Сви који су се бавили проучавањем латинске књижевности, палеографије или епиграфике, античке или средњовековне, у једном тренутку су морали да се сусретну са оригиналним латинским текстом и да се суоче са бројним скраћеницама унутар самог текста. Наиме, још су стари Римљани, како би уштедели простор на натписима на јавним грађевинама, прибегавали скраћивању тако што су писали само први део речи – одакле потичу суспензије, да би касније почели да практикују да из терминолошких фраза и учесталих израза избацују средишњи део речи – одакле потичу контракције. До краја XII века у употреби је било више од десетине хиљада скраћеница. Овако велики број скраћеница је за проучаваоце рукописа сигурно морао да представља проблем јер су им оне врло често отежавале или чак онемогућавале да правилно прочитају и сагледају текст у одређеном друштвено-временском контексту. Проблем је указивао на неопходност постојања једног прегледног пописа античких и средњовековних скраћеница и њихових објашњења. Богато искуство проистекло из времена проведеног у Archivio di Stato di Milano (1884–1903), а затим на месту директора у Archivio di Stato di Parma (1903–1925), где се посебно посветио латинској палеографији и дипломатици, омогућило је Адриjану Капелију (1859–1942) да састави лексикон латинских и италијанских абревијатура.
Belgrade has been devastated and redeveloped for countless times. Various cultures, nations and conquerors left different urban matrices and physical structure. The groundwork for conceptualization and research of the urban matrix as an essential element of Belgrade's urban morphology are graphic presentations the old maps and plans. Appreciating strategic significance Belgrade had up till 19th century, they were mainly elaborating Belgrade Fortress area, while civil settlement the Borough inside the Trench, a small typically oriental town (Kurtović Folić, 2000, pp. 15-21) was presented in general sketches. This paper deals with breakthrough conceptions about planned construction of Belgrade inside and outside of the fortress moat from the beginning of the 19th till the beginning of the 20th century. The ruling period of Prince Miloš Obrenović was especially emphasized, when planned construction of the new, geometrically regulated Belgrade settlement in Western Vračar (outside the Trench) started and was supposed to be connected with the city center of the Serbian Belgrade (inside the Trench) around the current Saborna church, via two already existing streets Abadžijska Street and Fišeklijska Street. Prince Miloš in 1815., obtained from Marašli Ali Pasha the Savamala area with the formed village on so called slope, that was soon to be destroyed and set on fire upon his order, with the goal of building 'a new Serbian Belgrade'. (Krasojević, 2004) The expelled landowners gained the opportunity to settle down on the Danube side, in the village of Palilula. In the third and the fourth decade of the 19th century there started the planned guidance of population of respective urban areas and regulation of some tracings in Savamala and Terazije as far as the Batal Mosque, forming on the slopes of Savamala and Western Vračar a new part of Serbian Belgrade, beyond the Trench with several new 'čaršija''. (Škalamera, 1974. pp.9-14) In the period 1835-38, Prince Miloš began developing some prominent edifices and institutions of the restored Province of Serbia in this Belgrade area, and his son, Prince Mihailo Obrenović, continued with the development of this area after 1860.
During the first half of the 19th century in Užice began a gradual strengthening of the Christian part of the settlement, and after a series of conflicts Muslim part of the city gradually decreased, until it eventually disappeared in 1863. After liberation oriental city continued to exist with all principles and divisions until the adoption of the new plan in 1863. Only reliable geodetic testimony about this city is the current state of the central part of the town for the purposes of the Regulatory Plan, which was recorded by an engineer named Emanuel Schefel in 1863. With that plan for the reconstruction of the city, all traces of oriental in urban fabric of Užice will be erased. City's population wanted to remove oriental period of the development as fast as possible, but it was not easily realized. After the reconstruction of streets, blocks, new rules of construction on the plot, new materials, new forms and so, ancient Oriental city is preserved in the place names of certain parts of the village, also called old mahala, which are used to this day (Rosulje, Pašinovac, Megdan, Međaj, Lipa, Carina, Terazije, Kostica etc.). It can even be said that the laws of the former mahala were authoritative in determining the neighborhood unit rather than the streets, until the end of the 20th century. The functional layout of the village of oriental city has retained to this day: the center is the site of the bazaar and the residential blocks are arranged in places of the mahalas. Tracks from oriental city streets during reconstruction are largely retained, except for being corrected and enlarged. Such an act mostly conditioned the arrangement of the plots purchased by the populace who left town in 1863. Their position influenced the shape of the new city blocks dragging their impact even to the shape of plots, the basics of the facilities and the organization of the apartments. The modern method of construction of the facilities (Neighborhood assistance) and approach to construction (as resources permit, during several years) indicate that the oriental city provides its long roots to the present day. Weather the traces are deleted or modified and fitted in a modern way of life, Oriental city in modern Užice still exists.
The Serbian army was forced to retreat towards Metohija and Albania eventually due to the armed aggression and attacks from the north and east in October 1915 by the united forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian units against the Kingdom of Serbia. Together with the army, the monarch, executive and legislative branch, intellectuals and civilians also retreated, not wanting to fall in the hands of the incoming army formations of the Central Powers. Following the retreat of the government and army bodies, the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia found itself under the control of the enemy forces, which started the 3-year period of occupation. The subject of this paper are the texts written by the newspaper called Leskovački glasnik (Leskovac Messenger) in the period between World War I and World War II, which dealt with the sufferings of the Serbian civilians in the Bulgarian occupied zone from 1915 to 1918. Special attention is paid to the Leskovački glasnik's reports about marking the anniversary of the Bulgarian terror and killings of Serbs, about opening and consecration of memorials, about the heroic deeds and the tragic destiny of the people in south Serbia.
This article presents the monograph of prof. Dr. Snežana Stojiljković Psychological characteristics of teachers, in which the author, following the thread of her scientific interests provides a comprehensive picture of characteristics and competencies of educators. Beginning with teacher's role as the carrier of educational activities and psycho-social portrait of future teachers, and through analysis of the educational role of a teacher, to the psychological characteristics and considerations of professional stress of teachers. The special value of this part make presentations of research, most of which are carried out by the author herself and her associates. Stojiljkovic argues that teachers are fairly homogeneous population, which have the characteristics of members of the helping professions and she highlights the importance of examining the personality dimensions relevant to the teaching profession, both for professional orientation, as well as for achievement of development potential of teachers. The author of this monograph concludes with the topic related to the readiness of teachers for professional development. The significance of the monograph can be seen in actuality of the topic she is dealing with. It represents both a polemic and an invitation to reconsider the usual stereotypes about the role and place of teachers, by which the author enters into a dialogue with potential readers and encourages personal review and reflection on their own educational practice and place in society.
Psychophysical capabilities of individuals in terms of work in the modern systems of today are not the only factor that their performance and achievement of results depend on. The context is much broader, starting from work conditions at their work place, through physical and climate factors, social environment and support, down to psychophysical status of an individual, his/her general work efficiency and risk from getting professional illnesses. Although the mechanisms and causes of fatigue occurring at work have long been a subject of study and interest in the area of psychophysiology of work, the fact is that to the day there has been no unique and generally accepted definition of fatigue, not only due to complex causes of its origin, but also due to complexity and diversity of its manifestations. Factors that are subject of study may be grouped into areas of contents of work, organization of work or work environment, and they significantly affect working ability and its misbalance, needs, capabilities and requirements to be met by an individual at a work place. Similarly to the concept of stress at work, fatigue as a reversible physiological occurrence manifests itself in physiological, i.e. health-related, psychological and professional areas, which in the long run affects total performance and efficiency of an individual, and results in unfit behavior, mental problems or physical illness. Keeping this in mind, it is important that a professional department and personnel management in organizations and institutions should react in a timely manner in order to prevent, detect and eliminate the factors that bring an individual at work to chronicle fatigue, therefore, to reduced performance and productivity at work.
Problems with peers are more common among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) than typical development (TD) children. As a lack of research in this field states the heterogeneity of the samples in relation to the level of disability and age, which is important for the ability to plan preventive programs and targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intellectual status and age with peer relationships. The study included 206 students aged 12 to 18 years, of which 76 with mild ID and 130 TD. Peer relationships were measured by Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (compromise, problem solving, yielding, avoidance and domination) and by The Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaires, subscale Problems with peers, form for teachers. The main findings showed that students with mild ID have more problems with peers than TD students. Unlike TD students, students with mild IO at secondary school more often yielding and avoidance conflicts. At later age dominance is less frequent in both groups of students, and problem solving and compromise are statistically more frequent in students with mild ID group than in TD peers group. It was concluded that negative social experience of young people with mild ID simultaneously motivate to constructive and destructive ways of resolving conflicts.
This paper presents data on the problems of location of the road communication in the south of the province of Dalmatia from the station Diluntum to the intersection Ad Zizio. The opinions of researchers about the location of these stations are different. The road from Narona went to the stations Diluntum-Pardua-Ad-Zizio where it forked off in two different directions. One branch went along the sea coast, and the other through the interior of the province of Dalmatia. Both branches were again connected into one road communication at the Scobre station. In preparation of the paper on the ancient road communications and stations in southern Dalmatia, we relied on the written original material and the remains in the field. We took into consideration all the various opinions in the modern historiography concerning the location of the stations Pardua, Ad Zizio and Asamo. We believe that these different opinions arose from the uneven interpretation of cartographic representations and lack of knowledge on the road section in the field. Different road tracking of the routing communication Narona-Epidaurus have led to differences in locating the road stations Pardua, Ad Zizio and Asamo. At the initiative of the antiques patrons from Ljubinje, we conducted a research of the road communication Narona- Ad Zizio. The research was conducted from the city of Stolac to the village of Mosko (it is located east of the road Pardua station) because of the new findings that were found in the villages of Gradac and Ubosko. Based on site visits to Bitunja, Zabrđe, Poljice, Ubosko, Ljubinje, Gradac, Ljubomir and Mosko, and based on insights in the field, as well as data from Peutingeriana and Antonine Itinerary, we believe that the station of Pardua can be located in Gradac, and Ad Zizio in Ljubomir field. During our research, we particularly paid attention to the natural elements i.e. geophysical properties of the soil and the existing situation that determined the direction of the road. The direction of the road communication in the field was determined by a number of milestones previously found in some parts of the communication and the remains of settlements. In conclusion to this study, we believe that the route communication Narona-Ad Zizio, proposed by D. Sergejevski and I. Bojanovski, generally cannot be put in doubt. However, changes are possible only on some sections, as indicated by the facts from the field. In the vicinity of the place of the findings of milestones in the southwestern part of Ubosko polje, there is a road passing along the southern rim from west to east, so it is possible that the Roman road went along this edge where a milestone with the implant was found in situ. This route runs along the southern edge of the field, 300 m more to the south of the road line suggested by I. Bojanovski. An alternative route passed some tens of meters in front of the remnants of the settlements on the location of the Križava tilth field and Grebuša which are located on the southwestern edge of the field. At this location there is a number of buildings with fragments of Roman pottery everywhere. Slightly to the east at distance of about 200 m from the first milestone, we found, with the help of the antiques patrons, another milestone on this section of the road, near the medieval inscriptions dedicated to the deceased Dabiživ Radovanović. The fragment of the milestone is 110 cm long with a diameter of about 40 cm, and it is located on the left side of the Ubosko-Hrđusi road at exiting the Ubosko polje. It is possible that the remains of these buildings suggest that they were the ancient complex, the so-called villa rustica. However, nothing more precise could be said about the perceived remains of these buildings foundations without detailed research. This section is a part of the Salona-Dyrrhachium-via Egnatia road and it was probably built during the Dolabella's Regency of the province of Dalmatia (years 16 to 20). Aggravating circumstance is that there are no inscriptions found that could confirm it. In support of its dating, two Dolabella's inscriptions from Cavtat and the milestone inscription from Kosijerevo could be given (years 79 to 84). Based on the foregoing, the building could be dated to the first half of the 1st century, and it could be said that this is the most important route of the Roman road in southern Dalmatia. In the area of the village of Gradac we visited the sites Crkvina, Kruškice and Kučina Prodo. At these sites, we found the remains of milestones, the necropolis, a large well, the Roman coin of the emperor Elagabalus. Throughout the area of the village of Gradac there are numerous foundation walls of buildings, cut stone, Roman brick products and other movable findings such as a copper clasp and a few tips of spears. Judging by the distance in Roman miles found in written sources and material remains in the village of Gradac, it is necessary to search for a bigger center in which D. Sergejevski and I. Bojanovski locate the station Pardua. Although a significant number of findings support the thesis that the ancient Pardua can be located in today's Gradac, it still remains to carry out systematic research in this area in order to confirm or reject the am thesis.
Our analysis focuses on all the adjectives which refer to human physical traits in the speech of the villages in the Svrljig area. This derivational analysis included more than 300 derivative adjectives which, from a synchronic point of view, belong to the category of derived words. The analysis included derivatives which have been formed through prefixation and suffixation, as well as derivatives which occurred as the result of compound-suffix derivation. Special attention was paid to suffixation as the basic and most frequently available means of adjective formation. Suffixes are represented in combination with the base they are bound to, with an indication of their productivity and meaning in derivational terms. A study of the material indicates that adjective derivation by means of suffixation is made possible with the use of 20 suffixes and suffix derivatives, 10 of which have one confirmation each. The greatest productivity has been found for the noun base and suffix -av (52) which a total number of recorded derivative adjectives is 200. The prefix-suffix derivation process is the least frequent, and thus only 12 adjectives were derived in this way. Contrary to the mainstream opinion that complex words are not characteristic of our diasystem, the derivation process involving adjectives referring to humans based on physical traits shows great productivity in the compound-suffix derivation process. More than 90 complex words were derived from the binding the suffix -av (4), -as / -es (54) and the zero suffix (37) to complex bases. Another difference compared to the literary language is reflected in the occurrence of various forms of one suffix, which came about as the consequence of vowel changes (-as / -es : -ast). It is also not infrequent that during derivation, various forms of bases are used, or that a nonproductive basis in one system is productive in another. So for example it has been confirmed that in the speech of the Svrljig area the suffix -av is bound to adjective bases or that the suffix -as / -es is bound to verbal bases, which is almost never found in literary language.
Many psychodiagnosticians consider the interview to be the basic and irreplaceable method and even the 'crown witness' of the psychodiagnostic battery. Accepting that point of view and acknowledging the fact that semi-structured interviews have been gaining in popularity, this paper aims to offer psychologists (undergraduate and graduate psychology students, psychology interns, those specializing in and specialists of medical psychology) a solid semi-structured interview. Based on theoretical knowledge and grounded in decades of practical experience, including thousands of interviews conducted with children, adolescents and their parents, this paper presents a semi-structured interview called The List of Basic Developmental Information for Children and Adolescents (LBDI-CA). We hope that our co-practitioners will find this semi-structured interview useful as a foremost technique from the developmental age psychodiagnostic battery for the assessment of children and adolescents.
Theoretical basis of the paper is a salutogenetic model of Aron Antonovski's model and belief that apart from the sense of coherence and sense of family coherence , as central sources of health, generalized and specific health sources are also important. The mentioned health sources Antonovski determines as different characteristics of an individual, group or environment which help mastering tension, which is caused by different stressors or serve for avoiding or suppress different stressors. The paper examines correlation of the sense of family coherence in adolescents with some variables which are included in the research as health sources (resistance sources). The aim of research was to examine the sense of family coherence in adolescents with: satisfaction with family (generally and globally), self-respect, family financial situation, educational level of their parents, success in education so far, number of family members and birth order. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged 15 to 24 (N=360). Questionnaire of basic data, Scale for estimation of family coherence, Scale of family adaptation and Scale of self-respect are used for the research purposes. The data was processed by correlative analysis. Results obtained showed that there is a positive correlation of sense of family coherence in adolescents (both as a whole and as components) with general and global satisfaction with family and self-respect, as well as correlation of components with family financial situation and school/academic success. Results obtained point to the conclusion that stronger feeling of family coherence is found in adolescents who are more satisfied with their families (generally and globally), those who posess higher self-respect, have better family financial situation and adolescents who have been more successful in their education. Total attitude of the adolescents towards their families is not in connection with the level of their parents education, order of birth or with the number of family members. Results obtained are in accordance with the majority of hypothesis, theoretical basis of the paper and the results of previous researches.
Nationality as a universal category implies a description of the concept ethnos. The primary mode of verbalization of the category of ethnicity and the representation of the concept are the names of nations - ethnonyms. The merge of concepts of ethnos and religion in the domain of the social characterization of people by nomination according to given parameters was conditioned by the ethnic and religious structure of the population in Prizren in the first half of the 20th century (Serbs, Turks, Albanians, Cincari). The fragment of ethnicity is the component of a language image of the world of the dialect representative and it is based on the dichotomy own/foreign (svoj - čužoj). The primary ways of its representation are conceptualization, stereotypes and verbal association. The social category of national and religious affiliation and its semantic potential will be considered in terms of lexical-semantic group, in which the systematic and categorical component 'representative of certain nation and religion' appears in the function of the invariant. The lexemes clustered around a hipersema formulated in this way have a nominal value, and depending on the dominant semantic mark 'nation' and 'religion' they form two lexical-semantic subgroups organized in a prototypical categorical opposition Serb/foreigner, orthodox/heterodox: lexical-semantic subgroup of nouns with the hipersema 'a member of certain nation' and a lexical-semantic subgroup of nouns with the hipersema 'a member of certain religion'. The dialect material shows that in the speech of Serbs in Prizren the lexemes which are used to identify a person by nationality or religion are in certain systematic relations that are based on the principals of semantic derivational connections and they are also based on the relations of affiliation and opposites, which affects the structure of the lexical-semantic group. Antonyms are rarely seen in ethnic lexicon and they are represented by unitary antonyms of dichotomous division of concepts 'own/foreign' which are conditioned by logical opposition that manifests in the language as the opposites Srbin / tudin (Týrčin, Arnaýtin, Latnin, Cigánin, Góga). The principle of the dichotomy was conducted in the category of naming according to religious affiliation ('orthodox/heterodox'), katól'ik, potur stand in opposition to risjánin forming an antonym paradigm. The stereotype notions of Serbs in Prizren about the nations they are closely connected to are expressed with an expressive nomination inventory (Týrč'e, Belokápac, Gábel', Mánga, Čifýtka; potýrko, poturéška).
Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.
The relationship between culture and nationality and in that sense - national identity of a particular community - is a known thing for a long time. Nationality is usually strongly connected to culture. We will only mention few of their joint characteristics: language, religion, art, customs, tradition etc. In this article special attention will be paid to one of the features of national identity - language - and we will focus on the usage of Cyrillic alphabet of our target group (students of University of Priština, with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica). The study consists of two smaller researches. In the first part we explored reactions of students at University of Priština and we assumed that they will have different reactions towards Cyrillic alphabet and Latin alphabet used as stimuli-words comparing to pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high schools and students of University of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš presented in The associative dictionary of Serbian language (Asocjativni rečnik srpskog jezika, 2005). In the second part we tried to find out if our informants prefer the usage of Cyrillic or Latin alphabet, and which one they find better in the esthetic sense. We compared attitudes of students who enroll University of Priština to attitudes of students who enroll University of Belgrade and differences between their attitudes. With both researches we wanted to see if there are formed verbal stereotypes with positive or negative connotation, and what are the attitudes on using Cyrillic alphabet among students in the age of expansion of Latin alphabet. We concluded that Cyrillic alphabet is more used and valued at University of Priština than in the rest of Republic of Serbia and the reason for that might be the stronger sense of national identity among these students.
The aim of this paper is to define textbooks, analyze their advantages and disadvantages and to explicate the process of textbook selection and reasons for analyzing textbooks. The paper describes two reasons for performing a textbook analysis: evaluating for potential and evaluating for suitability, and further states various processes of textbook content analysis including the analysis of the stated aims and objectives, learner needs, their abilities and preferences, as well as the establishment of criteria in relation to previously set objectives. The paper concludes by stating that the task that teachers are faced with when selecting and evaluating textbooks is not that is an easy one, but it is crucial. With the assistance of clear guidelines and detailed criteria, they should be able to make an informed decision and choose a textbook that is most suitable for the requirements of their specific classroom context.
The paper considers the data about the problems of locating road stations and road communications in the province of Kosovo and Metohija. Researchers' opinions about their locations differ. The basis of successful research of ancient road communications and settlements in the province of Moesia Superior is provided by written source materials and material remains. What is especially significant are the data from Tabula Peutingeriana, Ptolemy's Geography and Anonymous Geographer from Ravenna, inscriptions, settlements and other material remnants. Archaeological findings point to the fact that Roman road network and settlements were developed in this area. Furthermore, the paper presents data concerning new observations about the remains of the road and settlements from this area. Due to data from written historical sources i.e. itineraries, and closer inspection of the terrain, we find out that in the area of Moesia Superior (The Province of Kosovo and Metohija) road stations on the main travel route Lissum-Naissus, namely Gabuho, Theranda, Viciano, Vindenis, and Ad Fines were drawn. Data from ancient cartographic sources as well as the results of archaeological research of road communications in the Province of Kosovo and Metohija, in addition to significant facts that were presented, have not given a complete picture of the location of Roman travel routs and stations. However, on the basis of the abovementioned written sources which reveal the distance among road station, and due to material remains i.e. data from the area (saved road segments and milestones), marked routes of Roman road communications with road stations in the Province of Kosovo and Metohija were determined, which partly contributed to the ancient topography of this area being well known.
Archaeological research revealed that ancient Naissus was located on the right bank of the Nišava, on the territory partially covered by the Niš Fortress. The ancient town developed on a wide and flat terrain, which offered good conditions for settlement, but also for raising fortifications. According to modern scholars, the urban settlement on the right bank of the Nišava was preceded by a small native village (vicus), which was important for the erection of the town fortifications. Numerous roads were linking Naissus with the surrounding regions and villas in the county side. We learn about them on the basis of epigraphic and archaeological material milestones and remains of roads, but also on the basis of the location of the necropolises, which in the classical period often sprang up near the suburban roads. The road leading to the east crossed the Nišava by a stone bridge, whose remains were visible not far from today's 'Benetton' factory. The road led further over 'Gabrovac land', intersected with streams over which the remains of three stone bridges from the Roman period were found. This route led to Mediana, a suburb with villas three miles distant from the city. Another important road connecting the region Pomoravlje with the southern parts of the province of Dalmatia was the road Naissus-Lissus. TA section leding to Macedonia and the harbour of Thessalonica over Scupi branched from it south of Naissus: Ad Herculem, Hammeum Ad Fines, Vindenae and Vicianum. From Vicianum station (Vučitrn) one section ran towards Lissus and another towards Scupi. Throughout the Timok valley stretched one of the most important roads (Naissus-Ratiaria) that linked Naissus and the central Balkan areas with the region of Podunavlje (the Danube basin). The road led from Naissus to the East, along the right bank of the Nišava (across the areas of Jagodin mala and Vrežina) and, at the modern village of Malča, it turned towards the North, following the route of the modern road and railroad to Svrljig. Further to the northeast, the road led through the valley of Svrljiški Timok and was passing through Plužina where a milestone of Trebonian Gallus was discovered (251-253 AD). The road left the river valley near a place called Palilula because the river was entering impassable canyons, and the road ran south of Knjaževac over the mountain pass Tresibaba, where it connected to the sections that led from the West (Praesidium Pompei) and the South (Turres, Remesiana). Epigraphic monuments are of particular importance for studying the history of ancient Nais. These provide valuable information on the way of life, customs, religion, government, military and social organization of this city. Funerary inscriptions often contain data that could be used in topography or onomastic research. Honorary inscription set up by the city councils supply information about the communities that erected them.
In this paper we have presented the data regarding the Roman communication Nevesinje-Anderba (East Herzegovina) and the settlements near the road. From Nevesinje the road led eastern towards Gacko and there it was bifurcated. One siding led towards east for Anderba, and the other towards north, deeper in Dalmatia, towards Podrinje. Archeological founds from Gacko and Nevesinje proved that this area relatively early was connected with the network of Roman communications. Roman settlements in the area of Nevesinje and Gacko were found on numerous locations. Population density of this area (remnants of Roman settlements) and archeological founds (remnants of the road and mileposts) proved the existence of communication which spread from Nevesinje towards Gacko, and further over the verge of Gatacko Polje, Avtovac, Kazanci and from this point the communication entered the territory of Montenegro. From the town of Niksic in Montenegro the road was connected with the communication Narona-Scodra.
This paper presents the data about the Roman road communication Leusinium-Sallunto-Anderba (the present-day village of Panik - the city of Nikšić) with the settlements along the route. From the road station Ad Zizio (the present-day village of Mosko or Ukšići at the village of Ljubomir) the road led east to the road station Leusinium (Panik, near the city of Bileća), then over the road station Sallunto (the village of Riječani - east of Bileća, on the road to Nikšić). From the road station Leusinium, one branch of the road led east to the former Roman castrum Anderba, and another branch led north to the interior of the province of Dalmatia, via the present-day city of Gacko, towards the region of Podrinje. The archaeological finds (the remnants of a Roman settlement, road, fragments of milestones) from the sites in Panik, Riječani and Nikšić (the southern part of the province of Dalmatia) indicate that his area was, relatively early, connected with the network of Roman road communication. The importance of this branch of the road is testified by the fragments of milestones with inscriptions found in situ. There is no distinctive inscription that could ensure the precise dating of the Leusinium-Sallunto-Anderba road communication. In addition, no other sources give the details of its construction. It is believed that the Prefect of Dalmatia (14-20 AD), Publius Cornelius Dolabella, started to build the Leusinium-Sallunto-Anderba road route along which stood the above-mentioned road stations, and that it was completed during the reign of the Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD). Additional reconstructions of this road were most probably conducted in the 3rd and the 4th century, which is testified by the inscriptions mentioned, discovered in the area of Riječani (Nikšić) and Panik (Bileća). We can see that, in narrative and cartographic sources, there is frequently a discrepancy in the data on the road stations and the distance between them. The discrepancy between the information obtained from the historical sources and the finds in archaeological sites has generated a myriad of diverse opinions on these questions.
In this paper we examined usage of predicate appositive in Ivo Andrić's book 'Children and other narratives' from syntactic and semantic aspect. In the introductory part we pointed to problem of designation this sentence constituent and it's significant characteristics. After that we ascertained criterions for separating predicate appositive and related constituents. Considering it's ability to be expressed by different types of units, concrete task of research was stating and describing various units in function of predicate appositive. Those are 1) adjectives and adjective pronouns, 2) nouns and personal pronouns, and 3) construction with comparative particle kao.
Većina bibliografskih j edinica odnosi se na oblast primenjene lingvistike, u prvom redu nastave slovenskih jezika kao inoslovenskih i međuslovenske translatologije. Nekoliko radova istaknutih lingvista pripada oblasti teorijske lingvistike. Navedene bibliografske jedinice objedinjuje međujezičko kontrastiranje (konfrontiranje), bilo kao tema izlaganja, bilo kao primenjeni postupak, metod, koji se široko primenjuje u savremenoj lingvističkoj slavistici. Bez obzira na izvesne kontroverze o korisnosti ovakve analize dvaju ili više jezičkih sistema, većina lingvista se slaže da ona ima svoje opravdanje, pogotovo prilikom izučavanja bliskosrodnih jezika. Stoga je u slavistici našla široku primenu. Neki autori insistiraju na terminološkom razgraničenju pojmova kontrastiranja i konfrontiranja, ali ih većina lingvista upotrebljava kao sinonime. Na izbor radova uticao je, pre svega, kriterijum relevantnosti sa stanovišta obezbeđenja teorijske i metodološke osnove za dalja istraživanja, kao i težnja da se ukaže na značajnije savremene predstavnike ovakvog pristupa jeziku, uglavnom u slovenskom svetu. Njihovi radovi poređani su hronološki.
This work shows the historical development of one of many city families in Dubrovnik which, according to Dubrovnik genealogies, during the middle ages arrived from Serbian countries. The focus is on the family Gradojević - Bratutović, whose founder moved from Trebinje, from Dukats of St. Sava to Dubrovnik in the thirties of the 15th century and soon became full-fledged citizen of Dubrovnik. The founder of the family, Bratut Gradojević was a clothier, he produced and sold clothes. He cooperated with other traders and his business was creditworthy. As a prominent merchant, he gained fortune and became a member of prominent Antunin association, which gathered the richest class of citizenry from Dubrovnik. His descendants proceeded with the same practice and thus enlarged family capital. Apart from Dubrovnik, family members also owned land in Primorje in the settlement of Visočani. They had possession in Konavle where they grew various cereals. Family Gradojević - Bratutović lasted over 200 years in Dubrovnik. This family derived a prominent dragoman Vicko Bratutović, an excellent expert of oriental languages, who worked as an interpreter for emperor Ferdinand III. Later he worked on the Spanish court where his life ended.
This paper is aimed at investigating students' attitudes towards inductive and deductive approaches to teaching grammar of English as a foreign language. The study includes 134 students of Business School of Applied Studies in Blace. The research was conducted through a questionnaire which consists of 15 items concerning teaching English language, which students rated according to the Likert scale. At the beginning, different approaches to teaching grammar of a foreign language inductive and deductive are presented. Namely, it has been a constant debate whether grammar rules should be explicitly explained and then practiced through numerous examples, or whether the acquisition of foreign language grammar is more efficient when students are exposed to a foreign language and, based on context and everyday situations, they induce the rules by themselves. According to the results of the questionnaire, over 70% of the students preferred the deductive approach to teaching English grammar, whereas over 40% of them acknowledged that the implicit approach is also important for grammar acquisition. Another conclusion indicates that the efficient acquisition of English grammar occurs when these two approaches are combined.
This paper approaches the motives of sacrifice and self-sacrifice of Prince Lazar as a key to the construction of this epic character. At the beginning, consulting dictionaries and previous research, we determine the terminology and concepts of sacrifice self-sacrifice. Approaching the analysis of these motifs in the epic poems and accepting attitudes about their developmental line that ranges from medieval to folk literature, first search for Christian self-sacrifice. In the final part of the paper we provide a synthesis of Christian and pagan influence on the shaping of Lazarus motif of sacrifice and self-sacrifice with an emphasis on their share, hierarchy and function.
Every historical epoch - the time interval bounded by upheavals with 'epochal significance' - has the characteristic patterns, the principles of internal development and organization. While the old epoch, by the nature of things - subsequently, with 'hindsight', always perceived, more or less the same, as a form, a new epoch is never with so clear-cut contours and expressions and therefore it is difficult to describe, understand or predict. It is easy to assume that old form begins to collapse because of the internal rush of content that somehow become inappropriate, but, if our ability of understanding were higher, it would not be hard to spot patterns in the evolutionary chain and know how these upcoming content will take shape into the new form of the forthcoming, starting epoch. If the analysis of the new forms focus just on the pathological form, it seems that it is not difficult to assume that the reduction and lifting the ban in the area of sexuality - hysteria will certainly make way to other pathological forms, primarily those related to difficulties with identity. Similarly, it can be assumed that in the new pathological forms a central place occupy the feeling of personal emptiness, together with the aggressiveness that goes to the brutality. In any case, a new era never begin with form creation. Each form takes time to be shaped, stabilized and as such to be longer-lasting. Because the process leads (changes) to form and a form occurs 'definitely' only after the process is complete. While waiting for setting sufficiently general practical rules and principles, the entire educational system and in particular the school system can become a place of creation children problem and not solving it, precisely because of his absolute legitimacy of the principle of reality. Since it could not be more important aim of education of avoiding that instruction, tuition, influences and restrictions that fall on a relatively weak ego - act as trauma and launch a massive repression mechanism that creates a tendency to later disease, the strategy of education must be more than ever previously based on the theory of depth psychology. Bearing in mind that current position of authority is not clear, immediate execution of the main task of education is hindering, prohibits and suppresses impulses - a task that has existed at all times - is faced with no small problems. The child should first of all master his instincts, and do it in a socially acceptable manner. Therefore, we ought to point out that the path between the Scylla permission and Haridbe prohibition can not be found if psychoanalysis is not applied on the education.
This paper is based on data from the handwritten autobiography of Jean- Frédéric Diesbach, which is kept in the Historical Archives in Fribourg, Switzerland, and in which the Battle of Petrovaradin and the siege of Belgrade are discussed. Diesbach, a Swiss nobleman who was originally in the Swiss and French military service, was later transferred to the Austrian army. This well-known European military leader finished his career as a governor of Syracuse in Sicily and a Major General of the Austrian army. A segment of his memories provides a brief description of the Battle of Petrovaradin and the operations of the Austrian army during the siege of Belgrade. Although it is part of the manuscript of a few pages, it has the value of a historical source, because it is the testimony of participants in these events.
Biljke su, kao živi svet prirode, inkorporirane u deo složenog sistema koji je izgradio čovek - sistema kulture, i u tom sistemu je čovek biljkama pridao važnu simboličku ulogu. U radu se razmatra kategorija biljaka u basmama na korpusu južnoslovenske bajalačke tradicije i date reference se mogu podeliti na dve osnovne kategorije: botaničku kategoriju (morfološki opis, stanište, upotreba i neki drugi relevantni podaci) i simboličku kategoriju (verovanje u njihovu magijsku funkciju). Biljni svet u ovom tipu basma tipološki se deli na dve osnovne skupine: realne biljke sa simboličkim funkcijama u obredu i biljke čije se postojanje ne može sa sigurnošću potvrditi a koje, takođe, imaju simboličku ulogu (svakojake travuljine). Prezentuju se parametri zasnovani na svojstvima primenjenim u tradicionalnoj kulturi, koji su postali sastavni deo semiotičkog statusa: oblik/forma, miris, ukus, otrovnost, lekovitost (medicinska upotreba), jestivost, simbolička funkcija, senovite biljke, frekventnost. Razmatra se njihova funkcija u 'profilaksi' ili u samom procesu 'skidanja' čini, analizira se njihova simbolika i frekventnost.
This paper is based on a reading of the famous Dušan Kovačević's drama Balkan Spy, contextualized by postulates of simulacra. The starting point for finding symbols that corresponded to the system of the non-referent world (and each such system creates its own reality, and proceeds from its own frame in which it must be interpreted) is a book of Jean Baudrillard 'Simulacrum and Simulation'. Through chapters that accentuate simulacrum-like phenomena for proving the actual through imaginary and cloned, as well as defining the world of literary text as a kind of Disneyland, it becomes evident soundness of this idea that confirms the quality of this drama.
The Language of hatred in its basic war inciting sense has almost disappeared from media. However, its mutants still may come out into public though intolerance or political settlements. There is no community insensitive to some kinds of hatred. Neither developed democratic nor, even less communities in new Balkan states. Members of minority groups are specially under impact - from ethnic via religious to those specially vulnerable community groups such as handicapped, with specific diseases and juveniles and alike. This paper is about that tolerance and hatred which still exists in media on Balkan. The writer points to the relationship of journalists to those minority groups and offers some of possible ways for improving the relationship between them.
During the research, it has been considered which toponyms on the Balkan Peninsula are named after the plant elder (Proto-Slavic base *baz). Using etymology dictionaries, as well as the list of settlements of the Republic of Serbia, we have found twenty-three such toponyms. All the places named by them are situated in the mountain region, which is exactly the area where the elders grow. Phonetic variations which exist among the except toponyms are differently interpreted by etimologists. Most of the settlements are very old, which confirms the Proto-Slavic origin and refutes the interpretation given in the folk tales. Trojan/Trajan is associated with the elder - in the story about the emperor with the goat's ears, the elder reveals the secret about the emperor's oddness. In the research, the emperor Trojan/Trajan is associated with Triglav, the Slavic god symbolized by the elder.
Ćamil Sijarić's novel is ending with Mojkovac battle, as the decisive battle of the Sandzak army in the First World War, since everything, previously narrated is leading towards it. Facts about the results of the battle, after soldiers' going to the battlefield and a picture of their return are displayed to a reader, instead of strategy, tactics and microanalysis of the battle. Thus, the author is focused on the meaning of Mojkovac battle and its contextualization, not only within the First World War, but also in the context of the prior Serbian history. On the one hand, novel's lyrical moments permanently strive to shape a legend, and, on the other, description of Lim, the watch-tower, a hero's cap and the flag are getting historical perspective. Enlightening the tragedy of such a choice (battle instead of capitulation) and motivation of the choice, as well as prehistory of his heroes, Sijaric made an exquisite picture of Sandzak's collective in which we recognize an ethical dimension of Kosovo's archetype and The Mountain Wreath. Njegos depicted the killing of converts to Islam in the context of Kosovo's oath, as Sijaric presented Mojkovac battle considering Kosovo, killing of converts to Islam, Ottoman's time and migration of Serbs. Scholars did not elaborate the thesis that Njegos's epic and Kosovo's archetype are the subtext of Mojkovac battle, although the meaning of battle which Sijaric's novel enquired should be read just in that key, which is, at the same time, testimony about Sijaric's humanistic reading of The Mountain Wreath and about spontaneously realized influences in the system of values existing within the same culture. Implicit dialogue between Mojkovac battle and The Mountain Wreath is seen in the concrete motives, in the manner of presentation of the historical event and, above everything, through the values which novel affirms. These facts, as we shall present, contribute to perceiving the battle in the First World War in the tradition of permanent fights for the freedom which were led on the Serbian territory until that moment.
Twenty-five years after the publication of the famous Daniel Bell's book The Coming of Post-industrial Society, new edition of the book was published with a foreword written by the author named 'The Axial Age of Technology'. In the foreword Bell clarifies his theses and predictions in relation to the changes that have taken place in meantime in contemporary society, as well as regarding to the critics of his theory. The aim of the paper is to show how Bell explains social development in the second half of the twentieth century as well as the main characteristics of that society of 'transitory nature' in which we live. Bell's starting theoretical and methodological point of view are discussed as well as the explanation of transition from industrial to post-industrial society and the possibilities of development of the third world societies. The main characteristic of post-industrial society, according to Bell, is the codification of theoretical knowledge and the new relation between science and technology. Main post-industrial developments are: the rise of service sector, occupational changes, changes in professions and education, growing role of financial and human capital, new forms of infrastructure and knowledge theory of value. New form of society is emerging, with changes in stratification system, economy, organization and consumption. Bell doesn't plead for a holistic view of society. Instead, he considers society as comprising three realms that can change in different ways, so historical change is not unified. Major instrument of historical change is technology, it poses problems for culture and political system but it doesn't determine them. He rejects the accusations of technological determinism because technology often operates in context it doesn't make. Daniel Bell was one of the first authors who stated that modern society had been fundamentally changing. His aim was to make a conceptual framework for the comprehensive explanation of contemporary social change. One can point to several theoretical and methodological problems Bell's explanation of modern society faces with (as well as some other theories of social change) such as technological determinism, unilinear concept of development and so, but he has built a sociological theory of contemporary social change, which encouraged intense debate in the social sciences and set up one of the possible starting points for understanding the contemporary social dynamics, theories of the information society.
This paper deals with the microtoponymy of the Berkovo village, which is situated on the left bank of Beli drim, in the area called Prekoruplje. Its accurate location is between Ozdrim and Pećka Bistrica confluence with the Drim. Research materials have been recorded by interviewing locals in the year of 1997 (Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Albanians). Some of the entries that are used in this paper, concerning village Berkovo, are taken from the work of Mileta Bukumirić called Onomastic of Prekoruplje (second part). The paper was published in Belgrade in the Onomatology contributions in 1982.
Kontinuirani tehnološki razvoj nameće nove izazove u pogledu zaštite privatnosti, budući da pametni uređaji i mehanizmi nadzora omogućavaju stvaranje velikih baza podataka o ličnosti. Kako na javnim mestima i u privatnim domovima, tako i u ustanovama za izvršenje krivičnih sankcija, video nadzor preti da ugrozi pravo na privatnost i stoga mora biti detaljno regulisan, da bi se uspostavio i održavao balans između privatnosti i bezbednosti. Uprkos tome, video nadzor u Srbiji nije regulisan posebnim zakonom, što otvara brojna sporna pitanja, posebno u kontekstu zatvora, gde se odluka o konkretnom načinu primene ovih tehnologija donosi u okviru pojedinačne ustanove za izvršenje krivičnih sankcija. Cilj ovog rada je da analizira na koji način je pravo na privatnost osuđenih lica konceptualizovano u međunarodnom pravu, da skrene pažnju na opravdanost, prednosti i nedostatke video nadzora u zatvorima, kao i da podigne svest o problemima koji se mogu pojaviti u ovoj nedovoljno regulisanoj oblasti.
Different Vlachs katuns were located in the area of Bileća and its neighbouring area of Rudine in the Middle Ages. One of the most prominent katun clan was Maleševci and its brethren, with many branches, which is the main subject of the paper. We will begin with this clan's first written records in the 14th century and continue until the beginning of the 16th century. Numerous documents about Vlachs Maleševci are preserved in Dubrovnik Archive, but some parts are either published or scattered in scientific writings and until now, they have never been systematised.
Brojne studije, sprovedene u različitim zemljama, ukazuju na probleme sa kojima se suočavaju osobe koje su napustile kazneno-popravni sistem – dobijanje lične dokumentacije, pronalaženje posla, stigmatizacija, itd. Cilj ovog rada predstavlja podizanje svesti o životu bivših osuđenih lica u Srbiji, kroz mapiranje izazova sa kojima se ona suočavaju nakon izdržane kazne. Rad predstavlja šest identifikovanih tema koje reflektuju najveće teškoće sa kojima se učenici istraživanja susreću, a tiču se: odnosa prema društvu i državi, odnosa prema radu i poslodavcima, odnosa prema socijalnom okruženju i odnosa prema sebi. U diskusiji su ponuđena tumačenja i predlozi za poboljšanje postpenalne podrške bivšim osuđenim licima, sa naglaskom na informisanju, destigmatizaciji i institucionalnoj podršci.
The book of Chaslav Korprivitsa: Philosophy of engagement is treat in review by her presentation form, by the engaging to take up knowledge contents and statements. Dynamical mode of occupying of horizon of a sense of things, started with a problem of a contemporal dimension of significance the concept of world and human, contemplating the problem engagement in aspect of understanding of existence, education and consecratedness, dedicate to the heuristic way of the real truthness. Mutual understanding in a modeling of communicative acts, who collecting the parts, fractions from the crisis of modern world, and united themselves on the question of his possible wholeness, it is the way of the open significances to the overcoming of that crisis. The straightening on that way is taking by the intersubjective overcoming the difficulties and distinctness, as a encouraging releasing and more facultative liberation for the truth alone.
SCHOOL IN THE BORDER MUNICIPALITIES OF EASTERN SERBIA
Border municipalities in eastern Serbia have peripheral position in
relation to the central state territory: geographical distance from the
administrative, political, economic and cultural center shaping their
overall social development, which is generally far behind the development
of other parts of Serbia. At various stages of transition,
starting from the nineties to the present, the border municipalities
were, it seems, more exposed to the negative effects of the neoliberal
development strategy: there was a change of ownership of industry,
as well as a de-industrialization, which led to significant reduction of
the workforce. The devastation of the economies in these areas has
intensified negative demographic processes in the border municipalities
of Eastern Serbia with the onset of the economic crisis in the
eighties and the subsequent processes there caused: (a) depopulation
(population between census periods from 1991 to 2011 fell by more
than 20% of the territory of Bor district), (b) reduction in the birth
rate, which for decades was showing negative trends (eg. natural
growth rate in the Negotin krajina, according to the Census of 2011,
amounts to -6.7 ‰ annually) (v) migration of the young, working
population (Census 2011) shows that nearly one-quarter of the
economically active population of the Bor district "work abroad", ie.
employment is found in western European countries, they educate
their own children there and, apparently, do not intend to return to
the place of birth.
The devastation of the economy leads to a legitimate social devastation
and collapse of culture (Mitrović, 2009) and education. The
main parameter to be monitored in the new neoliberal strategies of
development is economic growth, which points to the direction of
changes in macroeconomic processes, but not to the improvement of
the quality of life of people who participate in these processes. The
achieved rate of economic growth does not automatically provide
sustainable development of all areas of society, especially not their
balanced development. Therefore, different development policies,
such as education (and / or educational) policy, in addition to
economic parameters must take into account other parameters rele-
ШКОЛЕ У ПОГРАНИЧНИМ ОПШТИНАМА ИСТОЧНЕ СРБИЈЕ
ВЕСНА С. ТРИФУНОВИЋ, ПРЕДРАГ Ж. ЖИВКОВИЋ 295
vant to the allocation of decision-making. The question of the
network of schools, we believe, is not primarily a question of the
commercial viability of their establishment and maintenance, but
the crucial question of survival of the impoverished and emptied
According to data from the School Administration of Zaječar,
during the school year 2011/12, shows that (a) complete (eight-year
schools) do not exist in all observed municipalities, which raises the
issue of equal opportunities of education (access to resources - time
and financial) and (b) offered educational profiles of secondary
schools were reduced compared to the educational profiles of the
larger and more developed municipal centers in Serbia, which leads
to inequality of high school students in the choice of a profession: the
same were referred for decision-making in the framework of the
existing modest offer and not in accordance with their own interests
The authors believe that the basic guidelines for future educational
policy must not be guided solely by profitability and efficiency to
maintain the existing school network and to reduce it in the border
municipalities, but by interests that will enable the realization of the
principle of justice in education and dispersed school networks in
the Borderlands, thus providing an opportunity for its sustainable
KEY WORDS: in the border, development, educational policy, school infrastructure.
In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.
The main aim of this research is to determine the presence of infotainment elements as well as differences in the amount of their participation in the top news programs of the Public Service in Serbia: Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) and two commercial televisions, Pink, being the most watched private television, and Television B92. 'Infotainment ' is an English compound word which denotes a phenomenon related to the television. This media phenomenon is not a new one, but it has experienced its massive breakthrough into the media content in the market competition. It was created with the intention of making the news program more popular in order to entice advertisers who pay for advertising time and on whom commercial televisions depend. The methods which were used in the research are qualitative (a discourse analysis) and quantitative (a content analysis). The analysis of the data showed that there is a difference in news program of RTS, mostly in relation to TV Pink in terms of infotainment, and to some extent in relation to TV B92. In addition to the importance of the research that should show the state of the newscast on the Serbian national television, this paper also provides a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the infotainment problem.
As a socio-economic category, knowledge presupposes an analysis from the perspective of different scientific fields and disciplines. The applicable methods and procedures, as well as the terminology which results in the continuous development of the content and depth of knowledge, are specific. In line with this development is the diversity of classifications of knowledge that is increasingly expressed not only in its socio-psychological and pedagogical, but also economical aspects and essence. This, precisely, means that as the presuppositions for comprehensive technological civilizational trends and changes, knowledge is not only a social, but also an economic resource that defines the competitiveness and the overall progress of countries and their national economies.
The period of studying is a time of actualization of the capacities of the individual in almost every aspect of life. The students face changes related to the stage of development they are going through, and to which new requests of adaptation are added during professional qualification. The increased rate of psychological problems shows a necessity for existence of student services that provide psychological help. The research results point out the positive effect of counseling and the importance of university counseling services for the students, the effect on their academic success, subjective welfare and their remaining at the faculty. The pilot-project 'Psychological Counseling Center for Students' at the University of Nis is one of the largest and most permanent projects of this kind among universities of the region. The services of the counseling are completely free, and they are realized through three sectors: Counseling, Education and the Research Sector. Work reports of The Counseling service show that there is a need for this kind of psychological services and that the students are interested in attending seminars and debates where different aspects of mental health would be considered. The institutionalization of the above mentioned project, with the possible expansion of the network of psychological counseling services of this type in the region would give greater effects and contribute to the more comprehensive work concerning protection and improvement of the mental health of the students not only in Serbia, but also in surrounding countries.
The process of emigration from the area of Hum and Trebinje area to medieval Dubrovnik as a phenomenon existed for centuries. The causes for this were differents in different periods, and it's already well documented. However, from this broad process, this paper is limited to the population of Gacko only, which emigrated during the XIV and XV century in Dubrovnik to find a job and to learn a skill of a craft. On the basis of published and unpublished sources from Dubrovnik, the author establishes the conditions under which the medieval population from Gacko served and learned crafts in Dubrovnik.