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Kyoto Fusioneering Ltd.

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Kyoto Fusioneering Ltd.

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This article outlines Kyoto Fusioneering’s (KF’s) initial engineering and development activities for its self-cooled lithium lead-type blanket: Self-Cooled Yuryo Lithium-Lead Advanced (SCYLLA). We provide details on overall design, including an initial tritium breeding ratio (TBR) assessment via neutronics analysis, as well as the status of SCYLLA-relevant R&D. This includes silicon carbide composite (SiC $_{\text{f}}$ /SiC) manufacturing techniques, tritium extraction, materials compatibility, and heat transfer, which are being explored via collaboration with Kyoto University. Results of previous work in relation to this R&D are presented. Permeability coefficients indicate a promising property of SiC $_{\text{f}}$ /SiC tritium hermeticity at high temperatures. Tritium extraction technology via vacuum sieve tray (VST) is shown to be demonstrated at engineering scale. A local TBR of up to 1.4 can be achieved with the SCYLLAconfiguration. Fabrication methods for various SiC $_{\text{f}}$ /SiC components including the blanket module, heat exchanger, and flow path components are provided. A tritium compatible high-temperature SiC $_{\text{f}}$ /SiC heat exchanger is discussed. Commercial viability and reactor adaptability are considered as a theme throughout. Finally, KF’s plans to build a facility for demonstration reactor relevant testing of a SCYLLAprototype in the mid-2020s, which will provide a significant step toward commercial fusion energy, are presented.
A discharge-type fusion neutron source generates neutrons by fusion reactions of hydrogen isotope atoms. In order to operate the fusion device based on the deuterium–tritium (D–T) fusion reaction, the tritium inventory is required to be decreased. In the present work, a self-sufficient system was installed into the fusion device for reducing the amount of hydrogen isotope fuel gas. The fuel gas was supplied and recovered with an intermetallic compound ZrCo in a sealed chamber in this system. A deuterium–deuterium operation was maintained for more than 60 min with stable discharge voltages, and the temperature of the ZrCo bed was changed to improve the neutron production rate. Factors that influenced the pressure inside the chamber were determined and optimized. Gas analysis using a quadrupole mass spectrometer indicates a dilution of the deuterium fuel was caused by hydrogen isotope exchange between the supplied deuterium gas and the absorbed protium on the chamber and electrodes surface. This system's hydrogen isotope control method and the amount of fuel were proposed for a D–T operation.
This study conducted a systematic literature review of the technical aspects and methodological choices in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of using hydrogen for road transport. More than 70 scientific papers published during 2000–2021 were reviewed, in which more than 350 case studies of use of hydrogen in the automotive sector were found. Only some studies used hybrid LCA and energetic input-output LCA, whereas most studies addressed attributional process-based LCA. A categorization based on the life cycle scope distinguished case studies that addressed the well-to-tank (WTT), well-to-wheel (WTW), and complete life cycle approaches. Furthermore, based on the hydrogen production process, these case studies were classified into four categories: thermochemical, electrochemical, thermal-electrochemical, and biochemical. Moreover, based on the hydrogen production site, the case studies were classified as centralized, on-site, and on-board. The fuel cell vehicle passenger car was the most commonly used vehicle. The functional unit for the WTT studies was mostly mass or energy, and vehicle distance for the WTW and complete life cycle studies. Global warming potential (GWP) and energy consumption were the most influential categories. Apart from the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for assessing the GWP, the Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden method was most widely used in other impact categories. Most of the articles under review were comparative LCA studies on different hydrogen pathways and powertrains. The findings provide baseline data not only for large-scale applications, but also for improving the efficiency of hydrogen use in road transport.
Japan appears to be on the verge of making the transition to a carbon-neutral (CN) society. Renewables offer significant potential. however, the current energy policy has lagged in terms of environmental action, suggesting that adjustments may not be as straightforward. The Paris Agreement calls for a 50-80% decrease in CO2 emissions worldwide by 2050. The Japanese government has set ambitious objectives for the CN. We analyzed the transition strategies in major industrial sectors, as well as aspects of the Japanese strategy for CN transitions.
Liquid lithium, a candidate material for the target of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), easily contains nitrogen. Nitrogen in liquid lithium should be removed as it accelerates corrosion of tubing materials. Hot trapping by iron-titanium alloys is expected to be a practical method. In order to understand the characteristics of nitrogen trapping with iron-titanium alloys in liquid lithium, nitrogen distribution was observed by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (SXES). Samples of Fe-5Ti alloys were immersed for 9–256 h in liquid lithium which contains 1000 w-ppm of nitrogen at 823 K and studied by X-ray Powder diffraction and SXES. The results show that nitrogen is trapped mainly in the grain boundaries and on the surfaces of the Fe-5Ti alloys and diffuses in Fe-5Ti much faster than in pure titanium. In addition, it is assumed that the amount of nitrogen trapping by the surface of Fe-5Ti alloys does not depend on the immersion time.

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Members (5)

Colin Baus
  • Kyoto University
Shutaro Takeda
  • Kyushu University
Keisuke Mukai
  • Kyoto University
Richard Pearson
  • Kyoto Fusioneering Ltd
Andrea D'Angio
  • National Composites Centre
yosuke hirata
yosuke hirata
  • Not confirmed yet
keishi sakamoto
keishi sakamoto
  • Not confirmed yet
yasuhisa oda
yasuhisa oda
  • Not confirmed yet