Private paid tutoring is a subject that is not well recognised in education research. By using theories on educational choice one could argue that tutoring promotes inequalities in attaining qualifications. Empirical analyses based on the German Socio Economic Panel Study (SOEP) show that more than every fourth pupil has had private remedial teaching while attending school. In West Germany, paid lessons are obviously a means of achieving higher goals. However, this is not the case in Eastern Germany, where no tradition of paid tutoring exists. By looking at the social origin of the parents, it can be observed that a better income situation promotes the decision to choose private lessons. The hypothesis that highly educated parents, especially mothers, hinder the use of remedial teaching, as they are able to help the children on their own, can not be confirmed. There is no link between parents’ education and rates of private paid lessons.
We examine whether the spread of an exporting strategy can be characterized as a diffusion process using a general framework that accounts for attrition and changes in the pool of potential adopters and allows the diffusion rate to vary according to firm and market characteristics. Our findings indicate that the diffusion of exporting is described well by the internal model of diffusion. Thus, this framework may be useful in modeling the spread of other strategies. The diffusion rate is found to be strongly related both to firm characteristics and to past adopter performance. Copyright 2009 The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Associazione ICC. All rights reserved., Oxford University Press.
Discusses Eduard Spranger's 1933 resignation from the University of Berlin from the internal perspectives of the Ministry of Culture and Spranger himself. Examines how his resignation influenced his subsequent philosophical reflections. Argues Spranger's conflict with university policy resulted in both his political distance from Nazism and a restructuring of his philosophy. (CH)
Definitive Aussagen zur Bedeutung der Remigration für die Erziehungswissenschaft sind beim derzeitigen Stand der Forschung noch verfrüht. Gleichwohl gibt die vorliegende Studie anhand dreier Beispiele der Hamburger Universität (CURT BONDY, ANNA SIEMSEN und ELISABETH BLOCHMANN) ein in vielen Zügen generalisierbares Bild der Berufungs- und Wissenschaftspolitik dieser Disziplin nach 1945. Die Untersuchung basiert auf der Auswertung insbesondere der Hamburger Universitätsakten und bezieht das disziplinäre Umfeld (Soziologie, Psychologie und Philosophie) ein. (DIPF/Orig.) Considering the present state of research, definitive statements on the impact of remigration for educational science would be premature. Nevertheless, taking three examples from the Hamburg University (CURT BONDY, ANNA SIEMSEN, and ELISABETH BLOCHMANN), the present study gives an account of the appointment and science policy of the discipline after 1945, which is largely generalizable. The analysis is based on the evaluation of Hamburg University files, in particular, and includes the neighbour disciplines (sociology, psychology, and philosophy). (DIPF/Orig.)
Argues that the usefulness of strictly quantitative research is still questioned in educational studies, primarily due to deficiencies in methodological training. Uses a critique of a recent study by Heitmeyer et al. (1995) to illustrate the requirements of "good" empirical research. Considers the problems of hypothesis testing in field research. (DSK)
Inquires into how the social science influence within educational studies manifests itself in academic curricula. Assumes that the language of education has shifted from pedagogical to social scientific vocabulary, and that this shift appears in university course descriptions from 1945 to 1990. Finds less manifestation of social science vocabulary than expected. (DSK)
Reports on a study of 454 college-level faculty on the tension between setting up a family and a professional career. Finds data that support the thesis that, in the course of an academic career, a process of selection takes place that has a negative professional impact on women who choose to have a family. (CFR)
One of the aims of this qualitative longitudinal study focusing on novice teachers is the content-analytic reconstruction of the differences in individual changes triggered by continuous contact with students of another cultural background in multicultural schools The underlying hypothesis is that the structure and direction of changes depends on the young teacher's ability to cope both cognitively and affectively with incompatible cultural validities in their own behavior and in that of students of a different cultural background as well as on the intercultural strategy chosen. The authors sketch the personal changes through cultural contact expected by the beginning teachers before starting their practical training, the changes resulting from the experiences made during that time as they manifest themselves at the end of training phase, and those changes which could be detected in tutorially guided discussions of foreign cultural positions. The results show clear differences in the acculturation processes. By the majority, the increase in cognitive differentiation resulting from experiences made in dealing with cultural phenomena is regarded as an opportunity for personal change.
Both the concept of achievement and achievement assessment are current pedagogical and political issues. It remains unclear in how far regulations by school law vary between the Laender It is of special interest to what degree secondary schools, too, provide alternatives to traditional grading and allow to take into account interdisciplinary or special learning achievements. The results of the study reveal both differentiation and diversity: in many of the Federal Laender transdisciplinary competences and working behavior as well as social behavior are taken into account in different ways. The author summarizes the major results and discusses problems in the basic conception and the organization of the regulations.
Demonstrates that a high degree of fairness may be achieved in international comparative research on school achievement, using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as an example and employing the methods of advanced pedagogical-psychological diagnosis. Includes references. (CMK)
Homework is usually a fixed out-of-school extension of the regular instruction, although previous studies in German classrooms have provided weak evidence for its effectiveness. To investigate the impact of homework more systematically, we analyzed a subsample of the study "Learning Processes, Educational Careers, and Psychosocial Development in Adolescence and Young Adulthood" (BIJU). Multi-level analyses based on 2123 7(th) graders in 132 classes revealed that the frequency of homework (how often homework was assigned) had a positive effect on math achievement, while the length of homework had a negative effect but reduced the achievement variance between students within classes. There was no support for the assumption that students with higher socio-economic background had greater benefits from homework. The achievement gains of students who reported parental monitoring of homework completion were comparably low. Regarding the development of interest, the findings suggest that students who needed a long time to finish their homework had a stronger decline in math interest during one school year than students who needed less time to finish their assignments.
On the basis of the data provided by the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the authors examine which factors lead to the existing ethnic inequalities within the German educational system. The theoretical perspective chosen here: combines a life-span approach with a human capital approach. The significance of the intergenerational transmission of education as cultural capital in combination with economic and social capital is analyzed in the specific situation of migration. The multiple regression analyses revealed that the link between the educational achievement of migrant children and the economic and cultural capital of the family of origin was significantly positive, however, it is a very weak link. The analysis of the impact of integration-specific variables on the school career of migrant children showed that the probability of a migrant child passing the final examination at a secondary school depends to a high degree on family background variables Disparities in the educational achievement of migrant children of different nationality are largely due to the respective forms of familial conditions of socialization which vary systematically with nationality. Effects of discrimination or of institutional settings, however, could not be ascertained.
Identifies five dimensions of professional instructional competencies based on qualitative empirical studies (participant observation, interviews, and data analysis). Discusses the concept of a "professional self" in order to explain professional development. Emphasizes self-reflection and observation as the means for professional educators to overcome their imperfections as teachers. (Author/CMK)
In how far do case studies hold potentials for the mediations of scientific knowledge and vocational expertise within processes of training and of further education in the different fields of the pedagogical professions. How do case studies contribute to the acquisition of the ability to come up with didactic interpretations and to the training of reflexive judgement? Against the background of a selected and at the same time quite characteristic dimension of the problem - the antinomic structuring of sportspedagogical fields of action in physical education and in junior training - the authors discuss approaches and open questions ora caseoriented, clinically operating sports pedagogy.
States that the debate on intercultural pedagogics has centered on the clarification of the concept of culture. Provides two examples taken from the intercultural educational practice illustrating that intercultural pedagogics leads to dilemmas and paradoxes. (CMK)
Observes that a number of environmental educators view environmental pedagogics oriented to ecological action as a problematic trend toward indoctrination. Tries to dispel these misgivings, and argues that the environmental action approach has other shortcomings, especially if conceptualized as individual apolitical action. (DSK)
Examines the reconceptualization of the relationship between knowledge and ability related to reassessment of the problem of theory and practice in teacher education. Discusses the implications of central ideas and core assumptions of the tacit knowing approach to teacher education. (CAJ)
Argues that scientific results about immigration of adolescents into Germany are incomplete. Suggests that theories of adolescence under conditions of migration and immigration ought to be developed within an intercultural comparative perspective, include the concept of cultural space, consider interplay between gender and ethnicity, and incorporate the emotional dynamics of acculturation. (DSK)
Tests a theoretical model for the constitution of the self among adolescents in a cross-cultural, comparative study. Examines the impact of schools and families, as institutions and networks of interaction, on the self of adolescents. Based on data from three sample surveys from an East/West study of adolescent students. (DSK)
Discusses some aspects of socialization in east Germany. Contrasts the socialization of adolescents within the family with public education. Reports that as a result of the mixed messages, adolescents learned two sets of opinions, adopted a pragmatic distance from official socialist values, and found means to avoid ideological indoctrination. (SG)
On the basis of the well substantiated postulate of systematic inequality during the obligatory time of schooling, consequences for subsequent vocational training are to be expected in two sectors, in particular: on the one hand, the forced cooling down of the vocational aspirations of the affected adolescents themselves; on the other hand, an aggravated entry into the market for trainee poisitions. A study carried out among 1038 adolescents documents these consequences among different groups of students. Furthermore, differences in symbolic credits and between the available social resources are shown to have a strong impact on the structure of the transition into vocational life
Examines the job-oriented interpretative patterns, plans of action, and professional knowledge of sociopedagogical actors working with children and adolescents out of school. Concludes that actors working with children and adolescents out of school usually rely more on their own biographical resources than on academic or professional knowledge. (DSK)
Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness. (DSK)
Develops the concept of the learning of interpretation in contrast to prevailing didactic models of representation. Sketches the didactic and professional-theoretical implications of the concept of learning of interpretive methods. Illustrates these considerations concerning the learning of interpretive methods with empirical examples. (DSK)