Published by Scientific Research Publishing
Online ISSN: 2150-4075
Conference Paper
A lot of on- site management works are involved in the process of cluster project management, especially the treatment of sudden accidents which would produce plenty of knowledge and experience. As cluster project on-site management spots change frequently, knowledge produced by mobile workers in the process of on-site management is hard to be saved into the knowledge repository on time. It may cause a knowledge distortion or even missing. On the other hand, in the process of cluster project management, a lot of knowledge is required by on-site workers to deal with on-site activities. However, due to lack of effective mechanisms for knowledge communion, they often face the risk of making wrong decisions. In order to solve the problems of knowledge management and acquisition in the process of cluster project on-site management, this paper presents a system model for mobile knowledge service.
Ad Value v. Impressions, Example 1. 
Ad Value v. Impressions, Example 2. 
Ad Value v. Impressions, Example 3. 
This paper describes an optimization model for setting bid levels for certain types of advertisements on web pages. This model is non-convex, but we are able to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions rapidly using branch and cut open-source software. The financial benefits obtained using the prototype system have been substantial.
Cheap sources (coal and/or nuclear) in production activity (percentage).
Average yearly prices (in Euros) of electricity in UE (data from GME).
Electricity prices (Euro/Mwh) during the day in Northen Italy.
Daily summary for purchasing prices (Euro/Mwh) - November 2009 (source GME). 
Italian single electricity price (Euro/Mwh). 
The Electricity Market (in Europe) undergoes a period of transformations never seen before. The competi-tive model suggested by the European Commission is based on a gradual increase in the classes of consum-ers able to choice, freely, their providers. In general, liberalization, deregulation, competition result in a spur to development and low prices for consumers. The Electricity Market isn’t likely to follow such a rule. Electricity Markets are best described and analyzed as first-price multi-unit procurement iterated auctions. In this paper we present an analysis of the Italian case in order to show the effects of deregulation on final prices for users.
The results for 1999/2001 
The risk perceived by investors is crucial in the decision to invest, in particular when it concerns a foreign country. The investment risk associated is a multi-faceted element given that it reflects many aspects that are relevant to (foreign) investors, such as the level of transparency, corruption, rule of law, governance, etc. In this paper we consider the level of economic freedom, as provided by the ?Heritage Foundation?, for the most recent years, in order to analyse how is this measure of risk related to the inward foreign direct investment performance index, as provided by the UNCTAD. Given the subjectivity of risk an appropriate methodology consists on using fuzzy logic clustering, which is applied in the paper in order to verify how different the MENA region is from the set of EU-member states. The results show that economic freedom and inward FDI are positively associated, in particular in the cluster of countries that present a higher economic freedom. Of particular interest is the result that some MENA countries belong to the same cluster of most of the EU-countries.
The sample descriptive statistics.
Descriptive statistics-return model.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of fair value accounting measurement for investment in securities. We use three measurements for fair value: net asset based on fair value per share (FV), fair value adjusted amount per share (FVAD) and fair value adjusted investment gain and loss in earnings per share (HOLDG). Our sample is composed of Chinese listed companies from period 2006 to the end of 2008. The empirical result shows that first, there is the relevance between stock price and fair value measured information. Second, the explanation power of fair value measures for stock price fluctuation in the listed companies, Third, There are distinct relativity between volatility of return of stock and fair value measured information.
The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges of the utilization of new financial products among small and medium-sized businesses by using unique survey questionnaires (Kansai RIETI Questionnaires). The results of responses from more than 2,000 companies showed that most companies began utilizing new financial products due to introductions by main banks, and it was seen that the diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has developed as a result of efforts made by policy-making authorities and financial institutions. However, the rate of utilization of each financial method is as low as a few percentage points, and extremely small businesses or cash-strapped companies has not improved in terms of fund risings. Improved diversification was mainly found in excellent small and medium-sized businesses.
This study investigates food scandals and the role of government in corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the food industry and explores strategies for the Chinese government to tackle the food safety problems that abound in China. Based on the theoretical discussion of four types of CSR and the empirical evidence from four case studies, we argue that government influence on CSR in the food industry is determined by the intensity and salience of its own behavior and actions including regulations. We further believe that a balanced CSR strategy covering economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic considerations would work best for China. Our contributions include extending the CSR literature to the food industry and emerging economies like China and recognizing the distinctive role the government plays in the food industry. In addition, we provide a timely guide to establishing a food safety system in China.
This research focuses on how local partner learn knowledge from foreign partner in Japanese joint venture in emerging economies context. Contribution of this research is as follows. First, by distinguishing the type and characteristics of each process, this typology enhances our understanding about JV as useful organizational learning mechanism, particularly in Japanese joint venture in emerging economies and about the source of firm’s heterogeneity underlying learning process. Second, this extensive in-depth case study provides the clear evidences of the importance of internal learning capability process to improve technological capability, absorptive capacity, and relational rents generated from resource sharing mechanism. Third, this study, to best knowledge, is a pioneer research in Indonesia since technological issues have been paid little attention from scholars.
A grocery shop is a retailing shop where a general range freshly packed food products are available. On an everyday life people have to use a grocery shop to get their livelihood items. To buy the necessary products people visit a grocery shop, collect the products from different shelves and then pay for the item and proceed. But many times this process does not seem very conve-nient. People nowadays are very busy. In their busy schedule they always for-get to make time for grocery shopping. Some people try to avoid it because of traffic jam, just to avoid gathering of people. Moreover, in this global COVID-19 pandemic it can turn into a life threat for a person or family as well as a nation. Considering all the issues and reasons behind the issues we think online grocery store can be the best solution to all the problems. This pa-per presents the development of web-based online grocery store where people can do shopping using a computer or a smart phone sitting at their home very easily. Though online shopping has been known as a rapidly growing business, and although online grocery shopping has not followed these same growth pat-terns in the past, it is now being recognized for its potential. There will be an admin panel and a user panel. Users have to use a Gmail to log in and create an account to do shopping. Admin always use their Gmail to maintain the product availability, the website, the customers and more. This system is user friendly and it can make people life very easy, safe and time-saving specially in the e-commerce demanding period of this COVID-19 crisis.
This study investigated whether the differences of gender, age, and occupation for m-learning showed significance on the utilization of the mobile devices and to figure out if the variation may influence the performance expectancy, effort expectancy and the social influence to the behavioral intention or even to the behavior of usage. When the employees’ behavioral intention was low, the director of managers or HR department can suggest the employees’ colleagues, superior manager or friends to communicate with them to enhance their behavioral intention and to use it. And it suggested that male employees and elder employees should be put more emphasis on the communication to enhance their behavioral intention. UTAUT model with different kinds of businesses for m-learning but the conclusion did not investigate the differences of the adoption of the mobile devices in each industry. Basing on this, this study attempted to investigate whether the difference occupations showed significance on the utilization of the mobile devices.
This study is intended to solve a few constraints existed in physical gold dinar when used as a form of payment. One dinar is equal to 4.25 gram of fine gold. Specifically, this work proposes the use of e-commerce technology to solve those constraints. But before the actual system can be implemented, this research seeks to find out whether or not the public would be ready to adopt the concept of an electronic dinar payment system. The research framework is based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) [1]. It measures the user acceptance based on these constructs; performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, behavioral intention to use. In addition, anxiety and perceived credibility are added as two new constructs. Data collection is based on a questionnaire survey. From the descriptive analysis results, it is discovered that most of the respondents participated in this survey generally agree with the idea of using the proposed dinar based payment system (mean rating of above 4.00).
This study investigated whether the differences of gender, age, and occupation for m-learning showed significance on the utilization of the mobile devices and to figure out if the variation may influence the performance expectancy, effort expectancy and the social influence to the behavioral intention or even to the behavior of usage. When the employees' behavioral intention was low, the director of managers or HR department can suggest the employees' colleagues, supe-rior manager or friends to communicate with them to enhance their behavioral intention and to use it. And it suggested that male employees and elder employees should be put more emphasis on the communication to enhance their behav-ioral intention. UTAUT model with different kinds of businesses for m-learning but the conclusion did not investigate the differences of the adoption of the mobile devices in each industry. Basing on this, this study attempted to investigate whether the difference occupations showed significance on the utilization of the mobile devices.
FRisk Decile and AQfactor. 
regression estimation of relationship between ac- cruals quality and cost of capital(testing with IndEP)and between fundamental risk and cost of capital.
Motivated by the theoretical results of Yee (2006), with accruals quality, the author of this paper studied enterprises' earnings quality management, and analyzed the effect of accruals quality on capital cost, which is rising with the increase of basic risks, and extended and applied to his study the theoretical study of Francis, LaFond, Olsson and Schipper et al .
Distribution of Assemblies, number of respondents sampled and number of questionnaires returned per assembly. 
Summary of sample. 
Procedures used by the MMDAs for procurement of Good and Services. 
The aim of this study is to investigate the implementation challenges of the Public Procurement Act 2003 (Act 663) by Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The key issues examined in the study are the level of knowledge, the procedure and modalities of compliance with the Act and the challenges of implementing the Procurement Act by the procurement committee members. Purposive sampling was adopted in selecting fourteen MMDAs while simple random procedure was used to sample members of the procurement committee at the selected MMDAs for the study. Questionnaires and focus group discussion were used to collect data and information from the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a large proportion of the procurement committee members could not explain key sections of the Act. In all the sampled MMDAs respondents claimed to follow procedure required by the Act. However, they enumerated the following as the key challenges with regards to the compliance of the Act: political interference, unqualified staff, and lack of monitoring as well as inadequate motivation for the committee members. There is a need for the MMDAs to take steps to address these challenges.
List of QA BDS. 
Restricted model. 
Estimated probability to export status (percent). 
The paper aims at analyzing general characteristics of the plastic sub-sector in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), in-depth quality assurance (QA) implication in the sub-sector, how plastic manufacturers use business development services to improve QA and which QA variables are strongly affected export involvement. Author's survey had assessed to plastic manufacturers and service suppliers to determine the position of demand and supply, then find the potential improvement in BDS market for both demand and supply size. To recognize the attitude of plastic manufacturers in terms of QA awareness and identify the difficulties and weakness of service suppliers are formulated the general picture of QA in plastic sub-sector. The binominal logit model is used to assess the influence of explanatory variables, which are mainly concerned QA variables, on the probability that firm involve in international market. Our econometric analysis indicates that quality assurance level, automatic level, source of machine and ratio of quality assurance personnel are positively significant for the likelihood of international business. Interestingly, non-export group are likely to use quality assurance business development services rather than export group. QA business development services attract more concern for donors and government due to low value added for plastic exporters' use.
This study assesses the level of tax education, particularly the level of understanding of VAT law amongst three categories of taxpayers in Nigeria. The data for the study were collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. The analysis of results showed that most of the respondents have poor knowledge of VAT law in Nigeria, irrespective of their level of literacy, and that there was no significant difference in the amount of knowledge of VAT law amongst the three groups of respondents used for the study. A suggestion was made of an aggressive and widespread public education on VAT matters that could involve an integration of tax education into the curricula of education in our institutions of higher learning and general public enlightenment through media, and organized workshops for specific groups.
This research investigated the effect of adjustable Saudi chair-table combinations available in the local market on the students' health and safety. Thirty seven young students participated in this research. Ten chair-table combinations, within three different activities (reading, writing, and looking at the blackboard), were the independent variables. Normalized discomfort ratings, and neck dorsal and upper trapezius muscular activities were the dependent variables. Variances among students' body dimensions and classroom furniture were also studied. There were higher levels of neck dorsal and upper trapezius muscular contractions associated with less dimensions of chair-table combinations compared to high dimensions of chair-table combinations. Normalized discomfort ratings at the neck, shoulder, thigh, and feet were significantly higher at high chair-table dimensions. Matched school furniture to the student dimensions was associated with low dimensions of chair-table combinations. The suitability of the local adjustable chair-table combination was not fit to the students’ health. Saudi furniture industry should review and provide the local schools with the most appropriate furniture to Saudi students’ anthropometric dimensions.
Barrier means for total respondents. 
Demographic profile of the sample.
Mean differences between adapters and nonadapters. 
Although e-commerce has become a familiar retail channel for businesses in developed countries, it is still considered an innovation in developing countries. Specifically, electronic commerce (e-commerce) in Saudi Arabia is still in the first stage despite its advance and fast growth in ICT marketplace, the highest increase in Internet penetration in the world, strong retail sector, and young population. This research study aims to identify tangible barriers influencing consumers in Saudi Arabia to adopt e-commerce. An exploratory research design is used to shed light on the tangible barriers facing Saudi consumers when shopping online. This research study identified key tangible barriers and their relative importance for both e-commerce adapters and non-adapters facing Saudi consumer when shopping online. Practical as well as managerial implications are discussed.
The paper is an outcome of a study on the factors of the emerging e-commerce adoption and usage in the mainstream grocery supermarket sector in South Africa. A qualitative, interpretive method using multiple case studies, together with a purposive method of sampling was used. To improve generalisability, more than one leading chain store: Pick’n Pay, and Woolworths were selected as case studies. Individual customers were also interviewed to learn of their experiences with, and preferences of e-commerce in the sector. The activity theory (AT) was used to contextualise e-commerce as a work activity. The theory offers a holistic lens for retailers, banks, customers and even researchers to understand, investigate and approach factors of e-commerce usage. The leading assumptions of a theoretical framework was that e-commerce as an activity system is not an automatic but a deliberate phenomenon that is driven by goals of the retailer and the needs of the customer. Related activities include the presence of facilities among local communities and awareness (marketing) efforts by service providers. Findings suggest that e-commerce offerings by retail supermarkets are not well known by most customers, hence usage is limited. Among the few that use it, it is found to be time-efficient and convenient. Nevertheless, lack of access to e-payment facilities and fear of cyber crime remain a threat to widespread usage. Thus, banks, retail supermarkets and the educational sector need to educate the public on e-commerce and security consciousness. Finally, e-commerce facilities should spread beyond boundaries major cities if its conveniences are to be within reach of the majority. Though sample size was adequate for the exploratory purposes of this study, it would have been preferable to interview the whole South African consumer population, an exercise was beyond the capacity of the project, but recommendable for future studies.
I do not know whether anthropogenic climate change is occurring. However, I know that I do not know. There are numerous others who also do not know whether anthropogenic climate change is occurring. However, they appear not to know that they do not know. Worse, they are asserting that they do know. In order to be able to make valid decisions in respect of the issue, the science will have to be dramatically improved. This paper is written with the aim of promoting such scientific improvement, particularly in defining the concept of climate change. It also includes a way of testing some of the most important claims of climate alarmists without the necessity of actually defining climate change, along with examples of the appropriate tests (which all give negative results).
Developing platform.
Negotiation b/c ratio. 
Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a management paradigm to understand and analyze the flow of goods, services and the accompanying values reaching to the consumers followed by the processes of purchasing, production and distribution with combining and connecting the whole system. Today, SCM is regarded as an essential strategic factor which has a great deal of influence on earning competitiveness in the abruptly changing global business environment. Multi-agent technology becomes the best candidate for problem solver under these circumstances. An agent performs given tasks automatically using inter-collaboration or negotiation with other agents on behalf of a human on the basis of real-time connectivity. There will be the conflict among the pursuit of the profit of all members of the SCM. In order to maximize the total profit of the SCM, negotiation among all members is necessary. In this research, we propose to find the best negotiation strategy that makes all members of the SCM satisfied in a simple SCM. We suggest a new negotiation algorithm in the SCM environment with using multi-agent technology. The ideas behind the suggested model are negotiation algorithm with a trading agent and we consider multiple factors that are price, review point and delivery time. We created agents with Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) and performed the simulation under JADE and Eclipse environment. The case study denotes that our algorithm gives a better result than the Kasbah system that is a typically well known system where users create autonomous agents that buy and sell goods on their behalf. We’ve used benefit/cost ratio as a performance measure in order to compare our system with the Kasbah system.
Simplified architecture of a holonic system.  
HPS responsiveness to demand and capacity variability: Bar charts represent unallocated capacity and whole HPS profit at different K diversification levels.  
Today's turbulent markets are facing unpredictable and sudden variations in demand. In this context, the Holonic Production System (HPS) seems to be able to overcome the operational and economic problems of traditional production systems. The HPS' ability to adapt and react to business environment changes, whilst maintaining systemic synergies and coordination, leverage on its network organizational structure, assuring both flexibility and profitability. In this paper we study HPS experimentally, modeling holon-firms as agents. In our simulation, holon-firms interact both with each other and with the external environment without predetermined hierarchies and following their own aims and internal decision rules with a negotiation-based control system. The Multi Agent System Approach we propose aims to evaluate and test the performance of the HPS to adjust to changes in market demand by simulating variations in holon-firms' capacity and reconfiguration costs in real time in a distributed enterprise network. Hence we demonstrate that, through a collaborative negotiation approach, the HPS results in a better adaptability and improved network responsiveness .
Top-cited authors
Adesina Oladipupo
  • University of Benin
Hameed Alqaheri
  • Kuwait University
Fayez Abdulsalam
  • Kuwait University
Uyioghosa Obazee
  • University of Benin
Donghong Ding
  • University of Science and Technology of China