Private paid tutoring is a subject that is not well recognised in education research. By using theories on educational choice one could argue that tutoring promotes inequalities in attaining qualifications. Empirical analyses based on the German Socio Economic Panel Study (SOEP) show that more than every fourth pupil has had private remedial teaching while attending school. In West Germany, paid lessons are obviously a means of achieving higher goals. However, this is not the case in Eastern Germany, where no tradition of paid tutoring exists. By looking at the social origin of the parents, it can be observed that a better income situation promotes the decision to choose private lessons. The hypothesis that highly educated parents, especially mothers, hinder the use of remedial teaching, as they are able to help the children on their own, can not be confirmed. There is no link between parents’ education and rates of private paid lessons.
We examine whether the spread of an exporting strategy can be characterized as a diffusion process using a general framework that accounts for attrition and changes in the pool of potential adopters and allows the diffusion rate to vary according to firm and market characteristics. Our findings indicate that the diffusion of exporting is described well by the internal model of diffusion. Thus, this framework may be useful in modeling the spread of other strategies. The diffusion rate is found to be strongly related both to firm characteristics and to past adopter performance. Copyright 2009 The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Associazione ICC. All rights reserved., Oxford University Press.
Discusses Eduard Spranger's 1933 resignation from the University of Berlin from the internal perspectives of the Ministry of Culture and Spranger himself. Examines how his resignation influenced his subsequent philosophical reflections. Argues Spranger's conflict with university policy resulted in both his political distance from Nazism and a restructuring of his philosophy. (CH)
Definitive Aussagen zur Bedeutung der Remigration für die Erziehungswissenschaft sind beim derzeitigen Stand der Forschung noch verfrüht. Gleichwohl gibt die vorliegende Studie anhand dreier Beispiele der Hamburger Universität (CURT BONDY, ANNA SIEMSEN und ELISABETH BLOCHMANN) ein in vielen Zügen generalisierbares Bild der Berufungs- und Wissenschaftspolitik dieser Disziplin nach 1945. Die Untersuchung basiert auf der Auswertung insbesondere der Hamburger Universitätsakten und bezieht das disziplinäre Umfeld (Soziologie, Psychologie und Philosophie) ein. (DIPF/Orig.) Considering the present state of research, definitive statements on the impact of remigration for educational science would be premature. Nevertheless, taking three examples from the Hamburg University (CURT BONDY, ANNA SIEMSEN, and ELISABETH BLOCHMANN), the present study gives an account of the appointment and science policy of the discipline after 1945, which is largely generalizable. The analysis is based on the evaluation of Hamburg University files, in particular, and includes the neighbour disciplines (sociology, psychology, and philosophy). (DIPF/Orig.)
Argues that the usefulness of strictly quantitative research is still questioned in educational studies, primarily due to deficiencies in methodological training. Uses a critique of a recent study by Heitmeyer et al. (1995) to illustrate the requirements of "good" empirical research. Considers the problems of hypothesis testing in field research. (DSK)
Inquires into how the social science influence within educational studies manifests itself in academic curricula. Assumes that the language of education has shifted from pedagogical to social scientific vocabulary, and that this shift appears in university course descriptions from 1945 to 1990. Finds less manifestation of social science vocabulary than expected. (DSK)
Reports on a study of 454 college-level faculty on the tension between setting up a family and a professional career. Finds data that support the thesis that, in the course of an academic career, a process of selection takes place that has a negative professional impact on women who choose to have a family. (CFR)
One of the aims of this qualitative longitudinal study focusing on novice teachers is the content-analytic reconstruction of the differences in individual changes triggered by continuous contact with students of another cultural background in multicultural schools The underlying hypothesis is that the structure and direction of changes depends on the young teacher's ability to cope both cognitively and affectively with incompatible cultural validities in their own behavior and in that of students of a different cultural background as well as on the intercultural strategy chosen. The authors sketch the personal changes through cultural contact expected by the beginning teachers before starting their practical training, the changes resulting from the experiences made during that time as they manifest themselves at the end of training phase, and those changes which could be detected in tutorially guided discussions of foreign cultural positions. The results show clear differences in the acculturation processes. By the majority, the increase in cognitive differentiation resulting from experiences made in dealing with cultural phenomena is regarded as an opportunity for personal change.
Demonstrates that a high degree of fairness may be achieved in international comparative research on school achievement, using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as an example and employing the methods of advanced pedagogical-psychological diagnosis. Includes references. (CMK)
Both the concept of achievement and achievement assessment are current pedagogical and political issues. It remains unclear in how far regulations by school law vary between the Laender It is of special interest to what degree secondary schools, too, provide alternatives to traditional grading and allow to take into account interdisciplinary or special learning achievements. The results of the study reveal both differentiation and diversity: in many of the Federal Laender transdisciplinary competences and working behavior as well as social behavior are taken into account in different ways. The author summarizes the major results and discusses problems in the basic conception and the organization of the regulations.
On the basis of the data provided by the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the authors examine which factors lead to the existing ethnic inequalities within the German educational system. The theoretical perspective chosen here: combines a life-span approach with a human capital approach. The significance of the intergenerational transmission of education as cultural capital in combination with economic and social capital is analyzed in the specific situation of migration. The multiple regression analyses revealed that the link between the educational achievement of migrant children and the economic and cultural capital of the family of origin was significantly positive, however, it is a very weak link. The analysis of the impact of integration-specific variables on the school career of migrant children showed that the probability of a migrant child passing the final examination at a secondary school depends to a high degree on family background variables Disparities in the educational achievement of migrant children of different nationality are largely due to the respective forms of familial conditions of socialization which vary systematically with nationality. Effects of discrimination or of institutional settings, however, could not be ascertained.
Homework is usually a fixed out-of-school extension of the regular instruction, although previous studies in German classrooms have provided weak evidence for its effectiveness. To investigate the impact of homework more systematically, we analyzed a subsample of the study "Learning Processes, Educational Careers, and Psychosocial Development in Adolescence and Young Adulthood" (BIJU). Multi-level analyses based on 2123 7(th) graders in 132 classes revealed that the frequency of homework (how often homework was assigned) had a positive effect on math achievement, while the length of homework had a negative effect but reduced the achievement variance between students within classes. There was no support for the assumption that students with higher socio-economic background had greater benefits from homework. The achievement gains of students who reported parental monitoring of homework completion were comparably low. Regarding the development of interest, the findings suggest that students who needed a long time to finish their homework had a stronger decline in math interest during one school year than students who needed less time to finish their assignments.
Identifies five dimensions of professional instructional competencies based on qualitative empirical studies (participant observation, interviews, and data analysis). Discusses the concept of a "professional self" in order to explain professional development. Emphasizes self-reflection and observation as the means for professional educators to overcome their imperfections as teachers. (Author/CMK)
In how far do case studies hold potentials for the mediations of scientific knowledge and vocational expertise within processes of training and of further education in the different fields of the pedagogical professions. How do case studies contribute to the acquisition of the ability to come up with didactic interpretations and to the training of reflexive judgement? Against the background of a selected and at the same time quite characteristic dimension of the problem - the antinomic structuring of sportspedagogical fields of action in physical education and in junior training - the authors discuss approaches and open questions ora caseoriented, clinically operating sports pedagogy.
States that the debate on intercultural pedagogics has centered on the clarification of the concept of culture. Provides two examples taken from the intercultural educational practice illustrating that intercultural pedagogics leads to dilemmas and paradoxes. (CMK)
Examines the reconceptualization of the relationship between knowledge and ability related to reassessment of the problem of theory and practice in teacher education. Discusses the implications of central ideas and core assumptions of the tacit knowing approach to teacher education. (CAJ)
Observes that a number of environmental educators view environmental pedagogics oriented to ecological action as a problematic trend toward indoctrination. Tries to dispel these misgivings, and argues that the environmental action approach has other shortcomings, especially if conceptualized as individual apolitical action. (DSK)
Argues that scientific results about immigration of adolescents into Germany are incomplete. Suggests that theories of adolescence under conditions of migration and immigration ought to be developed within an intercultural comparative perspective, include the concept of cultural space, consider interplay between gender and ethnicity, and incorporate the emotional dynamics of acculturation. (DSK)
Tests a theoretical model for the constitution of the self among adolescents in a cross-cultural, comparative study. Examines the impact of schools and families, as institutions and networks of interaction, on the self of adolescents. Based on data from three sample surveys from an East/West study of adolescent students. (DSK)
Discusses some aspects of socialization in east Germany. Contrasts the socialization of adolescents within the family with public education. Reports that as a result of the mixed messages, adolescents learned two sets of opinions, adopted a pragmatic distance from official socialist values, and found means to avoid ideological indoctrination. (SG)
On the basis of the well substantiated postulate of systematic inequality during the obligatory time of schooling, consequences for subsequent vocational training are to be expected in two sectors, in particular: on the one hand, the forced cooling down of the vocational aspirations of the affected adolescents themselves; on the other hand, an aggravated entry into the market for trainee poisitions. A study carried out among 1038 adolescents documents these consequences among different groups of students. Furthermore, differences in symbolic credits and between the available social resources are shown to have a strong impact on the structure of the transition into vocational life
Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness. (DSK)
Examines the job-oriented interpretative patterns, plans of action, and professional knowledge of sociopedagogical actors working with children and adolescents out of school. Concludes that actors working with children and adolescents out of school usually rely more on their own biographical resources than on academic or professional knowledge. (DSK)
Contrasts tendencies of pedagogization in the private sector with tendencies of economization in adult education. Points to the discrepancy between the intensity and speed with which pedagogical knowledge has been assimilated and adapted by the private sector and the rather modest number of processes of professional recruitment. (DSK)
Develops the concept of the learning of interpretation in contrast to prevailing didactic models of representation. Sketches the didactic and professional-theoretical implications of the concept of learning of interpretive methods. Illustrates these considerations concerning the learning of interpretive methods with empirical examples. (DSK)
Presents a study based on statistics regarding curricular options of German senior high school students in choosing basic and advanced courses. Focuses on the contrast between gender-specific curricular options and the process of an equalization of male and female formal educational careers that is observable over the past three decades. (DSK)
Reports on a study of the extent and distribution of several forms of aggression and violence in schools in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Includes responses from 2,382 persons in a representative sample. Finds a slight increase in violence during the past three years but a high frequency of verbal aggression. (CFR)
Inquires into empirical, functional, and theoretical arguments made to substantiate theses of retreat, loss of meaning, or untimeliness of general pedagogics. Discusses recent propositions for reorganizing general pedagogics as a subdiscipline of educational science. Argues that general pedagogics could lead to new pedagogical interrelations if redesigned as constructive theory. (DSK)
Presents new forms of information technologies (e-mail, CD-ROM, WWW) that can be used in distance education and lead to "global classrooms." Contrasts these forms with traditional distance education, and compares them with regard to social dimensions, and dimensions of sensorial modality and productivity. Discusses global classrooms from the educational-political perspective. (DSK)
Das schweizerische Bildungssystem ist zur Zeit starken Reformbestrebungen ausgesetzt. Unmittelbarer Anlaß ist die Europäische Integration, die - trotz einer im Dezember 1992 erfolgten Ablehnung des Beitrittes zum Europäischen Wirtschaftsraum - eurokompatible" Innovationen nahelegt, um auch bildungspolitisch nicht ins Abseits zu geraten. Inbesondere die Lehrerbildung, der gymnasiale Lehrplan, die in Fachhochschulen umzugestaltenden Höheren Lehranstalten und Ingenieurschulen sowie die Berufsbildung sind davon betroffen. Der ... Beitrag untersucht die historische Legitimation beruflicher Bildung, die durch die Einführung einer "Berufsmatura" neu herausgefordert wird. Eine bildungspolitisch bedingte Neudefinition von Berechtigungen im Bildungswesen führt demgemäß auch zu weitreichenden curricularen Umgestaltungen, indem nämlich die "Allgemeinbildung" und der schulische Teil des beruflichen Bildungssystems gegenüber berufs- und betriebsbezogenem Lernen aufgewertet wird und damit die traditionelle Berufsbildung in ihrer Eigenart relativiert wird. (DIPF/Orig./av)
The author draws on the theory of education for a framework for PISA based on the structure of general education of modern educational systems. It is shown that the center of pedagogical research on school and instruction is formed by an implicit relation of instruction, didactics, curricular development, and achievment control which has to be taken into account by empirical research on school. Finally, the author identifies desiderata in the research design of PISA and formulates further problems, which are of far-reaching importance for the future development of international comparative research on school achievments as well as for the discussion of its results.
Explores the thesis that educational theory plays a crucial role in training teachers in the area of pedagogics. Stresses references to the discipline of educational science and advocates training pedagogics teachers and instruction in pedagogics tuned to the principles of a science orientation. (CMK)
Considers the relation among "general pedagogics,""social pedagogics," and the science of social work as a consequence of functional differentiation reflected on the theoretical level. If the educational system and "social care" are differentiated, it is possible to deal with the relation between social and general pedagogics. (CMK)
Examines the common division in pedagogical discourse of the other as either (1) male or female individual or (2) the world beyond the subject. Proposes an approach that examines both forms of otherness in relation to each other. Addresses the significance for pedagogical theory and practice. (CMK)
Examines the role of parents as a significant social environment for children in transition to adolescence. Differentiates four groups according to perceived parental environment: children with conflict parents, with control parents, with partner parents, and with "easy-going" parents. Explores the familial contexts of these groups and their relation to children's personality development. (DSK)
Argues that recent changes in conceptions of state control over schools are due partially to the relaxation of Cold War politics. Shows that new models of management produce fewer changes in school quality than expected. Proposes that the determining factor in change is the mentality inherent in individual schools' working structures. (DSK)
Shows that in the German educational system, boys are at a disadvantage with girls. Based on national educational statistics the article finds that boys have left secondary school more often than girls without a final degree an less often with higher education entrance certificates in every year since 1994 and that this holds true for each and every one of the German federal states without exception. Finds that the smaller the proportion of male elementary teachers and the higher the rate of unemployment in a federal state, the lower the achievement of boys in secondary schools and. Proposes possible explanations for this finding based on social psychological theory (CAJ, reviewed by the author)
Explains that education mainly deals with the formation of the intellectual creative power of a subject giving meaning to things and not with the issue of responding to the demands of the world. Suggests that self-referentiality of signs is not an achievement of the educational subject but a loss of possibilities for actively responding to the world. (CMK)
Observes that in the research on adult-education programs there is a lack of continuing system monitoring and of systematic evaluation and documentation of programs. Presents selected results from a research project that evaluates and documents the totality of urban-adult-education programs and their development. (DSK)
Asks whether theories of knowledge representation provide a basis for the development of theories of knowledge structuring in instruction. Discusses codes of knowledge, surface versus deep structures, semantic networks, and multiple memory systems. Reviews research on teaching, external representation of cognitive structures, hierarchical structuring, network representation, and mapping techniques. (DSK)
Shows how heterogeneous the theoretical reconstruction of intrinsic motivation is in both empirical pedagogics and pedagogical psychology, which research questions are being posed, and to what kinds of phenomena the respective conceptual variants are applicable. A critical-comparative analysis reveals that there are differences between the theoretical reconstructions. (CMK)
Confronts the thesis that Germany is witnessing a process of "normalization" of social work, substantiated by the expansion of the fields of action of social work, with findings of a sociocultural "division of society." Inquires into the consequences of these findings for clients and objectives of social work. (DSK)
Examines a survey among high school teachers that focuses on their attitudes, convictions, and assessment of external factors and conditions that effect the goal of parent cooperation in homework supervision. Concludes teachers are open minded. Offers clues to optimizing the cooperation between parents and teachers. (CAJ)
Argues that the thesis of discrimination against girls in coeducation schools has been replaced by a belief that, during certain phases or in specific subjects, abandonment of coeducation would promote equal opportunities. Questions whether classic or recent surveys provide empirical evidence for this moderate skeptical attitude towards coeducation. (CAJ)
Defines the formal dimensions of responsibility in the context of philosophical theories, and defines the attribution of responsibility with reference to social psychological and interactionist theories. Gives a typology and explanation of ways people deny responsibility for actions. Draws on empirical studies of the attribution and denial of responsibility. (DSK)
Discusses a survey of recent within-company further education publications available in German speaking areas, Anglo-Saxon countries, France, and Switzerland. Argues that there is a basic consensus evident in these publications. Critiques published patent remedies for controlling within-company further education. Searches for new methods of constructive control of further education. (CAJ)
On the basis of the well substantiated postulate of systematic inequality during the obligatory time of schooling, consequences for subsequent vocational training are to be expected in two sectors, in particular: on the one hand, the forced cooling down of the vocational aspirations of the affected adolescents themselves; on the other hand, an aggravated entry into the market for trainee poisitions. A study carried out among 1038 adolescents documents these consequences among different groups of students. Furthermore, differences in symbolic credits and between the available social resources are shown to have a strong impact on the structure of the transition into vocational life.
The author assumes that the question posed in the title regarding the role and the tasks of principals in the maintenance and development of the quality schools can only be approached scientifically if two different discourses are taken into account, namely the discourse on the quality of schools and that on the autonomy of schools. On the basis of pertinent international research, two central concepts of principalship are sketched and discussed, i.e. the "instructional leadership role" and the "transformational leadership role". These seem to both provide an answer to the initial question and reveal a change in the conception of the role and the tasks to be fulfilled by principals.
The authors designate four challenges for a theory of evolutionary pedagogics which result from the theoretical progress made in biological science: subjectively perceived autonomy - constitutive for pedagogics - meets with biological determination; teachability - fundamental for pedagogical action - seems biologically unlikely; preparation for future life - a target perspective of education - uses biological-historical information; and finally, the meeting of biology and pedagogcis is necessarily burdened with the reality-norm-dilemma. These confrontations are considered theoretical challenges for the further development of evolutionary pedagogy.