Lab

Biosphere Expeditions

About the lab

BIOSPHERE EXPEDITIONS - Citizen science | ethical adventures | wildlife conservation. Our planet is in crisis, with nature under attack like never before. We believe everyone has the power to change this. We are mindful of nature and empower people through citizen science and hands-on wildlife conservation. We are a non-profit, visionary, award-winning and ethical conservation organisation. We are a member of the IUCN, the UN's Environment Programme and the European Citizen Science Association. Working hand-in-hand with local biologists and communities since 1999, we champion change and protect nature.

Featured projects (27)

Project
Protecting the snow leopards of the Altai mountains (Russia) through citizen science and conservation action. OUTCOME: Data collected by expeditions from 2003 until 2012 help with the declaration of a protected area for snow leopards and other wildlife in the Altai Republic, Central Asia. In addition local poachers were converted into conservationists by paying them for verifiable camera trap pictures of snow leopards surviving year-on-year.
Project
Protecting jaguars of the Atlantic Rainforest through citizen science. OUTCOME: From 2006 until 2011 this project studied jaguars and pumas of the Atlantic Rainforest. Recommendations for the management and protection of jaguars were incorporated into national and state-wide jaguar action plans in Brazil.
Project
Defending the Kenyan Maasai Mara from biodiversity loss through citizen science monitoring of wildlife
Project
Studying & protecting big cats, elephants and other species in Namibia through citizen science. OUTCOME: Biosphere Expeditions worked in Namibia for twelve years from 2002 until 2014. In that time it played a small role in the establishment of the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area, at the time the world's largest wildlife conservation area, spanning five southern African countries. It also played a pivotal role in establishing the country's largest leopard conservation research project, working with local ranchers and resolving human-wildlife conflict, which led to a significant reduction in big cats killed in the country. A research station was also built.
Project
Upgrading the Kinburska Kosa Regional Park to National Park status through citizen science research work into wolf, jerboa, viper and bird populations and studying bird migration. OUTCOME: Between 2001 and 2004 this expedition studied wolves and birds of the Kinburnska Kosa in the Ukraine. This led to the declaration of a national park, protecting an important stop-off point for many migratory birds, as well as a haven for fauna and flora (it boasts, amongst other things, Europe's biggest orchid field).

Featured research (161)

Abstract This report covers the sixth year of field research in northern Slovakia’s Veľká Fatra National Park with the support of citizen scientists and the aim of collecting biological information to improve management practices for bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx) and wildcat (Felis silvestris) in the park. Fieldwork was conducted from 6 to 17 February 2017 and concentrated on the Ľubochnianska valley. The study was a collaboration between Biosphere Expeditions and Environmental Society LENS. It used a cell-based occupancy approach and recorded signs (such as footprints, animal trails of footprints, scats, feeding remains, marking points) of large carnivores and their prey. Samples such as scats and urine were also collect for batch DNA analysis. Camera traps were also used. The different recording methods showed that snow-tracking can yield a substantially higher amount of distribution information on lynx, wolf, bear and wildcat range than any other observation technique employed. The survey area was divided into cells of 2.5 x 2.5 km size. During the expedition 27 transects were surveyed with a total length of 344,56 km, covering 22 cells. The average length of a transect was 12.76 km and the total area surveyed was 137.5 km2. Signs of target species were recorded in 17 out of the 22 cells surveyed. In terms of frequency, it was the best year in the history of the expedition. A total of 219 trails and tracks left by target species were recorded, of which 23 were identified as being left by lynx (11%), 75 by wolf (34%), 110 by bear (50%) and 11 by wildcat (5%). Twenty camera traps were placed in a total of 23 positions and took 4290 photographs. Three camera trap recorded wolf (Canis lupus), two recorded lynx (Lynx lynx) and one wildcat (Felis silvestris). Fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), pine martin (Martes martes) and squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) were also photographed. Eight samples (3 scats and 5 urine samples) were collected for DNA analysis, four of which (50%) were assumed, from footprints, to be from wolf, two urine samples from lynx (25%) and two scats sample (25%) from bear. All samples are currently awaiting DNA analysis to confirm species and enable identification of individuals. Survey results since 2012 suggest that the lynx population in Veľká Fatra National Park is relatively stable. During normal winters, the lynx’s main prey, the deer, concentrate in the valleys where they are fed at feeding stations by hunters and foresters to ensure an artificially high deer population for hunting purposes. This abundant food supply is likely to be one important reason for the lynx’s stable population in the park, as is the high protection status of the species in Slovakia. In 2017 wolf signs scored their second highest frequency since 2012, but were detected in the second lowest number of cells (n=10), probably associated with normal winter conditions, which meant that prey animals were concentrated in valley bottoms and for that reason wolf signs were found predominantly in the central and lower parts of the valley. The correlation between winter severity and the distribution of prey, and therefore wolves, in the valley is strong, corroborating findings from previous years. Here too artificially high deer prey populations, combined with the wolf’s relatively high protection status in Slovakia, appears to contribute to a relatively stable presence of wolves in Veľká Fatra National Park. A record log of 110 bear footprints found indicate that they were not hibernating and able to feed on the very high amount of beech fruits (Fagus silvaticus) present. This corroborates findings of the mild winter of 2014. In any case, bear presence too appears to be relatively stable in Veľká Fatra National Park. Finally, the wildcat population appears to be stable, if small, as well as evidenced by consistent sign records noted by the expeditions, once each in 2016, 2015 and 2013, six times in 2014 and eleven times in 2017. This research project had to wind down after the 2017 expedition, because our permit expired and was not renewed by the National Park. The second editor (MH) believes this is due to widespread corruption and destructive practices in Slovakian parks, which authorities did not want to be documented. Súhrn Súhrnná správa zo šiesteho ročníka terénneho monitoringu na severe Slovenska v Národnom parku Veľká Fatra s podporou domáceho výskumníka s cieľom získať biologické informácie a prispieť k zlepšeniu menežmentových opatrení pre medveďa hnedého (Ursus arctos), vlka dravého (Canis lupus), rysa ostrovida (Lynx lynx) a mačky divej (Felis silvestris). Terénny monitoring sa sústredil na Ľubochniansku dolinu v období od 6. februára do 17. februára 2017. Táto správa je spoluprácou medzi organizáciami Biosphere Expeditions a Environmentálnou spoločnosťou LENS. Využíva metódu prezencie/absencie v EEA sieti štvorcov a zaznamenáva pobytové znaky (stopy, stopové dráhy, exkrementy, zbytky potravy a značkovacie miesta) predátorov a ich koristi. Vzorky ako exkrementy, chlpy a moč sú zhromažďované za účelom DNA analýzy. Využívané sú aj fotopasce. Tieto rôzne metódy zaznamenávania pobytových znakov naznačujú, že zimné stopovanie môže priniesť podstatne väčšie množstvo informácií o rysoch, vlkoch, medveďoch a mačke divej, než akékoľvek iné metódy pozorovania v teréne. Záujmové územie bolo rozdelené na kvadranty o veľkosti 2,5 x 2,5 km. Počas terénneho výskumu bolo monitorovaných 27 transektov v celkovej dľžke 344,56 km, zahŕňajúcich 22 kvadrantov. Priemerná dĺžka transektu bola 12,76 km. Pobytové znaky záujmových druhov sme zaznamenali v 17 z 22 preskúmaných kvadrantov, z hľadiska zaznamenávania stop to bol najlepší rok v histórii expedície. Identifikovaných bolo 219 nálezov stôp a stopových dráh záujmových druhov: 23 patrilo rysovi ostrovidovi (Lynx lynx) (11%), 75 vlkovi dravému (34%), 110 medveďovi hnedému (50%) a 11 stôp patrilo mačke divej (5%). Dvadsať fotopascí bolo umiestnených na 23 miestach v záujmovom území. Získali sme 4290 fotografií. Tri fotopasce zaznamenali vlka dravého (Canis lupus), dve zachytili rysa ostrovida (Lynx lynx) a jedna mačku divú (Felis silvestris). Ďalšie fotografované druhy boli: líška hrdzavá (Vulpes vulpes), jeleň lesný (Cervus elaphus), srnec hôrny (Capreolus capreolus), diviak lesný (Sus scrofa), kunalesná (Martes martes) a vevericu hrdzavú (Sciurus vulgaris). Nájdených bolo 8 vzoriek na DNA analýzu (3x trus, 5x moč). Na základe stôp pri vzorke boli zaistené 4 vzorky (50%) vlka dravého, dve vzorky moču patrili rysovi ostrovidovi (25%) a dve vzorky (25%) trusu patrili medveďovi hnedému. Vzorky zatiaľ čakajú na DNA analýzu, ktorá by mala potvrdiť predpokladané druhy zvierat a identifikovať jednotlivé individuá. Prieskum, ktorý sa uskutočňuje od roku 2012 poukazuje na fakt, že populácia rysa ostrovida v Národnom Parku Veľká Fatra je viac menej stabilná. Počas štandardných zimných podmienok, hlavná potrava rysa – srnčia zver je koncentrovaná v dolinách, kde sú prikrmované lesníkmi a poľovníkmi za účelom udržania stavu raticovej zvery a na poľovné účely. Bohatá potravná ponuka je jedným z hlavných dôvodov stabilnej populácie rysa ostrovida, tak ako aj jeho celoročná ochrana na území Slovenska. V roku 2017 boli pobytové znaky vlkov zaznamené v najvyššej miere od roku 2012, ale boli detekované v druhom najmenšom počte kvadrantov (n=10), pravdepodobne kvôli štandardným zimným podmienkam, kedy je korisť vlkov sústredená v doline, a tak ich pobytové znaky sme v prevažnej miere zaznamenali v centrálnych a nižších častiach doliny. V skutočnosti zaznamenávame silný vzťah medzi zimnými podmienkami a distribúciou vlčej koristi a následne vlkov v údolných častiach doliny. Dostatočná potravná ponuka jelenej zvery a relatívne vysoká zákonná ochrana vlka na Slovensku prispieva ku konzistentnej prítomnosti vlka dravého v Národnom parku Veľká Fatra. 110 stopových dráh medveďa hnedého naznačuje, že nehibernovali a boli si schopné nájsť potravu v podobe veľkého množstva bukvíc (Fagus silvaticus). Podobná situácia nastala počas miernej zimy v roku 2014. V každom prípade, môžeme konštatovať, že populácia medveďa hnedého v Národnom parku Veľká Fatra je taktiež stabilná. Populácia mačky divej vyzerá byť malá a stabilná. Tento fakt potvrdzujú nálezy pobytových znakov raz v rokoch 2016, 2015 a 2013 a šesťkrát v roku 2014 a jedenásť krát v roku 2017.
Abstract Biosphere Expeditions and WWF Indonesia ran their third joint expedition with citizen scientists in and around Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve (BRBBWR), Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, from 30 July to 1 September 2017. The expedition study was a follow-up of the two previous studies in 2015 and 2016, with the tiger and its habitat as the focal point, including prey species and species that contribute to information on tiger habitat quality, or human disturbance of these. In an effort to support tiger conservation in BRBBWR, the objectives of this activity continued to be (1) to conduct long-term tiger and habitat monitoring in locations of high human disturbance along the Subayang river and (2) to involve and engage with local communities in order to raise their awareness of and support for tiger and habitat conservation. Detection-nondetection surveys for tigers and prey species were conducted on foot or by boat, covering BRBBWR along the Subayang river, which served as a convenient travel route and access point for survey teams. The methods employed to record species (mammals and large birds) involved recording species presence-absence and frequency of individuals in a grid of 2x2 km cells by means such as signs, sightings and calls. Seventeen camera traps were also employed to record species presence. The study was designed to compare the presence of species in cells with and without households (herein coded as village and non-village cells) in order to investigate whether proximity to villages had any influence on species distribution in the forest. To this end, the team surveyed target cells using a standardised datasheet for camera trapping and sign detection. In addition, we also interviewed villagers about tiger and other key wildlife species presence and interaction. We surveyed fourteen cells (three village and eleven non-village), recording fourteen wildlife species (including water buffalo Bubalus bubalis) in four mammal genera, plus two large bird species. Except for the wild boar Sus scrofa, the sun bear Helarctos malayanus and the water buffalo, all species occurred rarely (≤ 5 of presence in cells), hampering any further analysis. The water buffalo and wild boar were found to be evenly distributed in village and non-village cells. No tiger signs were recorded. We recorded three main tiger prey species: barking deer Muntiacus muntjak, pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina and wild boar. The highest number of camera trap RAI (relative abundance index) of species was wild boar (15.70) followed by pig-tailed macaque (8.26) and long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis (3.31), which is not considered a tiger prey species. RAI for barking deer, a large tiger prey species, was 1.65.The Endangered (EN) gibbon Hylobates agilis and the siamang Symphalangus syndactylus were present in four and eight cells respectively, but we did not capture either species in camera traps as they are arboreal. We also recorded secondary prey species such as the common porcupine Hystrix brachyura, the great argus pheasant Argusianus argus, both at low rates (RAI 0 and 2.48 respectively). The presence of all these species is typical of good tiger habitat, although no tiger signs were recorded. We interviewed 14 villagers, 8 of whom reported having seen tigers and tiger tracks. Most villagers (n=12, 86%) said they were scared of tigers, nine of whom felt the presence of tigers had a detrimental effect on the area. However, all but one interviewee understood that tigers were protected in Indonesia and eleven interviewees (79%) agreed that this should be so. We found 25 incidences of tiger threat, including two prey species snares in two cells. Illegal logging was very common (10 cells, 71%) and we also encountered people with firearms. The majority of threats occurred in the buffer zone of the reserve. Finally, we visited four elementary schools in three villages, involving 68 pupils in presentations as well as talks about tiger and general conservation. Abstrak Biosphere Expeditions dan WWF Indonesia atas izin BBKSDA Riau kembali melakukan ekspedisi gabungan untuk ketiga kalinya bersama dengan sukarelawan global di Suaka Margasatwa Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling (SMBRBB) dan sekitarnya, Provinsi Riau, Sumatera, Indonesia, dari 30 Juli hingga 1 September 2017. Studi ekspedisi ini merupakan tindak lanjut dari dua studi sebelumnya pada tahun 2015 dan 2016, dengan harimau dan habitatnya sebagai focal point, termasuk satwa mangsa dan spesies lain yang berkontribusi pada informasi kualitas habitat harimau, atau gangguan manusia terhadap hal tersebut. Kegiatan ini dilakukan dalam upaya mendukung pelestarian harimau di SMBRBB dengan melanjutkan tujuan kegiatan sebelumnya yaitu (1) melakukan pemantauan harimau dan habitat jangka panjang di lokasi-lokasi yang memiliki tingkat gangguan manusia tinggi di sepanjang sungai Subayang dan (2) melibatkan dan melibatkan masyarakat lokal dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan kesadaran dan dukungan mereka terhadap konservasi harimau dan habitatnya. Survei deteksi-non-deteksi untuk harimau dan spesies mangsa dilakukan dengan berjalan kaki atau dengan perahu, meliputi kawasan SMBRBB utamanya di sepanjang sungai Subayang, yang berfungsi sebagai jalur perjalanan dan titik akses yang nyaman bagi tim survei. Metode yang digunakan untuk mencatat spesies (mamalia dan burung besar) melalui pencatatan keberadaan-ketiadaan spesies dan frekuensi individu dalam sel pengamatan berukuran 2x2 km dengan mencatat temuan seperti tanda, penampakan dan suara satwa. Tujuh belas kamera penjebak juga digunakan untuk merekam keberadaan spesies. Penelitian ini dirancang untuk membandingkan keberadaan spesies dalam sel dengan dan tanpa keberadaan desa (selanjutnya dikodekan sebagai sel desa dan non desa) untuk mengetahui apakah kedekatan dengan desa berpengaruh terhadap distribusi spesies di hutan. Untuk tujuan ini, tim tersebut mensurvei sel target menggunakan lembar data standar untuk survei kamera penjebak dan deteksi tanda. Selain itu, kami juga mewawancarai penduduk desa tentang keberadaan dan interaksi harimau dan spesies satwa liar utama lainnya. Kami mensurvei empat belas sel (tiga desa dan sebelas non-desa), mencatat empat belas spesies mamalia yang berbeda (termasuk kerbau Bubalus bubalis) dalam empat genera mamalia, ditambah dua spesies burung besar. Kecuali babi hutan Sus scrofa, beruang madu Helarctos malayanus dan kerbau, semua spesies jarang ditemukan (≤ 5 keberadaan dalam sel), sehingga menghambat analisis lebih lanjut. Kerbau dan babi hutan ditemukan tersebar merata di sel desa dan non desa. Tidak ada tanda-tanda harimau yang dijumpai. Kami mencatat tiga spesies utama mangsa harimau: kijang Muntiacus muntjak, kera ekor babi Macaca nemestrina dan babi hutan. Jumlah RAI (indeks kelimpahan relatif) kamera penjebak tertinggi adalah babi hutan (15,70) diikuti oleh monyet ekor babi (8,26) dan kera ekor panjang Macaca fascicularis (3,31), yang tidak termasuk jenis mangsa harimau. Kijang sebagai spesies mangsa harimau besar memiliki RAI adalah 1,65. Jenis owa yang terancam punah (EN) Hylobates agilis dan siamang Symphalangus syndactylus dijumpai di masing-masing empat dan delapan sel, tetapi kami tidak merekam salah satu spesies tersebut di kamera penjebak karena mereka adalah satwa arboreal. Kami juga mencatat spesies mangsa sekunder seperti landak umum Hystrix brachyura, burung kuau raja Argusianus argus, keduanya memiliki kelimpahan rendah (RAI 0 dan 2,48 masing-masing). Keberadaan semua spesies tersebut menjadi ciri khas bahwa habitat harimau masih baik, meskipun tidak ada tanda-tanda harimau yang tercatat. Kami mewawancarai 14 penduduk desa, 8 di antaranya melaporkan pernah melihat harimau dan jejak harimau. Sebagian besar penduduk desa (n = 12, 86%) mengatakan bahwa mereka takut pada harimau, sembilan di antaranya merasa keberadaan harimau berdampak buruk bagi kawasan tersebut. Namun, semua kecuali satu orang yang diwawancarai memahami bahwa harimau dilindungi di Indonesia dan sebelas orang yang diwawancarai (79%) setuju bahwa seharusnya demikian. Kami menemukan 25 keberadaan ancaman harimau, termasuk dua jerat mangsa harimau dalam dua sel berbeda. Penebangan liar sangat umum (10 sel, 71%). Mayoritas ancaman terjadi di zona penyangga suaka margasatwa tersebut. Terakhir, kami mengunjungi empat sekolah dasar di tiga desa, melibatkan 68 siswa dalam presentasi serta berdiskusi tentang harimau dan konservasi secara umum.
Abstract The successful collaboration between Biosphere Expeditions and the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve (DDCR), initiated in 2012, continues with citizen scientists collecting data for the ninth successive expedition from 18 to 25 January 2020. The 2020 expedition’s quadrant surveys recorded the following species from 256 random observations, 16 feed spot counts and 62 circular observations: 792 Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, 280 Arabian gazelle Gazella arabica, 95 sand gazelle Gazella marica, 18 Arabian great grey shrikes Lanius excubitor aucheri, 12 lappet-faced vultures Torgos tracheliotos, 9 MacQueen’s bustards Chlamydotis macqueenii, 7 Arabian hares Lepus capensis, 7 greater hoopoe larks Alaemon alaudipes and 1 pharaoh eagle owl Bubo ascalaphus. As the population size of ungulates in the fenced DDCR is pretty much known, the expedition concentrated its research work on elucidating animal distribution. Arabian oryx were distributed more in the west, central and south of DDCR, mainly around feed points, where forage is easily found. Arabian gazelles were concentrated in the central and central-south parts of the DDCR, mainly around irrigated areas, which provide more forage for the species. Of this species only 24 individuals were counted on the feed spots. Sand gazelles were mainly observed in sand dunes, as well as around the irrigated areas, where there is more forage to be found. Feed points seemed to be of little interest to the species in 2020, with only one individual recorded. The expedition’s Arabian red fox survey found 68 dens, of which 45 had previously been classified as active or inactive during the 2019 expedition, with an additional 23 newly identified dens. The 2020 surveys showed a decrease in the number of surveyed or identified active and inactive dens compared to 2019, but this may be due to the difficulty of this task for citizen scientists (at least 20 additional active dens were discovered after the 2020 expedition between February and March 2020). Red foxes were also recorded on four camera traps during the 2020 expedition. Due to the favourable vegetation conditions after the rains, the red fox prey base is likely to have improved in the reserve. All these are positive indicators for the status of the fox population inside the DDCR, even though the den surveys might suggest otherwise. Live traps were set for 36 trap nights and only one feral cat was captured in the north, near Nazwa Mountain. No native meso-carnivore species were captured. Compared to previous years, we increased the number of traps from three to nine live traps. High rainfall and therefore higher prey base availability, which means that predators were less likely to be attracted to the baited traps, likely contributed to this low capture success rate. Small mammal trapping comprised 239 trapping nights over six grids and resulted in a total of 31 capture-recaptures: 28 Cheeseman’s gerbils Gerbillus cheesmani (20 males, 8 females) and 3 Baluchistan gerbils Gerbillus nanus (2 males, 1 female). Total trapping success rate was 13%. Small mammals were captured in all six grids. Of the 16 camera traps set by the expedition, 10 were set close to artificial water sources, and 6 were set on natural sites. Two camera traps malfunctioned, one on each site type. A total of 80 camera trapping days captured 6,609 images, 6,119 with recognisable subjects, of which 5,546 were of native fauna, as well as 499 of humans or vehicles. Arabian oryx was the most abundant and widespread species with 13,244 recorded capture events (total number of oryx appearing in all the photos) from 11 camera traps. Among the target mammal species within the DDCR, the rare Arabian wildcat was recorded and confirmed for a second year in a row from the same location by camera trap. Arabian red fox was also recorded by four camera traps. Rare species records include Arabian hare and MacQueen’s bustard. Sand fox, lappet-faced vulture and pharaoh eagle-owl were not recorded by camera trap in 2020. Over the years the relatively high numbers of ungulates within the DDCR, especially the Arabian oryx, continue to be a challenge in terms of the need to balance animal welfare with the health of the desert ecosystem. Supplying supplementary feed for the Arabian oryx herd addresses both of these aspects by making additional food available to individuals while limiting the impact of overgrazing on the ecosystem. However, supplementary feeding also contributes to the continued growth of the gazelle populations, which are not sustainable because resources, natural and supplied, are limited. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of ungulates in the reserve, management has succeeded in gaining approval, and have started construction, of ungulate holding enclosures outside the reserve perimeter. Surplus animals will then be made available for translocation to other reserves within the natural home range of the species. A reduction in the ungulate population within the DDCR will hopefully lead to better vegetation and a distribution more dependent on habitat type and quality, rather than supplementary feed and enhanced (irrigated) habitats. Predator re-introduction has not been approved at this time by the authorities, but is still under consideration. الملخص يستمر التعاون الناجح بين محمية دبي الصحراوية وبرنامج بعثات المحيط الحيوي والتي بدأت منذ العام 2012م بمشاركة المتطوعين الذين يجمعون البيانات للرحلة التاسعة على التوالي من 18 إلى 25 يناير 2020م. خلال مسوحات البعثة الاستكشافية لعام 2020م في جميع أقسام المحمية وبإستخدام طرق حصر مختلفة من خلال 256 ملاحظة عشوائية ، و 16 تعدادًا حول نقاط توزيع العلف و 62 تسجيل لإنواع من خلال التمثيل الدائري سجلت الأنواع التالية: 792 مها عربي ، 280 غزال عربي ، 95 غزال رملي ، 18 صرد جنوبي، 12 نسر اذن، 9 حبارى شرقية ، و 7 أرانب عربية ، وسبعة طيور المكاء ، وبومة صحراوية. نظرًا للزيادة المضطردة المعروفة في أعداد قطعان المها والغزال في محمية دبي الصحراوية المسورة، فقد ركزت البعثة أعمالها البحثية على توضيح توزيعات تلك الأنواع. تم ملاحظة زيادة أعداد توزيع المها العربي بشكل أكبر في الغرب والوسط والجنوب من محمية دبي الصحراوية وبشكل رئيسي حول نقاط إمداد العلف حيث يسهل العثور على الغذاء. تركزت أعداد الغزال العربي في الأجزاء الوسطى والجنوب الوسطي من المحمية وبشكل رئيسي حول المناطق المروية من المزارع القديمة والتي بها وفرة في الغطاء النباتي و تم إحصاء 24 فردًا فقط في أماكن توزيع العلف. تم تسجيل ومشاهدة غزلان الريم بشكل رئيسي في الكثبان الرملية وكذلك حول المناطق المروية من المزارع القديمة حيث يوجد وفرة في الغطاء النباتي ولم تكن نقاط التغذية ذات أهمية كبيرة لغزال الريم في عام 2020م حيث تم تسجيل فقط فرد واحد من غزال الريم حول نقاط إمداد العلف. أظهرت استطلاعات تسجيل أوكار الثعلب الأحمر العربي للبعثة انخفاضًا في عدد الأوكار النشطة وغير النشطة التي تم مسحها أو تحديدها مقارنة بعام 2019م، وقد يكون هذا الإنخفاض بسبب صعوبة هذه المهمة للمتطوعين حيث أنه قد تم اكتشاف عدد عشرين من الأوكار النشطة الإضافية على الأقل بعد الإنتهاء من البعثة بين شهري فبراير ومارس 2020م. تم تسجيل الثعالب الحمراء أيضًا من خلال أربعة مصائد للكاميرات خلال رحلة 2020م. نظرًا لظروف الغطاء النباتي المواتية بعد هطول الأمطار، فمن المحتمل أن تكون أعداد الثعلب الأحمر قد تحسنت في المحمية. كل هذه مؤشرات إيجابية لحالة تعداد الثعالب داخل محمية دبي الصحراوية على الرغم من الاستطلاعات قد تشير إلى خلاف ذلك. تم وضع العديد من المصائد الحية لمدة 36 ليلة وكان نتيجة لذلك تسجيل عدد قط وحشي واحد في الشمال بالقرب من جبل نزوى. لم يتم تسجيل أي مفترسات متوسطة الحجم أخري مقارنة بالسنوات السابقة بالرغم من زيادة عدد المصائد من ثلاثة إلى تسعة مصائد حية. من المحتمل أن يكون هطول الأمطار الغزيرة وبالتالي توفر غذاء أكبر من الفرائس مما أدي أن الحيوانات المفترسة كانت أقل إنجذابا إلى المصائد المزودة بطعم مما ساهم في إنخفاض أعداد المفترسات. أشتمل برنامج مصائد الثدييات الصغيرة على ما مجموعه 239 ليلة في ست مواقع مختلفة وأسفرت عن ما مجموعه 31 عملية أسر: 28 جربوع تشيزماني (20 ذكورًا و 8 إناث) و 3 جربوع بلوشستان (أثنين ذكور وإنثي واحدة) كان إجمالي معدل نجاح الاصطياد 13٪ حيث تم تسجيل الثدييات الصغيرة في جميع مواقع الدراسة. من بين إجمالي ستة عشر مصائد الكاميرا وضعتها البعثة خلال 2020م تم تركيب عشرة مصائد كاميرات بالقرب من مصادر المياه الاصطناعية وستة تم وضعها في مواقع طبيعية. تعطلت عدد أثنين من مصائد الكاميرا خلال فترة الدراسة واحدة في كل موقع (مصادر المياه والمناطق الطبيعية). تم التقاط ما مجموعه 80 يومًا من أيام مصائد الكاميرات وتسجيل ما مجموعه 6609 صورة، منها 6119 صورة مع أهداف يمكن التعرف عليها ومنها 5546 من الحيوانات البرية بالإضافة إلى عدد 499 صورة لبشر أو لمركبات. كان المها العربي أكثر الأنواع وفرة وانتشارًا حيث تم تسجيل 13244 إجمالي عدد المها العربي الظاهر في جميع الصور من 13 مصيدة كاميرا. من بين أنواع الثدييات المستهدفة في DDCR تم تسجيل القط البري العربي النادر وتأكيده للعام الثاني على التوالي من نفس الموقع بواسطة مصيدة كاميرا. كما سجلت أربعة مصائد للكاميرا للثعلب الأحمر العربي. وكذلك تسجيل الأنواع النادرة الأخرى مثل الأرنب العربي وطائر الحبارى. لم يتم تسجيل الثعلب الرملي ونسر الأذون والبومة الصحراوية الفرعونية بواسطة مصيدة الكاميرا في عام 2020م. على مر السنين ، لا تزال الأعداد المرتفعة نسبيًا من ذوات الحوافر داخل محمية دبي الصحراوية وخاصة المها العربي تمثل تحديًا من حيث الحاجة إلى تحقيق التوازن بين أعداد الحيوان وصحة النظام البيئي الصحراوي. إن توفير العلف التكميلي لقطيع المها العربي يعالج كلا الجانبين من خلال توفير الطعام البديل مع الحد من تأثير الرعي الجائر على النظام البيئي. ومع ذلك، تساهم التغذية التكميلية أيضًا في النمو المستمر لأعداد الغزال والتي لا يمكن استدامتها لأن الموارد الطبيعية شحيحة. لذلك، ومن أجل تقليل عدد ذوات الحوافر في المحمية ، نجحت الإدارة في الحصول على الموافقة وبدأت في إنشاء مسيجات للاحتفاظ بالحيوانات خارج أسوار المحمية. سيتم بعد ذلك إتاحة الفرصة لنقل الحيوانات الزائدة إلى محميات أخرى ضمن النطاق المحلي الطبيعي للأنواع. من المأمول أن يؤدي انخفاض أعداد المها العربي داخل المحمية إلى تحسين جودة الغطاء النباتي والتوزيع المتجانس للحيوانات الرعوية والذي يعتمد بشكل أكبر على نوع الموائل وجودتها ، بدلاً من الأعلاف التكميلية والموائل المحسنة (المروية). لم تتم الموافقة على إعادة إدخال أي نوع من المفترسات في هذا الوقت من قبل السلطات ولكنها لا تزال قيد النظر.
ABSTRACT The Lilongwe Wildlife Trust (LWT) and Conservation Research Africa are the first to conduct long-term research projects in Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve (VMWR). These projects focus on large mammals, elephants, primates, bats and insects, and aim to identify and monitor biodiversity and long-term trends in VMWR. Habitats are under increasing pressure from climate change and wildlife populations are at risk from many anthropogenic threats, such as poaching and deforestation. Biosphere Expeditions citizen scientists supported these research projects for the first time in 2018. Field work was conducted for a second year between 22 September and 18 October 2019 in two two-week long groups comprising twelve citizen scientists per group from Australia, Canada, Germany, the UK and the USA. Large mammal surveys Camera trapping surveys were successful and recorded a high species diversity in VMWR (24 species) in 1,670 images. One large carnivore (leopard) and seven mesocarnivores was detected, proving again the success of camera traps at providing data on elusive and nocturnal species. Transect surveys, covering nearly 200 km, recorded 11 different species and a 43% encounter rate. Species of note were roan antelope, which are rarely sighted, and puku, as they are classified by the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened. Hippo surveys of the populations in Lake Kazuni along the southern border of VMWR yielded an average of 125 hippos, which is lower than the previous year. Survey results confirm a high species diversity in VMWR. Elephants were observed mainly along the shores of Lake Kazuni, with data collected on herd demographics and individual identification. These observations produced numerous second-sighting records and 10 new individual identifications, bringing the total elephant database to more than 200 individuals, which is estimated to be two-thirds of the total VMWR elephant population. Bat, insect and vegetation monitoring Bat surveys resulted in 51 bats caught representing 11 species. Two new bat species, Myotis bocagii and Laephotis botswanae were recorded for VMWR. Kerivoula lanosa was also caught for the first time in Malawi for African Bat Conservation. Nine standardised bat surveys were conducted at 7 different sites comprising 6 surveys in floodplain and 3 in woodland. The highest relative bat species richness was recorded in woodland. Of the new bat species records, Laephotis botswanae is of particular interest as little is known about its distribution and the few records indicate patchy distribution. This record therefore provides valuable data for the conservation of this species. Over 9,000 insects were captured in 13 different orders. Four new orders were captured not previously recorded in 2018, although in very low numbers, suggesting they likely occur at low densities in VMWR. Although the 2018 and 2019 expedition results are based on relatively low sample sizes, they add to growing records of biodiversity surveys for bats and insects in VMWR and show high diversity in abundance and overall presence of orders. In addition, vegetation surveys completed in conjunction with bat and insect surveys provide baseline ecological data and serve as indicators for any changes to the local environment. Climate change and other anthropogenic impacts in VMWR will first be noticed in changes to the vegetation and insects and bats, which feed on them. As such, the continued monitoring of these species is of upmost importance for the conservation management of VMWR. Primate behaviour In March 2019, LWT released a troop of 13 vervet monkeys into Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve. After initial predations and emigrations, the troop observed during this expedition was 6 individuals. Data collected during the expedition contributed to the year-long post-release monitoring and data collection of the release troop. Activity budgets were determined and showed that the troop mimics wild conspecifics in terms of their activity budgets, with the majority of their time spent being Vigilant, followed by Feeding, Travelling, and spending little time Resting. A social network web was created; reflecting observations that the alpha male was the most central figure in the troop and the beta male was the least, often not seen by observers. Both analyses show that the troop is doing well with their new life in the wild. CHIYAMBI Ma bungwe a Lilongwe Wildlife Trust ndi Conservation Research Africa ndi ma bungwe oyamba kupanga kafukufuku wokhazikika ku Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve (VMWR). Kafukufuku ameneyu amawona za nyama zosiyanasiyana monga; nyama zomwe zimayamwitsa, njobvu, gulu la anyani, mileme ndi tizilombo ting’ono ting’ono towuluka, ndi cholinga chofuna kudziwa ndi kulondoloza kusinthasintha kwa chilengedwe mu nkhalango ya Vwaza. Kusintha kwa nyengo kukupangitsa kuti malo omwe nyama zimakhala azikumana ndi mavuto, komanso zachilengwe zosiyanasiyana zikukumana ndi mavuto chifukwa cha zichitochito za anthu, monga; kupha nyama za kutchire komanso kudula mitengo mopanda chilolezo. Gulu la akatswiri aza sayansi lotchedwa Biosphere Expeditions linathandizira ntchito ya kafukufukuyi koyamba mu chaka cha 2018. Anthu omwe amagwira ntchitoyi anayigwila kwa masabata anayi kuchokela pa 22 September m’paka pa 18 october mu chaka cha 2019, ndipo anthuwa amakhala m’magulu, ndipo gulu lililose limakhala ndi akatswiri a zasayansi khumi ndi awiri ochokera kumaiko monga; Austria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Malaysia, Switzerland, UK ndi USA. Kawuniwuni wa Nyama Zikuluzikulu Zomwe Zimayamwitsa Chiwelengero cha nyama zikuluzikulu zomwe zimayamwitsa chikunka chichepa pa dziko lonse lapansi. Kuchepa kwa chiwelengero cha nyama zoyamwitsa kukhoza kudzetsa mavuto osiyanasiyana ku ubale wa pakati pa nyama ndi zachilengedwe, nyama zinzake, zomera, malo okhala nyama, komaso pa chikhalidwe cha anthu ndi ntchito za chuma. Kalondolondo wa chiwelengero cha nyama zazikulu (zomwe zimayamwitsa) mu mnkhalango ndi kofunikira pa kasamalidwe ka chilengedwe, komaso zimathandiza anthu oyang’anira nkhalangoyo kuti adziwe umoyo, chiwelengero cha nyama, ndikupeza zinthu zomwe zasintha komaso zomwe zimadzetsa kusinthako. Kawuniwuni ogwiritsa ntchito zinthu zojambulira komanso kugawa nkhalango m’magawo magawo zimathandizira kupeza chiwelengerocho. Kafukufuku pogwiritsa ntchito zida zomwe zimajambura ndi zomwe zinathandiza kupeza za chilengedwe zosiyana siyana zomwe zimapezeka mu nkhalango ya Vwaza, ndipo izi zimakwana makumi awiri ndi zinayi (24) kuchokera muzithuzi 1,670 zomwe zinajambulidwa. Njira yotchera zinthu zojambulira inathandizila kupeza nyama zomwe zimayenda usiku komaso nyama zomwe zimavuta kupeza. Inathandizaso kupeza nyama zikuluzikulu ziwiri zomwe zimadya nyama zimnzake zomwe zili mkango ndi kambuku ndi zina zokwaana zisanu ndi ziwiri. Njira yogawa nkhalango m’magawo inagwiritsidwa ntchito pamtunda wokwana pafupifupi 200km, inathandiza kupeza mitundu khumi ndi imodzi ya zachilengedwe zosiyanasiyana mosayembekezeka ndi 43%. Mitundu ya nyama ya zomwe zinaoneka kudzera munjira imeneyi ndi monga mpherembe ndi puku zomwe zili zosowa kuzipeza komaso zili m’gulu la nyama zomwe zili pa chiopsezo chakutha, kuchokera mu ma report a bungwe la (IUCN). Kawuniwuni wa chiwelengero cha Mvuu mu Nyanja ya Kazuni, m’mbali mwa malire a kummwera kwa VMWR anawonetsa kuti nyanjayi ili ndi Mvuu zokwana pafupifupi 125 zomwe zili zochepa kusiyana ndi chaka cha mmbuyo. Zotsatira zonse za kafukufukuyu zinawonetsa kuti ku Vwaza kuli za chilengwe zosiyanasiyana komaso zochuluka. Chiwelengero cha njobvu ku Malawi chili pa chiopsezo kwambiri. Kuchokela mu zaka za 1970, Njobvu za m’dziko la Malawi kuphatikizapo za ku Vwaza Marsh zakhala zikuphedwa chifukwa chofuna nyanga zake. Chiwelengero cha Njobvu zomwe zili mu nkhalango ya Vwaza ndi chachikula koposa mu dera la kumpotoli ndipo njobvuzi sizozungulilidwa ndi mpanda pofuna kupereka mwayi kuti zizitha kuchoka dera limodzi ndi kupita dera loyandikana nalo mmalo otetezedwa. Ndipo kafukufuku wa Njobvuzi wachitika wochepa. Chiwelengero cha njobvu chinawerengedwa kuchokera ku njobvu zomwe zimapezeka m’mbali mwa Nyanja ya Kazuni ndipo zimapezeka m’magulu komaso zina zimapezeka pazokha. Kafukufukuyi anatipatsa zotsatira zabwino komanso tinakwanitsa kuwona Njobvu zina khumi zoyenda zokha, zomwe zinapangitsa kuti m’ndandanda wa chiwelengero chonse cha njobvu ukhale opitilira 200, ndipo izi zikuyimila pafupifupi 2/3 ya chiwelengero cha Njobvu zopezeka mu nkhalango ya Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve. Zotsatira za kafukufuku ameneyi zimathandizira mu m’ndandanda omwe ulipo wa nyama zikuluzikulu zomwe zimayamwitsa m’nkhalangoyi kumbali ya kuchuluka kwa chiwelengero chake, umoyo ndi mmene zinthu zilili mu nkhalango ya Vwaza Marsh, kuti zithandize ntchito ya kayendetsedwe kabwino ka nkhalangoyi. Kalondolondo wa Mileme, Tizilombo ndi Zomera Mileme yokwana 51 inagwidwa popanga kawuniwuni yomwe inali mitundu khumi ndi umodzi yosiyana. Mitundu iwiri yamilemeyi yotchedwa Myotis bocagii ndi Laephotis botswanae inapezeka ku Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve. Ndipo kwa nthawi yoyamba ku Malawi, mtundu wa mileme yotchedwa Kerivoula lanosa inapezeka ndi bungwe la African Bat Conservation. Kawuniwuni wina anachitika mofanana kokwanira kasanu ndi kanayi (9) m’malo asanu ndi awiri (7) osiyana, ndipo kawuniwuni okwanira kasanu ndi kamodzi (6) anachitika mmalo otsika, pomwe kawuniwuni mutatu anachitika ku nkhalango. Zotsatira zinaonetsa kuti m’tundu wa mileme yofanana inapezeka yambiri ku nkhalango. Zolembedwa za mtundu wa mileme ya chilendo yotchedwa Laephotis botswanae ndi amene akupereka chidwi chifukwa kufalikira kwawo ndi kochepa ndipo zolembedwa zikuonetsa mbiri pang’ono chabe. Zolembedwazi zikupereka ndondomeko yofunikira kwambiri za mmene mtundu ya milemeyi ingasamalidwe. Tizilombo topitilira 9,000 tinagwidwa mu ma gulu khumi ndi atatu (13) osiyana. Magulu atsopano okwana anayi anagwidwa, ndipo maguluwa sanalembedwe mu chaka cha 2018, ngakhale zikusonyeza kuti akupezeka ochepa kwambiri ku Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve. Ngakhale zotsatira za mu chaka cha 2018 ndi zomwe zinapezeka mu 2019 zikuchokera mu kawuniuni yemwe anachika mu ka dera kochepa chabe, zimaonjezera kuchuluka kwa kawuniwuni wa chilengedwe cha mileme ndi tilombo topezeka ku Vwaza ndipo zimaonetsa kuchuluka kwa magulu awo. Kuonjezera apo, kawuniwuni wa zomera anamalizika pophatikizana ndi kawuniwuni wa mileme ndi tizilombo zomwe zimapereka ndondomeko ya chilengedwe komaso ngati zidziwitso za kusintha kwa chilengedwe mu dera. Kusintha kwa nyengo ndi mavuto ena achilengedwe odza Kamba kazichito- chito za munthu angadziwike mofulumira makamaka ku zomera, mileme ndi tizilombo tomwe timadya zomerazi. Choncho kalondolondo wa mitundi ya zolengedwazi ndiwofunikira kwambiri pothandiza kayendetsedwe ka Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve. Khalidwe la Magulu a Nyani Mu dziko la Malawi, chiopsezo chomwe chilipo m’malo omwe nyama zimakhala, zapangitsa kuti mchitidwe wopha nyama za kutchire pofuna kudya ndi kuzisunga kunyumba ngati ziweto kuti ukule. Zimenezi ndi mavuto omwe magulu anyani akukumana nawo makamaka a mtundu wa apusi. Izi zapangitsa kuti Lilongwe Wildlife Centre (LWC), malo okhawo m’dziko la Malawi omwe ntchtio yawo ndikumalanditsa nyama zosiyana siyana ndi kusunga zachilengedwe, kupulumutsa magulu anyani ochuluka omwe ali amasiye komaso ovulala. Cholinga chokhazikitsa malowa ndi kusunga nyama zimenezi ndi cholinga choti ngati kuli kotheka m’tsogolomo adzathe kuzibwezeretsa ku nkhalango komwe zikuyenela kukhala. Mu chaka cha 2012 bungwe la Lilongwe Wildlife Trust linakhazikitsa ndondomeko ya mmene nyama zomwe zasungidwa komanso ndizoyenera kubwezeretsedwa ku nkhalango ingamayendere. M’mwezi wa March mu chaka cha 2019, bungwe la LWT linapititsa gulu la apusi okwana 13 ku nkhalango ya Vwaza Marsh. Zotsatira zomwe zinapezeka mu nthawi ya kafukufukuyi zinathandizira mu m’ndandanda wa pa chaka oyang’anira komanso m’ndandanda obwezeretsa magulu a nyani ku nkhalango komwe akuyenera kukhala. Tsiku ndi tsiku, nyani m’modzi amakhala a kumutsatira kwa mphindi makumi awiri mu nthawi yomwe kumachitika kalondolondo wa nyamazi, izi zinawoneka pogwiritsa ntchito njira yowelengera ya pompopompo komaso yopitilira. Ndondomeko ya ndalama zofunikira pogwiritsa tchitioyi inakozedwa ndipo anawonetsa ndondomeko ya ndalama za gulu lili lonse la anyani potengeranso makhalidwe awo a tsiku ndi tsiku. Tsamba la mchezo pa makina a internet linakozedwa ndipo likuwonetsera zinthu zeni zeni zomwe zinachitika. Njira zonsezi zinasonyeza kut magulu a nyaniwa akukhala mosangalala kunkhalangoko. Zotsatirazi zimathandizira kuti LWT likhale ndi ndondomeko yokhazikika komanso yabwino ya ntchito yobwezeretsa nyama ku tchire.
Abstract This study was part of a continuing annual citizen science expedition to the Tien Shan Mountains (Kyrgyz Ala Too and Jumgal Too ranges), run by Biosphere Expeditions and NABU for the sixth consecutive year from 24 June to 26 August 2019, with the aim of surveying for snow leopard Panthera uncia and its prey species. Using a cell methodology developed for citizen scientist volunteer expeditions, 64 cells of 2x2 km were surveyed and 9 interviews with local people were conducted. Previous expeditions had indicated that snow leopard was present in the survey area and in 2019 the discovery of fresh signs of snow leopard presence, including two camera trap recordings, confirmed the presence of the cat as well as the importance of the study area as snow leopard habitat. The surveys also showed that the area’s habitat is varied and capable of sustaining a healthy prey base for the snow leopard. Potential prey species in the area are primarily Siberian ibex, marmot and Himalayan snowcock; in 2019 there was one visual record of argali. Poaching, overgrazing and other disturbances are issues that must be addressed in order to avoid habitat degradation and with it the loss of the snow leopard. Local people are mostly in favour of snow leopard presence and receptive to protecting the area and creation of economic incentives based on intact nature and snow leopard presence, but they have a poor vision on how this could be self-organised. A butterfly study that proposes alpine vs. non-alpine species as indicators of climate change was continued for the fifth year running, and bird and plant inventories were also compiled by the 2019 expedition. In 2020, when the citizen science expedition had to be cancelled due to the coronavirus pandemic, a community expedition was organised instead from 22 – 29 September 2020. This community expedition included members of the community camera-trapping group instigated by Biosphere Expeditions in 2017 and was run by new local partner Ilbirs Foundation. The community expedition maintained and reset twelve camera traps in the study site to ensure continuous data collection. Camera trap SD cards retrieved during the expedition yielded two snow leopard captures in the same valley. This might be two records of the same individual, but picture quality was too poor to ascertain this. Other camera trap pictures corroborated previous expedition findings of a healthy prey base with records of Siberian ibex, Himalayan snowcock and badger, amongst others. Unconfirmed snow leopard signs (scat, tracks, scrapes) were also detected at three camera trap locations. Резюме Исследования, представленные в даной работе – это часть ежегодно проводимых гражданско-научных экспедиций в горах Тянь-Шаня (хребты Кыргыз Ала-Тоо и Джумгал-Тоо), проводимых Биосферными экспедициями и NABU, в течении шести лет с 2014-2019 годы с целью изучения снежного барса Panthera uncia. В 2019 году с 24 июня по 26 августа с использованием методологии ячеек, разработанных для волонтерских экспедиций гражданских ученых, было обследовано 64 ячейки размером 2х2 км и проведено 9 интервью с местными жителями. Предыдущие экспедиции указывали на присутствие снежного барса в районе исследований, а в 2019 году были обнаружены конкретные и свежие признаки присутствия снежного барса, а также две записи с камер, подтвердивших наличие кошки, а значит, и важность района исследований, как места обитания снежного барса. Исследования также показали, что местообитания снежного барса разнообразны и способны поддерживать здоровую кормовую базу. Потенциальными кормовыми видами в этом районе являются, прежде всего, сибирский горный козел, сурок и гималайская горная индейка, в 2019 году была зафиксирована одна визуальная запись об архаре. Браконьерство, чрезмерный выпас и другие нарушения среды обитания - это проблемы, которые необходимо решить, чтобы избежать деградации местообитаний и потери снежного барса. Местное население, в основном, выступает за присутствие снежного барса и восприимчиво к охране территории и созданию экономических стимулов, основанных на сохранении нетронутой природы и присутствии снежного барса, но у них слабое представление о том, как это может быть самоорганизовано. Исследование бабочек, в котором альпийские и неальпийские виды предлагаются в качестве индикаторов изменения климата, продолжалось в течении пяти лет, и в ходе экспедиции 2019 года были также составлены кадастры птиц и растений. В 2020 году из-за пандемии коронавируса гражданские научные экспедиции были отменены, вместо них с 22 по 29 сентября 2020 года организовали общественную экспедицию. В ней приняли участие члены общинной группы, работающих с фотоловушками, созданные Биосферными экспедициями еще в 2017 году, а также подключили нового местного партнера – специалистов Фонда Илбирс. Общественная экспедиция переустановила двенадцать фотоловушек на исследуемом участке для обеспечения непрерывного сбора данных. С помощью SD-карт-ловушек, во время экспедиции, было снято два снежных барса в одной и той же долине. Возможно, это две записи одного и того же животного, но качество снимков было слишком низким, чтобы это установить. Другие снимки фотоловушек подтвердили данные предыдущей экспедиции о здоровой добыче, включая записи сибирского горного козла, гималайского снежного петуха и барсука. В трех местах ловушек также были обнаружены неподтвержденные следы снежного барса (скребки, следы, царапины). Корутунду Бул изилдөө илбирсти (Panthera uncia) жана башка жырткыч түрлөрдү изилдөө максатында, 6 жыл катары менен, 2019-жылдын июнь айынын 24нөн август айынын 26на чейин, Биосфералык экспедиция жана NABU тарабынан жыл сайын өткөрүлүүчү, Тянь-Шань тоолоруна (Кыргыз Ала-Тоо жана Жумгал тоо кыркалары) уюштурулган жарандык илимий экспедициянын уландысынын бир бөлүгү болчу. Жарандык илимпоз ыктыярчылардын экспедициясы үчүн иштелип чыгарылган торчо карта методикасын пайдалануу менен бирге, көлөмү 2х2 км болгон 64 уяча изилденип чыкты жана жергиликтүү тургундардан 9 интервью алынды. Мындан мурдагы экспедициялар изилдене турчу аймакта илбирс бар экендигин көргөзгөн жана 2019 – жылы илбирстин бар экендигинин жаңы белгилери аныкталган, аны менен эле кошо фотокапкандын камерасына жаздырып алынган эки ийгиликтүү видео, илбирстин бар экендигин, ошондой эле илбирстин байырлаган жерлери катары изилденүүчү аймактын маанилүүлүгүн аныктады. Изилдөөлөр, илбирс байыр алган аймак ар түрдүү жана илбирстин азыгы үчүн таза базаны түзүп бергенге жөндөмдүү экенин көргөздү. Бул аймактын потенциалдуу тоют түрү болуп – сибирь тоо эчки-текеси, суур жана гималай улары эсептелинет. 2019 - жылы архар бир жолу визуалдык каттоодон өткөн. Браконьерчилик, малды чектен ашык жайуу жана башка укук бузуулар оор көйгөйлөр болуп эсептелинет, бул көйгөйлөрдү илбирстин жашоо чөйрөсүнүн деградация болуп кетүүсүн жана аны менен кошо эле илбирстин жок болуп кетүүсүн алдын алуу үчүн чечүү зарыл. Жергиликтүү калк жалпысынан илбирстин болуусун туура деп баалашат жана аймакты коргоону жана илбирстин сакталышын, кол тийбеген жаратылыштын негизинде экономикалык стимулдун түзүлүшүн кабыл алууга макул, бирок кантип өз алдынча уюштуруу керек экендиги боюнча маалыматтары аз. Альпылык жана альпылык эмес түрлөрү, климаттын өзгөрүүсүнүн индикатору катары сунушталган көпөлөктөрдү изилдөө бешинчи жылы катары менен улантылган жана ошондой эле экспедициянын жүрүшүндө 2019 – жылы өсүмдүктөрдүн жана канаттуулардын кадастры түзүлгөн. 2020 – жылы коронавирус пандемиясына байланыштуу жарандык илимий экспедиция болбой калгандыктан, анын ордуна 2020-жылдын сентябрь айынын 22нен 29на чейин коомдук экспедиция уюштурулган. Бул коомдук экспедиция өзүнө 2017-жылы «Биосфералык экспедиция» баштап берген видеотартууларды жергиликтүү жамааттык топтун мүчөлөрү менен улантып жана «Илбирс» фонду менен чогуу иштерди камтыган. Токтоосуз маалыматтарды топтоону камсыздоо үчүн, коомдук экспедиция колдогон жана изилденип жаткан тиилкеге он эки фотокапканды кайрадан коюп чыккан. Экспедиция учурунда табылган фотокапкандын SD-картасынын жардамы менен бир эле өрөөндө эки илбирс тартылып алынган. Балким бул эки сүрөт бир эле адамдыкы болушу мүмкүн, аны такташ үчүн сүрөттөрдүн сапаты аябай начар болгон. Башка фотокапкандан алынган сүрөттөр мурдагы экспедициянын маалыматтарын далилдеди, анда сибирь тоо-эчкиси, гималай улары жана суурлар тартылып алынган. Ошондой эле фотокапкан коюлган башка үч жерде, илбирстин так ырасталбаган издери аныкталган (издер, тытыктар).

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Matthias Hammer
About Matthias Hammer
  • An Oxbridge-educated biologist, my main research interest is in wildlife conservation through citizen science and stakeholder empowerment. I founded Biosphere Expeditions, an international, citizen science-based conservation NGO that specialises in wildlife conservation world-wide, in 1999 and have been working there ever since. More information at www.biosphere-expeditions.org. We are always interested in reliable partners and field scientists to collaborate with to protect our planet's wild animals and places.

Members (8)

Volodymyr Tytar
  • Institute of Zoology NAS, Ukraine, Kyiv
Lisa Steiner
  • Whale Watch Azores
Peter Schuette
  • NABU Niedersachsen
Stefan Michel
  • Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations
Miguel Machete
  • IMAR Marine and Environmental Research Centre
Andrea Friebe
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Moayyed Sher Shah
  • Royal Commission of Al-Ula
Charlotte Steinberg
  • Thüringer Ministerium für Umwelt Energie und Naturschutz
Marcelo Mazzolli
Marcelo Mazzolli
  • Not confirmed yet
Hussein Zahir
Hussein Zahir
  • Not confirmed yet
Zairbek Kubanychbekov
Zairbek Kubanychbekov
  • Not confirmed yet
Tolkunbek Asykulov
Tolkunbek Asykulov
  • Not confirmed yet
Beatriz G. Lippert
Beatriz G. Lippert
  • Not confirmed yet
Emily A. Johns
Emily A. Johns
  • Not confirmed yet
Kerri McCrea
Kerri McCrea
  • Not confirmed yet
Alexandra Johncola
Alexandra Johncola
  • Not confirmed yet

Alumni (17)

Sunarto Sunarto
  • University of Indonesia
Marcelo Mazzolli
  • Independent researcher & consultant
Gregor Hodgson
  • Coral Reef Consultants LLC
Robin Rigg
  • Slovak Wildlife Society / University of Ljubljana