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In Iraq, breast cancer incidence exceeds any other type of cancers and the etiology not understood well. Epstein Barr virus is a gamma herpesviruses and one of carcinogenic viruses that may implicated to breast carcinogenesis. The nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) protein is the sole EBV antigen that presented in all tumors related to EBV and plays pivotal roles in carcinogenesis of the virus. Examination applied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect and demonstrate the correlation between (EBNA-1) and tumor suppressor protein (P53) expression. The study includes paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of ninety 90 malignant breast tissues and thirty 30 normal breast autopsies. EBNA-1 was significantly expressed in 40/90 (44.4%) of malignant tissues while its expression in normal breast tissues was negative in all tested cases. The tumor suppressor protein P53 was showed negative expression in all normal breast tissues and positive in 27/90 (30%) in malignant breast tissues. A significant negative relationship (r=-0.420; P<0.05) revealed between EBNA-1and P53 expression. These finding reveal that EBNA-1 was evident in malignant breast tissues and demonstrate the interplay between EBV and p53 raising the possibility that viral infection may be involved in carcinogenesis process.
Six isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from Iraqi soil characterized as non- insecticidal and non- hemolytic parasporal inclusion proteins. Bacterial isolates were propagated on nutrient broth. Then, the parasporal inclusion proteins were extracted and processed with proteinase K and trypsin. The major protein segments produced of 64KDa were characterized and tested for cytocidal activity against human leukemic T- cells (CLL) (Chronic lymphoid leukemia). Results indicated that the treated parasporal proteins of four isolates (Bt2, Bt3, Bt4 and Bt6) showed strong cytotoxicity with no significant differences between normal lymphocytes and leukemic lymphocytes. Two isolates BtA1 and BtA5 show discriminative cytotoxicity between normal and leukemic lymphocytes at low extant causing cell ballooning, nucleus fragmentation and finally cell rapture. This may be referring to the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids included in cell membrane.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a worldwide distribution and common infections. The presence of HCMV genome and antigens has been detected in many kinds of human cancers. The proto-oncogene Her2/neu is overexpressed in 25% to 30% of human breast cancers and frequently associated with tumor aggressiveness and worse prognosis. Examination was applied to detect different HCMV antigens and to demonstrate their correlation with Her2/neu overexpression in breast cancer. The present study includes samples from 70 women of 60 breast cancer patients and 10 normal breast tissues. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were obtained from each woman according to ethical approval. Human cytomegalovirus early antigen expression was detected in 56/60 (93%) of malignant samples while its expression in normal breast tissues 2/10(20%). which was highly significant (P<0.01) while HCMV late antigen was expressed in 37/60(61.7%) of malignant cases and in 7/10(70%) of normal breast tissues, which are statistically non-significant (P>0.05). Her2/neu protein showed negative expression in normal breast tissues and positive or equivocal in malignant breast tissues. A significant positive relationship (r=0.302; P<0.05) revealed between HCMV early antigen expression and Her2/neu protein overexpression and a significant positive relationship (r=0.280; P<0.05) was shown between HCMV late antigen expression and Her2/neu protein overexpression. These findings are the first to demonstrate the positive correlation between HCMV early and late antigens with Her2/neu overexpression in breast cancer. Also, HCMV early antigen was evident in malignant breast tissues raising the possibility that viral infection may be involved in carcinogenesis process.
- Department of Biology
About Bareq N. Al-Nuaimi
- Bareq Nihad Al- Nuaimi currently works at the Department of Biology, Madenat Alelem University College. Bareq does research in Microbiology, Virology and Immunology.