Published by Magnolia Press
Online ISSN: 1175-5334
Print ISSN: 1175-5326
1)Page 6: Fig. 2a depictsHydraena solarii habitus, and NOT Hydraena bensae.2)Page 11:Hydraena septentrionalis Pretner 1931 is synonym of Hydraena saga and NOT of Hydraena alpicola.3)Page 12:Hydraena crassipes Mulsant 1844 is synonym of Hydraena dentipes and NOT of Hydraena gracilis.4)Page 12: The correct name isH. excisa ssp. exclusa d'Orchymont 1931 and not "esclusa".5)In the dichotomous key section:-H. emarginata is found also in Cantabrian Mountains (as correctly reported in Fig. 27);-H. tatii is found also in Jaén and Málaga provinces;-H. manfredjaechi is found also in Sierras de Cazorla-Segura (SE Spain);-H. gaditana is found also in Málaga provinces.
Page 101, footer: "published 29 Jan. 2012" should read "published 29 Jan. 2013" (2012 is an obvious print error which can be determined by evidence in the article itself: e.g. the copyright date in the header of the same page and footers in all other pages is 2013).
Recent research on the treehopper tribe Telamonini has focused on their classification and Nearctic distribution but little has been published on their biology, including detailed information on their host plants as well as data on their nymphal stage. Any studies including host plant data have emphasized adult records (often unreliable due to their movements), largely ignoring the nymphs, which are the predominant feeding stage. This work provides the first comprehensive summary of Telamonini host plants, it documents the first positive identification of the nymphs for several telamonine species (and the genus Helonica), and it provides the first morphological diagnoses for 14 species, thus filling in major gaps in the life history of many species. Host plant records were determined based on accounts in the literature (adults and nymphs), from rearings of nymphs on host plants to the adult stage, and from label data on museum specimens. The Telamonini are known from 22 families, 41 genera, and 80 species of mostly woody, deciduous trees (of which, six species are new host plant records). Nearly half of all telamonines have been collected from more than one plant genus and only 12 species are known from a single host plant species. Telamonine nymphs were reared to the adult stage on 15 plant species. Of 68 telamonine species, 45 have been found on oak (Quercus), and white oak (Q. alba) is the most common telamonine host plant. Telamona monticola has the most recorded host plants with 29. The work includes 23 color illustrations showing both live and preserved nymphs, representing 15 species, all illustrated for the first time (eight are positively identified for the first time). Differences in nymphal morphology among species within Archasia, Glossonotus, Heliria, and Telamona suggest current generic definitions need revision. This study highlights the need for an increased emphasis on nymphal collections when determining treehopper host plants and inferring classifications.
A member of the Sparidae family, the goldline sea bream Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from the Gulf of Tunis and the Bay of Bizerte in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean, were examined for the myxozoan parasites. During the parasitological exposure, a total of 7 myxosporean are found including 6 coelozoic species belong to the genus Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892 infected the gallbladder of their host of which 3 known species have been previously described, C. arcuata Thélohan, 1892, C. pallida Thélohan, 1895 and C. herouardi Georgévitch, 1916 and 3 species seem different in morphology to Ceratomyxa spp already known from Mediterranean Sea or from other localities in the wide world. These species are Ceratomyxa sp. 1, Ceratomyxa sp. 2 and Ceratomyxa sp. 3. Only one histozoic species belongs to the genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1892, Henneguya sp. identified for the first time infecting the mesentery vessels of S. salpa. The myxosporean parasite C. arcuata Thélohan, 1892 is reported for the first time in Tunisian waters from the goldline sea bream which represents as new host records. In addition to the Monoparasitism, the phenomenon of Polyparasitism was observed between the current species in both sampling sites with two types: Biparasitism and Triparasitism. The most frequent Polyparasitism was a Biparasitism-type between C. herouardi and C. pallida with frequency 16.97%. For all the species, no serious pathogenic changes have been recorded in the host organ or in the outward appearance of the fish. Morphological features, site of infection into the host, parasite prevalence and mean intensity of each myxosporean found during this survey are determined and their taxonomic affinities to other species are discussed.
The genus Altica Geoffroy, 1762, is revised for Australia, the west Pacific region and the Indomalayan Archipelago, with 6 valid species: A. aenea (Olivier, 1808); A. birmanensis (Jacoby, 1896); A. caerulea (Olivier, 1791); A. corrusca (Erichson, 1842); A. cyanea Weber, 1801; A. gravida (Blackburn, 1896). The following new synonymy is recognised, in original combinations, senior synonym first: Galeruca aenea Olivier = Haltica ignea Blackburn, 1889, syn. nov., = Haltica bicolora Jacoby, 1904, syn. nov., = Altica jussiaeae Gressitt, 1955, syn. nov.; Galeruca caerulea Olivier = Haltica elongata Jacoby, 1884, syn. nov., = Altica brevicosta Weise, 1922; Haltica corrusca Erichson = Haltica pagana Blackburn, 1896, syn. nov.; Haltica birmanensis Jacoby = Haltica indica Shukla, 1960, syn. nov. Altica brevicosta and A. birmanensis are removed from synonymy with A. cyanea and A. indica is removed from synonymy with A. caerulea. The Altica caerulea of Maulik and subsequent authors (not Olivier) is a misidentification of two species, correctly named A. cyanea and A. birmanensis. The Altica cyanea of Maulik and subsequent authors (not Weber) is a misidentification, correctly named A. aenea. Altica bicosta Shukla, 1960, is removed from synonymy with A. brevicosta and regarded as a valid species. Altica splendida Olivier, 1808, and Haltica ferruginis Blackburn, 1889, are transferred to Sutrea Baly, 1876, as S. splendida (comb. nov.) and S. ferruginis (comb. nov.). The type species of Sutrea is designated as S. elegans Baly, 1876. Altica albicornis Medvedev, 2004, is transferred to Phygasia Dejean, 1836, as P. albicornis (comb. nov.). Lectotypes are designated for A. australis, A. birmanensis, A. caerulea, A. cyanea, A. elongata, A. ignea and A. pagana. A neotype is designated for A. aenea. Altica caerulea is newly recorded from Australia and A. cyanea is removed from the Australian fauna. Altica corrusca and A. gravida are endemic to Australia; all published records of these species from outside Australia refer to the widespread Asian-Pacific species A. aenea. The single record of the European Altica oleracea (L., 1758) from New Caledonia is regarded as a label error and this species removed from the Pacific fauna. A key, based primarily on genitalic structures, is provided for the six regional species and all are redescribed. Host plant records are reviewed: A. corrusca is a minor agricultural pest; A. aenea, A. caerulea and A. cyanea may be useful for biocontrol of weeds.
Anthaxia (Anthaxia) simandli sp. nov., a new endemic species from Iran is described, together with the hitherto unknown male of Anthaxia (Anthaxia) magnifica Bílý, 1983. New synonymy of Anthaxia (Anthaxia) mancatula Abeille, 1900 = Anthaxia (Anthaxia) intermedia Obenberger, 1913 syn. nov. is proposed, and a lectotype for A. mancatula is designated. All species are illustrated, and comments on their bionomy, distribution, and taxonomic position are given, as well as on the current state of the Anthaxia (Anthaxia) manca (Linnaeus, 1767) species-group in Iran.
Musca suilla Fabricius, 1794: lectotype ♀. 1. Remains of mesonotum, left distal part of coxa + trochanter + basal part of femur and basal half of wings in lateral view. 2. Remains of mesonotum and wings in dorsal view. 3. Original label in Fabricius's hand reading "suilla". Scale bars (1, 2) = 1 mm. 
It is shown that a total of eight pre-existing genus-group names in Diptera were "borrowed" and deliberately given new identities in the systematic works of J.C. Fabricius: Bibio Fabricius, 1775, Ceria Fabricius, 1794, Hirtea Fabricius, 1798, Mulio Fabricius, 1798, Scatophaga Fabricius, 1805, Sicus Fabricius, 1798, Thereva Fabricius, 1798 and Voluccella Fabricius, 1794. These names are reviewed from the standpoint that they are nomenclaturally available as intentional homonymous proposals of names for new genus-group taxa. New type-species designations are made for Bibio Fabricius, Mulio Fabricius, and Scatophaga Fabricius. Bibio Fabricius, 1775 is recognized as a senior synonym of Thereva Latreille, 1797, syn. n., but is invalid as it is a junior homonym of Bibio Geoffroy, 1762. Scatophaga Fabricius, 1805 is recognized as a junior synonym of Psila Meigen, 1803, syn. n. The nominal species Musca suilla Fabricius, 1794 has been misinterpreted as a species of Scathophaga Meigen, 1803 by subsequent authors. Scathophaga spurca Meigen, 1826 is revived as the valid name for Scathophaga suilla auct. nec (Fabricius, 1794), stat. rev. A lectotype is designated for Musca suilla Fabricius and it is shown to belong to the scathophagid Norellisoma spinimanum (Fallén, 1819), syn. n. In order to maintain stability of nomenclature and prevailing usage, reversal of precedence is invoked to declare Cordylura spinimana Fallén, 1819 as a nomen protectum and Musca suilla Fabricius, 1794 as a nomen oblitum.
A new species of hermit crab of the family Paguridae, Pagurus rectidactylus, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from inshore waters in the Seto Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. It appears closest to P. quinquelineatus Komai, 2003, also known from Japan, but is easily distinguished from the latter by the dactylus of the right cheliped almost unarmed or armed only with a few tiny spines or tubercles, instead of dorsal and dorsomesial rows of conspicuous spines, and the more elongate and slender ambulatory legs with more numerous ventral corneous spines on dactyli and propodi. Housing is also different between the two species: the new species exclusively inhabits carcinoecia formed by a hydrozoan Stylactaria misakiensis (Iwasa, 1934), whereas P. quinquelineatus uses gastropod shells without association with coelenterates. A checklist of East Asian (Japanese Archipelago to Taiwan Island, Far Eastern Russia to northern China) species of Pagurus along with general geographical distributions is presented.
The caridean shrimp species Lebbeus armatus (Owen, 1839) (Thoridae), originally described from Kamchatka, is reinstated from the synonymy of L. groenlandicus (Fabricius, 1775) and redescribed. It is easily distinguished from L. groenlandicus by having dense covering of short setae on the carapace and lateral parts of the pleon (versus only sparse setae are present), the clearly delimited branchial ridge on the carapace (versus at most a trace of a branchial ridge being discernible), the postrostral dorsal teeth noticeably becoming stronger and higher anteriorly (versus the anteriormost postrostral tooth is not the strongest), the higher number of ventral teeth of the second pleuron (three to five versus one) and of the third and fourth pleura (three or four versus one or two), and the usual presence of one or two spines on the carpi of the third to fifth pereopods (versus unarmed). A new species, L. magnificus, is described and illustrated on the basis of five specimens from the Kitami-Yamato Bank, southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan. The new species appears closest to L. groenlandicus, but is easily distinguished from the latter by having five postrostral teeth in females (versus four), more numerous ventral teeth on the fifth pleuron (three or four versus two), the stouter inner flagellum of the antennule in males, and the more numerous meral spines on the third to fifth pereopods. Previous records of L. groenlandicus from East Asian waters are referred to L. armatus. Records of L. groenlandicus from the northeastern Pacific remain to be reassessed, because specimens reported from the area do not agree in some characters with any of the three species treated in this study.
Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799).
The taxonomy of the fish genus Platycephalus Bloch, 1785 from Australia is revised following examination of all extant primary types of Australian species, including those previously synonymized. The following 16 Australian species, including a single new species, are recognized in this study: Platycephalus angustus Steindachner, 1866, Platycephalus aurimaculatus Knapp, 1987, Platycephalus bassensis Cuvier, 1829, Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus McCulloch, 1922, Platycephalus chauliodous Knapp, 1991, Platycephalus conatus Waite & McCulloch, 1915, Platycephalus endrachtensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, Platycephalus fuscus Cuvier, 1829, Platycephalus grandispinis Cuvier, 1829, Platycephalus laevigatus Cuvier, 1829, Platycephalus marmoratus Stead, 1908, Platycephalus orbitalis Imamura & Knapp, 2009, Platycephalus richardsoni Castelnau, 1872, Platycephalus speculator Klunzinger, 1872, Platycephalus westraliae (Whitley, 1938) and Platycephalus australis sp. nov. [formerly confused with Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus, 1758)]. Previously suggested synonymies of several species are reevaluated and a key provided for all Australian species of Platycephalus.
The taxonomy of the genus TurrisBatsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegataKiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensisBozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspiraKilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatumRöding, 1798, and Turris assyriaOlivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyiOlivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispaLamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllisOlivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoiVera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburniVera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasaOlivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) muniziVera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimiOlivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricataPowell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsiiReeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleuraKilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae.
Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798). A, Male, retrolateral. B, Female, dorsal. C, Left male palp, prolateral. D, same, retrolateral. E, Epigynum, ventral. F, same, dorsal. Scale bars: A, 2 mm; B, 1 mm; C-F, 0.5 mm. 
The orb-weaving spider genus Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 (Araneidae) is notable for its pronounced sexual size dimorphism. Gasteracantha females are characterized by having a highly sclerotized "spiny" abdomen varying in relative size and number of spines, as well as abdomen dorsally and ventrally provided with varying numbers of sigillae (Cambridge 1879). The genus currently includes 70 described species and 31 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2014). The Oriental species Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) was originally described from Ramnad (now known as Ramanathapuram) in Tamilnadu State of Southern India based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s). The female of this species has been described and illustrated several times by various authors. Its male is only known from the description of Simon (1895). Simon's original description of the male of G. geminata was supported by two simple but beautiful and informative illustrations: a retrolateral view of the cephalothorax and a dorsal view of the abdomen (Simon 1895, figs. 886, 887). However we lack a clear and detailed description of the male genitalia. The present paper provides detailed redescription of G. geminata and illustrations of the male pedipalp.
Microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are primary parasitoids of Lepidoptera. Some of them parasitise major economic pests and have been largely used for biocontrol programs. We revise here the fauna of Reunion Island: 34 spe-cies were recorded, belonging to 13 genera. One genus and 18 species are newly described: Dodogaster gen. nov, Apan-teles minatchy sp. nov., A. pashmina sp. nov., A. romei sp. nov., Cotesia xavieri sp. nov., Dolichogenidea ashoka sp. nov., D. broadi sp. nov., D. lumba sp. nov., D. uru sp. nov., D. villemantae sp. nov., Distatrix yunae sp. nov., Dodogaster grangeri sp. nov., Exoryza safranum sp. nov., Glyptapanteles chidra sp. nov., Nyereria ganges sp. nov., N. mayurus sp. nov., Parapanteles covino sp. nov., P. darignac sp. nov. and Wilkinsonellus narangahus sp. nov.. On the remaining 16 species, 12 are new distribution records. Finally, Glyptapanteles antsirabensis (Granger) comb. nov., G. ficus (Granger) comb. nov., G. subandinus (Blanchard) comb. nov., and Venanides curticornis (Granger) comb. nov. are reassigned from the traditionally defined Apanteles genus to these respective genera. A key to all genera and species is provided.
A new troglomorphic species, Phrynus perrii sp. nov., is described from two adult females from Cueva del Naranjo, Municipio Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. This is the first continental record of a troglomorphic Phrynus species, and the second troglomorphic species of the genus. With the description of this species, in Mexico there are ten extant species, plus one fossil of the genus Phrynus, and it is the seventh species of troglobitic whip spiders from Mexico, making it the country with the highest richness of amblypygids species worldwide.
Protaphis kvavadzei sp. n. 1a: apterous viviparous female (scale bar=500 μm); 1b: reticulation pattern on the head (scale bar=50 μm); 2: ANT of apterous female (scale bar=200 μm); 3: ANT of alate female (scale bar=200 μm); 4: ANT I-III of apterous female (scale bar=50 μm); 5: ANT I-III of alate female (scale bar=50 μm); 6: ANT IV-VI of apterous female (scale bar=50 μm); 7: alate viviparous female (scale bar=500 μm); 8: ANT IV-VI of alate female (scale bar=50 μm); apterous viviparous female: 9-13. 9: subgenital plate (scale bar=50 μm); 10: SIPH and reticulation pattern on abdominal dorsum (scale bar=50 μm); 11: URS (scale bar=50 μm); 12: hind tarsus (scale bar=50 μm); 13: cauda (scale bar=50 μm). 
Aphis matricariae sp. n. 14: pigmented apterous viviparous female (scale bar=500 μm); 15: unpigmented apterous viviparous female (scale bar=500 μm); 16: alate viviparous female (scale bar=250 μm); 17-22: apterous viviparous female. 17: subgenital plate (scale bar=50 μm); 18: URS (scale bar=50 μm); 19: cauda (scale bar=50 μm); 20: posterior part of body with SIPH and cauda (scale bar=200 μm); 21: hind tarsus (scale bar=50 μm); 22: ANT (scale bar=200 μm); 23-24: alate viviparous female. 23: ANT IV-VI (scale bar=200 μm); 24: ANT I-III (scale bar=200 μm). 
Apterous and alate viviparous females of Protaphis kvavadzei sp. n. on Eryngium campestre (Apiaceae) and Aphis matricariae sp. n. on Matricaria sp. (Asteraceae) from Turkey are described. The new species are differentiated from other aphids colonising these host plants and from species with similar morphology.
For the European part of Russia 30 species of the bee genus Colletes are recorded. Colletes subnitens Noskiewicz 1936, C. wacki Kuhlmann 2002 and C. warnckei Kuhlmann 2002 were found in Russia for the first time and C. kozlovi Friese 1913 is newly recorded from the European part of Russia. For Colletes kozlovi, C. subnitens and C. wacki this is the first record for Europe. The female of C. subnitens Noskiewicz is here described for the first time. Illustrated keys to males and females of all species known from European part of Russia are provided.
Based on DNA barcoding analysis and morphological comparison, new synonymy is proposed for Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, 1852 =E. asioboreus Kim & Sk. Yamane, 2001, syn. nov. Independent status of the Far Eastern species E. rubrofemoratus Giordani Soika, 1941 from the transpalearctic E. coarctatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is supported, suggesting their recent origin with comparatively low genetic divergence. A revised key to the Far Eastern species of the genus Eumenes is provided. Distribution of E. quadratus Smith, 1852 is corrected and E. rubrofemoratus Giordani Soika, 1941 is newly recorded from South Korea. For future taxonomic comprehension of the Far Eastern Eumenes, problematic species pairs requiring additional molecular tests are hereby suggested and discussed.
Eighteen species of the bee genus Sphecodes are recorded from the Russian Far East. Sphecodes orientalis Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Primorskiy Territory, Jewish Autonomous Province, Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin. Five species: S. laticaudatus Tsuneki 1983, S. nippon Meyer 1922, S. okuyetsu Tsuneki 1983, S. simillimus Smith 1873, and S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 are recorded for the first time from Russia. Six species: S. albilabris (Fabricius 1793), S. cristatus Hagens 1882, S. longulus Hagens 1882, S. miniatus Hagens 1882, S. monilicornis (Kirby 1802), and S. puncticeps Thomson 1870 are newly recorded from the Russian Far East. New synonymy has been established for S. crassus Thomson 1870 (=S. dyozankeanus Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. ohdeyamanus Tsuneki 1984, syn. nov.); S. ferruginatus Hagens 1882 (=S. koikensis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. hanedai Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. geoffrellus (Kirby 1802) (=S. silvicola Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 (=S. coptis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. longulus Hagens 1882 (=S. amakusensis Yasumatsu et Hirashima 1951, syn. nov.); S. scabricollis Wesmael 1835 (=S. sibiricus Cockerell, 1924, syn. nov.). Illustrated key to males and females of all species known from the Russian Far East are provided.
Worldwide, 30 species of the genus Atypus Latreille, 1804 have been recorded from the United States, Europe, Africa, south-east and far-east Asia (Platnick 2014). Atypid spiders are characterized by a male sternum with marginal ridges, a short, straight and spike-like embolus, a straight conductor and a distally widened vulva with bulbous or pyriform receptacula and with two lateral patches of pores on the genital atrium (Gertsch and Platnick 1980). Kraus and Baur (1974) utilized various taxonomic characters to distinguish between the European species, such as the segmentation of the posterior spinnerets, features of the patellar membrane, morphology of sigilla opposite coxae I and IV, and the male palpal conductor, palpal furrow and male metatarsal spines. The genus Atypus was reviewed by Schwendinger (1990) who redescribed 12 recorded species and discussed the granular texture on the male chelicerae and front legs, and the cymbial pit for distinguishing species. Among 30 Atypus spiders, 18 species are distributed in Far-East Asia; 12 species from China (Zhu et al. 2006), 5 species from Korea (Kim 1985; Namkung 1986, 2001; Kim et al. 2006), and 2 species from Japan (Bösenberg and Strand 1906; Tanikawa 2006).
Copulatory organs of Gnaphosa sticta. 27-28 male palp, ventral and retrolateral, Finland; 29-30 epigyne, ventral and dorsal, Anadyr'. Scale = 0.2 mm. Abbreviation: Ma-median apophysis.
Habitus (31) and epigyne (32-34) of Gnaphosa tunevae sp. n. 31 dorsal; 32-33 epigyne, ventral; 34 epigyne, dorsal. Scale = 0.2 mm if not otherwise indicated. Abbreviation: Pp-two pockets of scape.
Epigyne of Gnaphosa montana. 42, 44 ventral; 43, 45 dorsal. 42-43 from Shantar Islands, 44-45 from Finland. Scale = 0.2 mm.
Male palp of Gnaphosa gracilior. 79-81 ventral, retro-and prolateral; 82, 84 bulbus, ventro-prolateral; 83-85 bulbus, ventral. 82 and 84 in the same scale, showing differences in size. Scale = 0.2 mm. Abbreviations: Re-ridge of embolus.
Two new species, Gnaphosa koponeni sp. n. (♂♀, Tuva, Russia) and G. tunevae sp. n. (♀, Mongolia) are described. New figures and distribution data are provided for G. gracilior Kulczyński, 1901, G. kansuensis Schenkel, 1963, G. mandschurica Schenkel, 1963, G. sticta Kulczyński, 1908, G. stoliczkai O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1885 and G. wiehlei Schenkel, 1963. Additional morphological evidence is provided that G. similis Kulczyński, 1926 is not a synonym of G. muscorum (L. Koch, 1866). Gnaphosa stoliczkai is reported from Mongolia for the first time. The synonymy of Gnaphosa potanini Simon, 1895 with G. silvicola Kamura, 1988 is discussed and is likely to be incorrect.
Pherusa Oken, 1807 was the first genus of flabelligerids to be described and was regarded as having over 40 species. Following revision of all available material two morphological patterns are recognized: Pherusa is restricted to those species with eight branchial filaments of similar width, and anchylosed falcate neurohooks, shorter than body width. Species with the same number of branchial filaments but with neurochaetae mostly straight, distally foliose and often as long as body width are transferred to a new genus: Lamispina n. gen. Pherusa contains 14 species, including six newly described: P. plumosa (Müller, 1776), type-species, restricted, from Greenland, P. affinis (Leidy, 1855) from the NW Atlantic, P. andersonorum n. sp. from the NE Pacific (California), P. aspera (Stimpson, 1854) from the NW Atlantic, P. hobsonae n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. incrustata Quatrefages, 1866, reinstated from the Mediterranean Sea, P. mikacae n. sp. from the Adriatic Sea, P. moorei n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. neopapillata Hartman, 1961 from the NE Pacific (California), P. nipponica n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. obscura Quatrefages, 1866 reinstated from the NE Atlantic (France), P. papillata (Johnson, 1901) from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. rullieri n. sp. from the Eastern tropical Atlantic (Benin), and Pherusa sibogae (Caullery, 1944) n. comb. from Western Timor, Indonesia. Lamispina n. gen. has 10 species with five newly described: L. schmidtii (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1924) n. comb., type-species from the Japan Sea (incl. P. negligens (Berkeley & Berkeley, 1950)), L. amoureuxi n. sp. from the NE Atlantic (off SW Ireland), L. carrerai n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Mexico), L. chilensis n. sp. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. falcata (Støp-Bowitz, 1948) n. comb. from the Norwegian Sea, L. gymnopapillata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1965) n. comb. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. horsti (Haswell, 1892) n. comb. from Southern Australia, L. keeli n. sp. from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), L. kerguelarum (Grube, 1877) n. comb. from the Southern Indian Ocean (Kerguelen Islands), and L. milligani n. sp. from the NW Atlantic (Florida). Keys to identify these two genera and all species in each genus are also included.
The Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow (1789-1831) traveled throughBrazil,UruguayandArgentinabetween 1814 and 1831 gathering numerous zoological and botanical specimens. Despite the effort spent in those countries, the ornithological collection assembled by Sellow did not receive adequate care after it had been deposited in theZoologischeMuseuminBerlin, thus compromising its integrity. In the present article we discuss the treatment given by Lichtenstein and by Sellow to this bird material, with special focus on some cases in which incorrect label information on Sellow's specimens led to faulty conclusions on the zoogeography of South American birds.
Materials examined. Holotype. Male, Yulong, Lijiang, Yunnan, 5-9.VII.2009, Huilin Han & Mujie Qi (NEFU). Paratypes. 1 female, Dali, Yunnan, 4.VII.2009, Huilin Han & Mujie Qi (NEFU); 1 male, Baoshan, Yunnan, 3-4.IX.2008, Huilin Han & E Liu (NEFU); 1 female, Yuhu, Lijiang, Yunnan, 30.VIII.2008, Huilin Han & Ying Wang (NEFU). China, Prov. Nord-Yuennan: 2 males, Li-kiang, 9.VI.1934 and 25.VII.1935, leg. H. Höne, slide No.: LGN 2078 (SMNK); 2 males, from the same locality, but collected at 1.VII.1934 and 14.VIII.1934, leg. H. Höne, slide Nos: LGN 1977, 1978 (ZFMK); 1 male, Wumeng Shan, 2200 m, 20 km N Baoshan vill., 26°28'N, 104°27'E, 20.IV.-05.V.2004, leg. Siniaev & his team, slide No.: LGN 1422 (MWM). Institutional and private collections acronyms are as follows: NEFU = Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; MWM = Museum Witt, Munich; SMNK =State Museum of Natural History, Karlsruhe; ZFMK = Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn; LGN = number of genital slide made by Gyula M. László.
The genus Amphipyra Ochsenheimer, 1816 has been rife with taxonomic problems including numerous undescribed taxa and cryptic species, due to its circumscribed species-groups and the similarities in genitalia to other member-species. Description of this new Amphipyra species which was first encountered in expeditions to China by V. Siniaev, A. Plutenko and S. Murzin is now facilitated by better comparative material and more extensive professional relationships but the need for further revision of the genus Amphipyra is well recognized. Material for this study was collected in July, 2005 and August, 2011, by using artificial light.Taxonomic nomenclature used in this study were constituted according to taxonomical experts and relevant literature (Draudt 1950; Yoshimoto 1994; Hreblay & Ronkay 1998; Kononenko et al. 1998; Chen 1999; Hreblay & Ronkay 2000; Kononenko 2005; Kononenko & Han 2007).
There are currently over 130 described species of Nephtyidae worldwide, with 18 species known from Australian waters belonging to four genera. Two new species are described, Micronephthys derupeli n. sp., and Nephtys triangula n. sp., from Eastern Australia. Descriptions are provided for all species examined. Comments are given about the recent transfer of Nephtys australiensis to Aglaophamus. A key to all Australian species of nephtyids is provided.
This paper deals with 12 species of the genus Dichomeris Hübner, 1818 from Southern Africa and Kenya. Seven species are described as new: D. arquata sp. nov., D. brevicornuta sp. nov., D. dentata sp. nov., D. ligulacea sp. nov., D. paulidigitata sp. nov., D. tenextrema sp. nov. and D. ventriprojecta sp. nov.; and other five known species are listed. Images of adults and illustrations of genitalia are provided.
The maculosus group of the genus Celaenorrhinus from China is reviewed, in which 7 species are treated. Taiwanese maculosus taiwanus is reinstated to full species rank. The hitherto unknown female of C. kuznetsovi, as well as the female genitalia of C. maculosus and C. major are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, and a brief description of each species is given. A Key to the Chinese species of the maculosus group is provided.
Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Mecinus Germar, 1821 are revised. A total of 47 species are recognized, one of which, M. baridioides sp. n. is new to science. Mecinus dorsalis var. tavaresi Hoffmann, 1958 (stat. rev.) is considered as a distinct species, whereas M. alboscutellatus var. atratulus (Solari, 1933) is maintained as a subspecies of M. alboscutellatus (Hustache, 1913). The following new synonymies are proposed: Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838 (= M. longiusculus var. subcylindricus Pic, 1896 syn. n.); M. caucasicus (Reitter, 1907) (= Gymnetron caucasicum var. rubricum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. comosus Boheman, 1845 (= M. setosus Kiesenwetter, 1864 syn. n.; = M. hesteticus Vitale, 1906 syn. n.; = M. pici Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. theresae Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. elongatus (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. pyrenaeum H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862 syn. n.); M. haemorrhoidalis (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= M. fairmairei Tournier, 1873 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. brevipenne Desbrochers des Loges, 1893 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. curtulum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. humeralis Tournier, 1873 (= M. tournieri Fairmaire, 1876 syn. n.; = M. lineicollis Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. paratychioides (Hoffmann, 1965) (= G. longirostre Pic, 1921 syn. n.); M. longulus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. nigronotatum Pic, 1906 syn. n.; = G. nigronotatum var. vaulogeri Pic, 1930 syn. n.); M. pipistrellus (Marseul, 1871) (= G. concavirostre Stöcklein, 1950 syn. n.); M. plantaginis (Eppelsheim, 1875) (= G. zherichini Korotyaev, 1994 syn. n.); M. pyraster (Herbst, 1795) (= M. schneideri Kirsch, 1870 syn. n.; = M. hariolus Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. favarcqui Pic, 1915 syn. n.); M. sanctus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. laterufum Pic, 1900 syn. n.); M. simus (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) (= G. mixtum Mulsant & Godart, 1873 syn. n.); M. tychioides (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. aestivum Hoffmann, 1956 syn. n.); M. vulpes (Lucas, 1849) (= G. hircinum Desbrochers des Loges, 1893 syn. n.). The following lectotypes are designated: Curculio labilis Herbst, 1795; C. pyraster Herbst, 1795; Gymnetron alboscutellatum Hustache, 1913; G. alboscutellatum var. atratulum Solari, 1933; G. biarcuatum Desbrochers des Loges, 1871; G. bicolor Gyllenhal, 1838; G. bonnairei Desbrochers des Loges, 1898; G. caucasicum Reitter, 1907; G. conirostre Desbrochers des Loges, 1875; G. hircinum Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; G. ictericum Gyllenhal, 1838; G. ictericum var. albohirtum Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; G. inermicrum Desbrochers des Loges, 1875; G. laterufum Pic, 1900; G. lebedevi Roubal, 1926; G. logesi Pic, 1900; G. longirostre Pic, 1921; G. longulum Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; G. moricei Pic, 1902; G. nigronotatum Pic, 1906; G. nigronotatum var. vaulogeri Pic, 1930; G. pirazzolii Stierlin, 1867; G. plantaginis Eppelsheim, 1875; G. saladense Pic, 1902; G. sanguinipes Chevrolat, 1859; G. seriatum Jacquet, 1888; G. simum Mulsant & Rey, 1859; G. tychioides H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862; G. variabile Rosenhauer, 1856; G. variabile var. brevipenne Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; G. variabile var. curtulum Reitter, 1907; Mecinus andalusicus Faust, 1890; M. angustulus Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; M. angustulus var. rufipennis Pic, 1915; M. brevithorax Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; M. comosus Boheman, 1845; M. echinatus Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; M. fairmairei Tournier, 1873; M. horridulus Desbrochers des Loges, 1893; M. humeralis Tournier, 1873; M. longiusculus var. subcylindricus Pic, 1896; M. nasutus Tournier, 1873; M. pascuorum Gyllenhal, 1813; M. pici Reitter, 1907; M. pici var. favarcqui Pic, 1915; M. pici var. theresae Reitter, 1907; M. reichei Tournier, 1873; M. schneideri Kirsch, 1870; M. sublineellus Faimaire, 1880; M. tournieri Fairmaire, 1876. On the basis of a phylogenetic analysis the species are arranged in seven monophyletic groups and two complexes of species, the latter assembling species with a high degree of phenetic similarity but lacking synapomorphies. A key to species, diagnoses of species groups, redescriptions, synonymies, notes on type specimens, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, photographs of habitus and drawings of rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.
Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.
Molecular systematics and morphological study of the monophyletic weevil genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 are presented. Based on the mitochondrial CO1 barcoding gene and 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we discuss three difficult species complexes in the framework of a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of 37 of 47 Western Palaearctic Acalles species or subspecies: the A. echinatus, A. maraoensis and A. sierrae complexes. Two results are given: 1. An exclusive focus on morphological, exoskeletal methods reach their limits in the case of many cryptic Cryptorhynchinae. In these cases molecular analysis is indispensable to resolve species level questions. 2. By using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characters it is not only possible to ascertain phylogenetic relationships, but also to uncover new morphological, non-intraspecifical characteristics. Digital photography with image stacking makes this possible: for the first time we present photo key for Acalles species, a reliable, less costly and quick method for identification alongside DNA barcoding. The following taxonomic changes are given: Coloracalles edoughensis Desbrochers, 1892 comb. nov. (formerly Acalles edoughensis) from North Africa and Spain change to Coloracalles Astrin & Stuben, 2008 and Pseudodichromacalles xerampelinus Wollaston, 1864 comb. nov. from the Canarian Island Tenerife, Acalles bazaensis Stuben, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Acalles sierrae H. Brisout, 1865. Two new species of Acalles s. str., A. iblanensis Stuben sp. nov. from Morocco and A. vorsti Stuben sp. nov. from Spain ( Mallorca), and a new species of the subgenus Origoacalles Stuben & Astrin 2010, A. granulimaculosus Stuben sp. nov. from La Gomera, are described. Acalles temperei Pericart, 1987 stat. nov. is a subspecies of A. parvulus Boheman, 1837. A catalogue of all 43 (+4 incertae sedis) species of Acalles is presented. Finally and for the first time we compare 9 of 12 known North American so-called "Acalles" species with the Western Palaearctic species of Acalles surrounding the type species Curculio camelus Fabricius, 1792. The morphological and molecular analysis for the New World Acalles show that none of the species from the United States actually belong to the genus Acalles or one of the other genera of Western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. There is one exception: Acalles costifer Le Conte, 1884, is transferred to the phylogenetically basal genus Acallocrates Reitter, 1913 as Acallocrates costifer (Le-Conte, 1884) comb. nov.
Nineteen new 18S-rDNA sequences with taxonomy, Genbank number, sequence length, and locality information. All specimens and DNA are deposited in the collectons at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 
18S-rDNA primer sequences used. forward 1F TACCTGGTTGATCCTGCCAGTAG 
Reproduction of Brandt & Poore (2003) Table 3 presented as a phylogeny based on their analysis. Number of taxa used in this analysis are indicated in the brackets following the taxon names and are identified in Tables 2 and 3. Note spelling of Scutocoxifera was designated by Dreyer and Wägele 2002.  
GARLI Best Tree, 116 taxa, aligned 4925 bp. Anthuridea represented by Cyathura carinata (GenBank AF332146), Gnathiidae represented by Paragnathia formica (GenBank AF255687), Ligia oceanica (GenBank AF255698). Posterior probabilities from three separate Bayesian analyses are indicated near nodes. The analyses differed in how alignments were created and whether GBlocks was employed or not. The first value is based on the identical alignment used in the Garli tree depicted here. The second set of posterior probabilities resulted from a dataset in which GBlocks retained only 2129 bp (43%) of the alignment and removed ambiguously aligned sections. Hyphens indicate the topology shown here was not recovered. The third posterior probability value resulted from an analysis in which serolids were added last to the alignment in an attempt to assess possible bias resulting from the short serolid sequences. As before, hypen indicates that this topology was not supported. All branches without posterior probabilities indicated were supported by values greater than 95%.  
GARLI Best Tree, aligned 4925 bp. Campecopea hirsuta is GenBank AF279601 and Campecopea lusitanica AF279602. Analyses and posterior probabilities as described in Figure 3.  
Based on 18S-rDNA sequences of 97 isopods including 18 Sphaeromatidea, we show Sphaeromatidae, Valvifera, Serolidae, and Ancinidae is a well supported clade. The within clade relationships of these taxa are not as definitively demonstrated because taxon sampling for some groups is still limited. In our analyses the Sphaeromatidae are shown to be unequivocally monophyletic. This is contrary to the morphology-based analysis by A. Brandt and G. Poore in 2003, which included only five Sphaeromatidae and found the family to be paraphyletic. The Ancinidae are also upheld, and the Valvifera is the sister taxon to Serolidae. Surprisingly Plakarthrium (Plakarthiidae) is nested within the Sphaeromatidae in most analyses. We point out short-comings in our sampling and suggest areas which would benefit from better sampling. We also review the long and convoluted nomenclatural history of the Sphaeromatidea, Sphaeromatoidea, and Sphaeromatidae.
Scanning electron micrographs of the internal oral morphology. R. abei (A) floor and (B) roof, stage 36, DZSJRP 908.1; R. arenarum (C) floor and (D) roof, stage 38, MNRJ 44936; R. crucifer (E) floor and (F) roof, stage 35, UFBA 0107. IP, infralabial papillae; LP, lingual papillae; BP, buccal pocket; BFA, buccal floor arena; BFAP, buccal floor arena papillae; VV, ventral velum; PRA, prenarial arena; CH, choanae; POA, postnarial arena; LRP, lateral ridge papillae; MR, median ridge; BRA, buccal roof arena; BRAP, buccal roof arena papillae; GZ, glandular zone; DV, dorsal velum. 
Scanning electron micrographs of the internal oral morphology. Rhinella icterica (A) floor and (B) roof, stage 38, DZSJRP 1508.5; R. jimi (C) floor and (D) roof, stage 31, UFBA11820; R. ornata (E) floor and (F) roof, stage 36, DZSJRP 1192.3. 
Scanning electron micrographs of the internal oral morphology. Rhinella pombali (A) floor and (B) roof, stage 34, ZUFRJ 3318; R. pygmaea (C) floor and (D) roof, stage 32, MNRJ 49738; Rhinella schneideri (E) floor and (F) roof, stage 32, DZSJRP 711.1. 
Scanning electron micrographs of the glandular regions on internal oral surface in tadpoles of Rhinella. (A) Velar margin tumid and showing the concentration of secretory pits in R. schneideri; (B) Detail of secretory pits in the margin of the ventral velum of R. arenarum; (C) Concentration of secretory pits on the glandular zone (GZ) and surface of the dorsal velum with glandular appearance (GDV) of R. schneideri. 
From the 86 species allocated in the genus Rhinella, 25 have their tadpoles described and only R. arenarum, R. chrysophora, R. icterica, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. spinulosa have aspects of the internal oral morphology evidenced. Herein, the internal oral morphology from 12 species of Rhinella distributed between the morphological groups of R. crucifer, R. granulosa, R. marina and R margaritifera is described and compared. The internal oral morphology of Rhinella is little variable in many aspects. Despite the many similarities found between the tadpoles of Rhinella, the study showed that there are characteristics that exhibit interspecific variation that can be used in the taxonomy of the genus. Important features to distinguish species were: number of infrarrostral projections; number and shape of the infralabial papillae; size, arrangement, shape and apex of the lingual papillae; shape of the buccal floor arena papillae; number of projections of the ventral velum; shape of the prenarial ridge; choanae arrangement; number and apex of the postnarial papillae; number and shape of the secondary branches on the lateral ridge papilla; buccal roof arena papillae arrangement.
We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective.
Conognatha (Pithiscus) coffeatus sp. nov. and Conognatha (Pithiscus) puris sp. nov., both from the Atlantic Rainforest (type locality: Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), are described and illustrated. They differ from each other mainly by the elytral colour pattern, presence of a short longitudinal groove between the vertex and the frons in C. (P.) puris sp. nov., and differences in frons shape, antennae sensory fields, pronotum and aedeagus. The distribution of C. (P.) gounellei is extended to the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A modified key to include the new species, as well as illustrations, are presented.
Scolopsis igcarensis, a new species of monocle bream (family Nemipteridae) from the coastal waters of southern India and Sri Lanka is described. The species is distinguished from other species of the genus Scolopsis by a combination of the following characters: scales on top of head reaching forward to between anterior nostril and snout tip; lower margin of eye below the line from snout tip to upper pectoral fin base; a bony ridge below eye; a white band from behind eye to level of end of dorsal fin base.
Here we establish a neotype for Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) from the Dutch Caribbean island of Bonaire. The species was originally described one hundred and eighty three years ago as Carybdea alata in La Centurie Zoologique-a monograph published by René Primevère Lesson during the age of worldwide scientific exploration. While monitoring monthly reproductive swarms of A. alata medusae in Bonaire, we documented the ecology and sexual reproduction of this cubozoan species. Examination of forty six A. alata specimens and additional archived multimedia material in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC revealed that A. alata is found at depths ranging from surface waters to 675 m. Additional studies have reported it at depths of up to 1607 m in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Herein, we resolve the taxonomic confusion long associated with A. alata due to a lack of detail in the original description and conflicting statements in the scientific literature. A new cubozoan character, the velarial lappet, is described for this taxon. The complete description provided here serves to stabilize the taxonomy of the second oldest box jellyfish species, and provide a thorough redescription of the species.
Distribution of Elminae (Elmidae) genera in the Neotropical region.  
Distribution of Elminae (Elmidae) genera in the Neotropical region.  
Distribution of Larainae (Elmidae) genera in the Neotropical region.  
Number of species described in each decades. A-1806-1815, B-1816-1825,C-1826-1835,D-1836-1845,E-1846- 1855, F-1856-1865,G-1866-1875, H-1876-1885, I-1886-1895, J-1896-1905, K-1906-1915, L-1916-1925, M-1926-1935, N- 1936-1945, O-1946-1955, P-1956-1965, Q-1966-1975, R-1976-1985, S-1986-1995, T-1996-2005, U-2006-2013.  
A bibliography of significant taxonomic papers on Elmidae (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Byrrhoidea), and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their geographic distributions are provided. Forty-seven genera and 430 valid species are included. Maps show the geographic distribution of the genera by country.
Species relationships within the Kaloula baleata complex derived from a maximum likelihood phylogeny published in Blackburn et al. (2013). Branch lengths are arbitrary and do not reflect time or rate of evolution.  
Scatterplots of continuous morphological characters with their corresponding regression lines of the three populations of Kaloula. Blue=Peninsula; Red=Java; Green=Indochina.  
A. Plot of the first two principal components with corresponding 95% confidence ellipses of the three populations of Kaloula; B. Three-dimensional visualization of the first three principal components; Blue=Peninsula; Red=Java; Green=Indochina.  
Type series of Kaloula latidisca sp. nov.: A–B. dorsal and ventral view of the holotype (KU 336666); C. left manus of the holotype; D–F. dorsal view of the paratypes. Comparisons. Kaloula latidisca sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to K. baleata and K. indochinensis.  
Distribution of Kaloula indochinensis (circles), type locality of K. latidisca sp. nov. (star), and type locality of K. baleata (triangle).  
A new species of Narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula is described from northern Peninsular Malaysia. Kaloula latidisca sp. nov. is genetically and morphologically most similar to K. baleata and K. indochinensis but differs from those and other congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: (1) adult males SVL 49.2-56.2 mm (x̅=53.5 ± 3.0; N=4); (2) finger tips expanded into large, transversely expanded discs (disc width 2.8-3.1 mm, x̅=3.0 ± 0.1); (3) inner metatarsal tubercle large, oval, distinctly raised, slightly shorter than first toe; (4) three subarticular tubercles on fourth toe; (5) toe webbing formula: I 1-2 II 1-3 III 2-3.5 IV 4-2 V; and (6) yellow to orange irregularly shaped patch on the axillary, inguinal and posterior region of thigh.
Four new species are described for the genus Smaragdina, from Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China: Smaragdina tianmuensis sp. nov., S. yajiangensis sp. nov., S. yangae sp. nov., and S. zhangi sp. nov. The Chinese fauna of the genus is thus increased to 64 species. Color plates and line drawings of habitus, maxilla, labium, as well as those characters from the internal morphology like male genitalia, female spermatheca, and rectal sclerites are provided.
Phaenocora aglobulata sp. nov. A, habitus of a free swimming animal. B, reconstruction on sagittal sections of the male copulatory organ. (caudal end at the right) C, reconstruction on sagittal sections of female genital system. (caudal end at the right) D, schematic representation of the cirrus. (B-D: SMNH Type-8671). 
Phaenocora anomalocoela, reconstuction on sagittal sections of the pharynx (caudal end at the left). (QM no. G211246). 
Phaenocora unipunctata A, reconstruction on sagittal sections of male copulatory organ (caudal end at the left). B, reconstruction on sagittal sections of female genital system, original position of the ovary is marked with ...+.....+... (caudal end at the left). (SMNH Type-8674). 
A morphological and taxonomical account of the taxon Phaenocora is provided. An effort was made to locate and study all available material and, where possible, species are briefly re-described. We also describe two new species: Phaenocora gilberti sp. nov. from Cootes Paradise, Ontario, Canada and Phaenocora aglobulata sp. nov. from Prairie Grove, Alabama, USA. Species recognition is based on a combination of both male and female morphology. A comparison of and discussion on all species is given, resulting in a total of 28 valid species, three species inquirendae, five species dubiae, and one nomen nudum. An identification key is provided.
The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided.
Palaemon antennarius H. Milne Edwards, 1837 and Palaemon migratorius (Heller, 1862) are redescribed and differentiated from other circum-Mediterranean members of the genus on the basis of the following characters: (a) lack of mandibular palp, (b) form of first maxilliped endites, (c) form of maxillula palp, (d) number and length of plumose setae at the distal end of telson, and (e) shape of the fifth abdominal pleuron. In addition, two new species of the genus, P. colossus sp. nov. and P. minos sp. nov., are described from Rhodes and Crete, respectively. The new species are distinguished from the hitherto known congeners by the following set of key characters: (a) shape of the fifth abdominal pleuron, (b) number and length of the plumose setae at the distal end of the telson, (c) shape of the endopod of the first pleopod, (d) form of thoracic and abdominal sternal armature and (e) number of the lanceolate setae on the ventral margins of telson.
Elamena samalensis sp. nov., holotype, ♂ , 4.7 x 4.2 mm (NMCR 39074), Samal Is. A, habitus, dorsal view; B, propodus and dactylus of right P4, dorsal view; C, abdomen (pleotelson and somites 1–5); D, anterior region, ventral view; E, left third maxilliped, external view; F, epistome, anterior view; and G, left chela, external view. Scale bars: A–G = 1.0 mm .  
Elamena samalensis sp. nov., holotype, ♂ , 4.7 x 4.2 mm (NMCR 39074), Samal Is. Right G1, A, external (ventral) view; B, internal (dorsal) view; C, distal end, external view; and D, distal end, internal view. Scale bars: A, B = 1.0 mm; C, D = 0.2 mm.  
Elamena samalensis sp. nov., paratype, ♀ , 5.5 × 4.8 mm (ZRC 2013.0095), Samal Is. Freshly-preserved coloration. Elamena samalensis sp. nov. is most similar to E. simplidenta Ng & Chuang, 1996, in the general form of the carapace, by having a small portion of the rostral keel visible in dorsal view, and in having only one subdistal tooth on the ambulatory dactylus. The latter condition is shared by only one other species, E. cristatipes Gravely, 1927, although this species can easily be separated from the other two by the shape of its carapace and by the cristate anterior border of its ambulatory propodi (see Gravely 1927: pl. 21 fig. 24; Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 7). The new species can be distinguished from E. simplidenta by the following morphological features: 1) the rostrum is more projecting and more distinctly separated from the carapace anterolateral margin (Fig. 1A) (rostrum less projecting in E. simplidenta; cf. Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 11A); 2) the anterior margin of the rostrum is slightly convex medially (Fig. 1A) (straight in E. simplidenta; cf. Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 11B); 3) the anterior region of the epistome is relatively flat and the posterior region is more produced ventrally, i.e., thicker (Fig. 1F) (anterior region forms a transverse ridge, posterior region less produced, i.e., thinner, in E. simplidenta); 4) the finger tips of the chelae are simple, not bifurcate (Fig. 1G) (bifurcate in E. simplidenta; cf. Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 11I); 5) the ambulatory legs are relatively longer and more slender, with merus length : carapace length ratio = 0.7, merus length : width ratio = 8.1 (Fig. 1A) (relatively shorter and less slender in E. simplidenta, with merus length : carapace length ratio = 0.6, merus length : width ratio = 5.0; cf. Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 11G); and 6) the apex of the female pleotelson is convex (concave in E. simplidenta; cf. Ng & Chuang 1996: fig. 11J). The male characters for E. simplidenta are not known. The shape of the male abdomen of E. samalensis sp. nov. is perhaps most similar to that of E. abrolhensis Gordon, 1940, but the apex of the pleotelson of the former is more pointed and has two  
A new species of hymenosomatid crab of the genus Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, is described from the island of Samal, in the Davao Gulf, Mindanao, southern Philippines. Elamena samalensis sp. nov. belongs to the Elamena truncata species-group and is most similar to E. simplidenta Ng & Chuang, 1996, in the general form of the carapace and in the presence of only one subdistal tooth on the ambulatory dactyli. It can be distinguished from this species, however, by its more projecting rostrum, relatively longer and more slender ambulatory legs, and by the pointed apex of the female ple-otelson.
Descriptions of males, females and larvae of two new species of water mites from Belarus, Atractides albaruthenicus sp. nov. and A. svislocensis sp. nov., are presented.
A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.
Callaspidia Dahlbom is an Aspicerinae genus (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) with a Holartic distribution. One species, Callaspidia defonscolombei Dahlbom is cited from South America; however, it has probably been introduced. The morphological features needed to differentiate species of Callaspidia are described. Species in this genus possess much intraspecific variability compared with other morphologically homogeneous Aspicerinae genera. Callaspidia originally included 19 species and two subspecies prior to this study. The type material of 16 species of Callaspidia has been studied, but type material from Callaspidia areolata (Kieffer, 1901), C. dichroa Belezin, 1927, C. dufouri spp vitripennis (Kieffer, 1901), C. dusmeti Tavares, 1924, C fonscolombei spp minima (Kieffer, 1901), C. marshalli (Kieffer, 1901), C. mediterranea Dalla Torre&Kieffer, 1910, and C. rubricrus Dettmer, 1924, is lost or has been destroyed. Out of these 16 studied species, only five are considered valid and are redescribed here. The examination of hundreds of additional specimens supplied by different institutions suggests that there is a general lack of knowledge concerning the intraspecific diversity. A new species is described: Callaspidia dahlbomi Ros-Farre&Pujade-Villar n. sp. A key to the six valid species of Callaspidia is given. All species are illustrated. The status of Figites latreilli Hartig, 1840 is discussed, resulting in Omalaspis latreilli (Hartig) n. comb.
This study presents a detailed taxonomic review of water mites of the genus Unionicola Haldeman, 1842 (Hygrobatoidea: Unionicolidae) found in the fauna of Russia during the long-term survey period of 1969-2013. The review includes (re)descriptions and illustrations of 21 Unionicola species found in this country: Unionicola intermedia (Koenike, 1882), U. crassipes (O.F. Müller, 1776), U. rossica sp.n., U. figuralis (Koch, 1836), U. gracilipalpis (Viets, 1908), U. markovensis Tuzovskij, 1990, U. minor (Soar, 1900), U. hankoi Szalay, 1927, U. aculeata (Koenike, 1890), U. aculeatella sp.n., U. bonzi (Claparède, 1869), U. inusitata Koenike, 1914, U. rezvoi Sokolow, 1931, U. samaraensis sp.n., U. setipella sp.n., U. setipes Sokolow, 1931, U. tricuspis (Koenike, 1895), U. japonensis Viets, 1933, U. primoryensis sp.n., U. ypsilophora (Bonz, 1783), U. arcuata (Wolcott, 1898). A key is presented for the Unionicola species of Russia based on males and females.
Study of four poorly known cladocera species of the genus Camptocercus Baird,1843 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae): North American C. oklahomensis Mackin, 1930, and three Palearctic species, C. uncinatus Smirnov, 1971, C. fennicus Stenroos, 1898, and C. lilljeborgi Schoedler, 1862, revealed strong differences between them in both outer morphology and morphology of appendages. C. oklahomensis lacks a head keel, typical for the most species of the genus, and has numerous characters confirming its basal position within the genus, namely less elongated postabdomen with groups of elementary marginal denticles and less specialized morphology of the thoracic limbs. C. uncinatus and C. fennicus have similar limb morphology, these species form a monophyletic clade with South-East Asian species C. vietnamensis Thanh, 1980. C. lilljeborgi have a straight ventral margin of valves with specially dense setation, similar to the species of the genus Graptoleberis Sars, 1862. C. lilljeborgi also has most derived appendages, i.e. exopodites of limbs III-V have seta 4 reduced to a state of a small stub, and seta 3 with extremely wide basal portion. The level of differences in thoracic limb morphology in Camptocercus is unusual for the subfamily Aloninae, where in most genera limb morphology is relatively uniform. Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the studied species are discussed.
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Juan Morrone
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Larry Lee Grismer
  • La Sierra University
Olivier S. G. Pauwels
  • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
A. M. Bauer
  • Villanova University
Carl J. Ferraris