absolute socio-economic inequalities in recent HIV testing in 16 sub-Saharan African countries and their trends over the past decades
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Objective: To better understand the different pathways linking socioeconomic position and HIV testing uptake in 18 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Design: We used cross-sectional population-based surveys between 2010 and 2018. Methods: Using a potential outcomes framework and the product method, we decomposed the total effect linking wealth and recent (<12 months) HIV testing into direct effects, and indirect effects, via internal (related to individual's ability to perceive need for and to seek care) or external (ability to reach, pay for and engage in healthcare) mediators to calculate the proportion mediated (PM) by each mediator. Results: High levels of inequalities were observed in nine and 15 countries among women and men, respectively. The mediator indirect effect varied greatly across countries. The PM tended to be higher for internal than for external mediators. For instance, among women, HIV-related knowledge was estimated to mediate up to 12.1% of inequalities in Côte d'Ivoire; and up to 31.5% for positive attitudes towards people with HIV (PWH) in Senegal. For the four external mediators, the PM was systematically below 7%. Similar findings were found when repeating analyses on men for the internal mediators, with higher PM by attitudes towards PWH (up to 39.9% in Senegal). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that wealth-related inequalities in HIV testing may be mediated by internal more than external characteristics, with important variability across countries. Overall, the important heterogeneities in the pathways of wealth-related inequalities in HIV testing illustrate that addressing inequalities requires tailored efforts and upstream interventions.
Objective Healthcare workers are at high risk of experiencing stress and fatigue due to the demands of their work within hospitals. Improving their physical and mental health and in turn, the quality and safety of care, requires considering factors at both individual and organizational levels. Using a multi-center prospective cohort, this study aims to identify the individual and organizational predictors of stress and fatigue of healthcare workers in several wards from university hospitals. Methods Our cohort consist of 695 healthcare workers from 32 hospital wards drawn at random within four volunteer hospital centers in Paris-area. Three-level longitudinal analyses, accounting for repeated measures (level 1) across participants (level 2) nested within wards (level 3) and adjusted for relevant fixed and time varying confounders were performed. Results At baseline, the sample was composed by 384 registered nurses, 300 auxiliary nurses and 11 midwives. According to the 3-level longitudinal models, some predictors were found in common for both stress and fatigue (low support from the hierarchy, low safety culture, overcommitment at work, presenteeism while sick…). However, specific predictors for high level of stress (negative life events, low support from the colleagues and high frequency of break cancellation) and fatigue (commuting duration, frequent use of interim staff in the ward…) were also found. Conclusion Our results may help identify at-risk healthcare workers and wards, where interventions to reduce stress and fatigue should be focused. These interventions could include manager training to favor better staff support and overall safety culture of healthcare workers. 1. What is already known about this subject? Healthcare workers have high levels of perceived stress and fatigue, particularly in medical fields highly exposed to infectious risks. High occupational stress and fatigue can negatively affect healthcare workers behaviors in terms of absenteeism, and ultimately intention to leave as well as quality of care. Individual and organizational differences contribute to different perceptions and consequences of occupational stress and fatigue in healthcare workers. 2. What are the new findings? The ward-level environment significantly influences the stress and fatigue of healthcare workers, in addition to individual factors and time variations. Hierarchy providing low support and with low safety culture, work overinvestment, presenteeism while sick, and working in smaller wards were identified as predictors of both high stress and fatigue of healthcare workers. Negative life events (whether personal or professional), low support from the colleagues and high frequency of break cancellation are specific predictors of high level of stress. While commuting duration, frequent use of interim staff and working in a medical ward were associated with high level of fatigue. 3. How might this impact on policy or clinical practice in the foreseeable future? In this study, we can identify some areas for improvement to better prevent stress and fatigue for healthcare workers. High stress and fatigue can be reduced through mutual and specific organizational intervention strategies.
Background Overall increases in the uptake of HIV testing in the past two decades might hide discrepancies across socioeconomic groups. We used data from population-based surveys done in sub-Saharan Africa to quantify socioeconomic inequalities in uptake of HIV testing, and to establish trends in testing uptake in the past two decades. Methods We analysed data from 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa where at least one Demographic and Health Survey was done before and after 2008. We assessed the country-specific and sex-specific proportions of participants who had undergone HIV testing in the previous 12 months across wealth and education groups, and quantified socioeconomic inequalities with both the relative and slope indices of inequalities. We assessed time trends in inequalities, and calculated mean results across countries with random-effects meta-analyses. Findings We analysed data for 537 784 participants aged 15–59 years (most aged 15–49 years) from 32 surveys done between 2003 and 2016 (16 before 2008, and 16 after 2008) in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A higher proportion of female participants than male participants reported uptake of HIV testing in the previous 12 months in five of 16 countries in the pre-2008 surveys, and in 14 of 16 countries in the post-2008 surveys. After 2008, in the overall sample, the wealthiest female participants were 2·77 (95% CI 1·42–5·40) times more likely to report HIV testing in the previous 12 months than were the poorest female participants, whereas the richest male participants were 3·55 (1·85–6·81) times more likely to report HIV testing than in the poorest male participants. The mean absolute difference in uptake of HIV testing between the richest and poorest participants was 11·1 (95% CI 4·6–17·5) percentage points in female participants and 15·1 (9·6–20·6) in male participants. Over time (ie, when pre-2008 and post-2008 data were compared), socioeconomic inequalities in the uptake of HIV testing in the previous 12 months decreased in male and female participants, whereas absolute inequalities remained similar in female participants and increased in male participants. Interpretation Although relative socioeconomic inequalities in uptake of HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased, absolute inequalities have persisted or increased. Greater priority should be given to socioeconomic equity in assessments of HIV-testing programmes. Funding INSERM-ANRS (France Recherche Nord and Sud Sida-HIV Hépatites).
To date, no specific estimate of R0 for SARS-CoV-2 is available for healthcare settings. Using inter-individual contact data, we highlight that R0 estimates from the community cannot translate directly to healthcare settings, with pre-pandemic R0 values ranging 1.3-7.7 in three illustrative healthcare institutions. This has implications for nosocomial Covid-19 control.