Featured research (5)
Memory judgments made by an individual may be afected by the memory judgments made by another individual, a phenomenon named memory conformity. It is unclear, however, whether memory conformity afects the well demonstrated positive relationship between accuracy and confdence, and more importantly, whether it afects the accuracy of high-confdence memory judgments. Here, we investigated these possibilities in three experiments wherein participants performed recognition followed by confdence judgments of studied and novel faces, after being exposed to the recognition responses of a fctional participant whose responses could be valid or invalid (74% and 26% of the responses, respectively). In all three experiments, accuracy for high confdence “old” and “new” responses was afected by the responses of the fctitious participant, with invalid responses producing consistent decreases in high confdence accuracy. In addition, confdence-accuracy characteristics (CAC) analysis revealed that invalid responses were particularly impactful on the assignment of confdence for faces judged as “new,” a pattern that sheds light on prior fndings regarding the efects of cueing on mean confdence. Thus, further than demonstrating that the exposition to the memory judgments of another person afects high confdence recognition, we show that such exposition produces distinct efects on the assignment of confdence for “new” versus “old” memory judgments.
Objective: Prior studies have shown that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit deficits in the processing of emotional information. Here, we investigated whether such deficits caused by PD reduce the mnemonic benefits typically produced by emotion in healthy individuals. Method: Thirty individuals with PD and 30 healthy individuals, matched for sex, age, and education, were recruited for the study. To assess their memory for emotional information, we asked them to observe a series of negative, positive, and neutral images distributed in three consecutive blocks. After a short interval, all observed images were presented again intermixed with new images, and the participants were asked to judge whether each image was "old" or "new" (i.e., recognition test), and to indicate the block in which each image was studied (i.e., source memory test). In addition, to characterize the sample, all participants responded to a series of neuropsychological and psychopathological tests. Results: As expected, individuals with PD exhibited diminished overall recognition and source memory scores relative to healthy controls (ηp² = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively). More importantly, while healthy controls showed greater recognition accuracy for negative versus neutral images (d = 0.65), this advantage was absent for PD participants (d < 0.18), a null effect corroborated by Bayesian analysis (BF01 = 3.34). Conclusion: The current findings suggest that individuals with PD lack the mnemonic advantage for negative pictures shown by healthy individuals, a deficit that may result from their difficulties in the processing of emotional information. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
A conformidade de memória consiste em alterações dos relatos de memória de um indivíduo provocadas por relatos de memória de outro(s) indivíduo(s). Considerando a importância deste fenômeno no âmbito forense, especialmente na entrevista de testemunhas oculares, o objetivo do presente estudo é compreender melhor o fenômeno da conformidade de memória, e discutir suas implicações nas práticas de inquérito policial. Para isto, realizamos uma revisão narrativa de estudos de laboratório sobre conformidade de memória e de estudos sobre práticas de inquérito. A literatura indica que embora a investigação científica da conformidade de memória tenha apresentado grande avanço nas últimas duas décadas, a incorporação destes achados na prática forense brasileira ainda é lenta. No Brasil, a adoção de práticas de entrevista de testemunhas baseadas em evidência ainda depende de infraestrutura adequada, além de alterações legislativas e em procedimentos administrativos, policiais e jurídicos.
Prior research revealed that answering questions after study benefits learning in children, but it is unclear whether answering questions before study (i.e., prequestions) produces similar effects. Here, we report two experiments investigating this issue in 4th and 5th grade children. In both experiments, target-words from an encyclopedic text were either prequestioned, postquestioned, or reread. To assess memory retention, cued recall and multiple choice tests were administered after a 7-day interval, when children also rated their confidence on their responses. Both prequestions and postquestions resulted in overall greater memory retention than rereading, although postquestions resulted in greater cued recall performance than prequestions, a finding that was mirrored by the confidence data (i.e., postquestion > prequestion > reread). Thus, although both prequestions and postquestions were more beneficial for memory retention than rereading, postquestions seem to have promoted more recollection-based retrieval than prequestions, a finding we discuss from a dual-process model perspective.
Norms for visual stimuli are critical for designing reliable psychological and neuroscientific studies. However, such normative sets of stimuli are scarce for the Brazilian population. Here, we report norms for the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) for Brazilian college students. Sixty-five Brazilian university students rated the initial normative set of BOSS images for familiarity and visual complexity, and produced a name for each object. Data analysis focused on comparing the present norms to prior BOSS norms (English-Canadian, French-Canadian, and Thai) across four normative dimensions: familiarity, visual complexity, modal name agreement, and H value, and considered these dimensions according to whether items pertained to living or non-living domains. Correlation analyses revealed that the present norms show strong similarities to prior BOSS norms, although objects were scored as more familiar in the Brazilian relative to all prior norms, especially relative to the Thai norms. In addition, familiarity was greater for living than for non-living items in the English- and French-Canadian norms, but such difference was absent in the Brazilian and Thai norms, suggesting that familiarity is more strongly affected by culture than by semantic domain. In sum, even when cultural differences are considered, the current study reveals that the images of the BOSS data set are in general well known for Brazilians, demonstrating that they can be useful for psychological and neuroscientific research in Brazil.