Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete

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The intrinsic physical, chemical, biological, and psycho-social factors are reviewed as groups of environmental factors, which influence the living and working environment of man. The application of epidemiological methods in the environmental hygiene is discussed.
 
The authors have studied the clinical and autopsy records, including lung roentgenograms, of 1,000 silicotics deceased in the Thuringian districts of Gera, Erfurt and Suhl over the past 30 years. The main points of the analysis are clinical-pathological-anatomical comparisons in pneumoconiosis diagnoses and the identification of the cause of death. The roentgenological findings were found to be largely in correspondence with the pathological-anatomical ones. Surprisingly, the mean life span of male pneumoconiosis patients (71.3 years) is more than 2 years above the average life expectancy in the GDR, whereas the mean life span of the female patients differs little from the average GDR figure. 60.7 percent of the patients died of the sequelae of pneumoconiosis.
 
Different operation theatres of the county of Gera were examined to quantify the exposition against halothane which is used as an inhalation narcotic, and also against ethanol. Besides the short time exposition (0.5 h) determined with gas sampling tubes the long time exposition (up to 8 h) was monitored personally by means of charcoal passive samplers. The analytical method of choice was gas chromatography, in the second case after thermal desorption of the enriched pollutants. Generally, the concentrations are lower than the MAKD if the workplace is equipped with an exhaust type NAREX 101. Without it the MAKD is reached quickly. A statistical evaluation of the results shows that there exist remarkable differences between as well the degree as the scattering of the individual exposition levels depending from the task in the operating theatre. Obviously the percentage of anesthesia using halothane is increasing.
 
The identification and semiquantitative determination of 1,4 benzoquinone was investigated. This compound is toxic and is not biologically degradable. Its sources are mentioned, including coal processing waters and receiving waters. A 2% ethanolic solution of 4 aminoantipyrine (1 phenol 2,3 dimethyl 4 aminopyrazolone (5)) proved to be the most sensitive detection agent.
 
The presented study reports on the history and development of the Institute of Hygiene at the University of Greifswald, which was founded in 1888. The first decades of this Institute were shaped by the assistant of Robert Koch, Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915), an important microbiologist and one of the founders of virology. After 1945 under new social and political conditions specially the Social Hygiene and Occupational Medicine have been expanded and taken up into the lectures. In 1959 the Chair of Microbiology became the status as an own institute. In further development separate chairs of General and Communal Hygiene, Social Hygiene, Occupational Medicine were founded and till 1964 as a particularity of Greifswald a chair of Rural Medicine too. In 1985 these chairs also received status of institutes.
 
Top-cited authors
Vladmir Bencko
  • Charles University in Prague
Aleksandar Sabljic
  • Ruđer Bošković Institute
Helmut. Seidel
  • Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
P. Ullsperger
  • Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
Gary A Toranzos
  • University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras