Young Children

Online ISSN: 0044-0728
Publications
Article
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve parents. (Author/SS)
 
Article
Suggests that in order to take effective action against child sexual abuse, early childhood educators must be knowledgeable about sexual abuse, alert to its symptoms, and prepared to report and follow up on suspected cases. Recommendations are offered to help educators in the prevention, detection, and intervention of child sexual abuse. Characteristics of offenders and victims are described, and the severity of the offense is addressed. Staff and parent education programs should be organized to assist adults in communicating with young children about this sensitive issue. Teachers may cooperate with parents in planning classroom activities that attempt to protect children from sexual exploitation. Also, support should be provided for legislative, treatment, and law enforcement programs aimed at combating this problem. An annotated bibliography of 17 recommended resources for children, parents, and teachers is included. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the uses and abuses of developmental screening and school readiness tests of children that can be traced to the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test by F. L. Ilg and L. B. Ames (1972) and similar tests. The implications of using readiness tests to assign children to particular school programs are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In the present article, reprinted from Education Week (January 16, 1985), the author discusses the need to provide many low-income children with additional developmental experiences in kindergarten. The division of kindergarten and the early primary grades into stages that correspond to the acquisition of specific skills is recommended as a means of permitting children to acquire the necessary skills while avoiding the stigma of failure associated with grade retention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presented 28 preschool children with photographs of all the children in his/her class to have them pick those with whom they would most and least like to play. Based on these decisions, all Ss were given social acceptance and social rejection scores and divided into 4 social status groups: popular, controversial, rejected, and neglected. Ss were then observed in dyadic and triadic interactions, noting both verbal and nonverbal communication. Popular Ss were the most efficient in their ability to direct their communications to others and had a wide range of social initiation strategies at their disposal. In responding to the initiations of others, popular Ss were more attentive than less popular Ss. Controversial Ss were also clear in their communications, but they differed from the popular Ss when they were intruders to a dyad, in that they were just as likely as rejected Ss to ignore the initiations of others. Neglected Ss were more likely than other Ss to play by themselves and seemed to experience more difficulty as intruders than any of the others. Rejected Ss made as many social initiations as popular and controversial Ss but received fewer initiations than any other groups because of a lack of attention to others and limitations in their social initiation repertoires. Findings can help teachers be alert for such patterns of interaction and can guide children toward using communication strategies associated with social acceptance. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes how parents can encourage independence, self-reliance, and a healthy self-concept by involving children in household tasks that are appropriate for their level of development. A 6-wk project was conducted involving 23 4-yr-olds and their families. Each week, after the preschool teachers demonstrated a household task to the children and practiced the task with them, parents were given a form that provided directions for carrying out the activity at home. Results indicate that the children participated enthusiastically, and the program had a dramatic positive effect on parents' perceptions of their children's capabilities. Suggestions to parents and teachers include (1) being alert to when a child is developmentally ready to help with tasks; (2) including the child in planning what, when, and how tasks are to be done; (3) planning the task so the child can complete it with ease; (4) dividing the task into manageable portions; (5) selecting tasks for which the success rates are likely to be high; and (6) encouraging and reinforcing the child's efforts. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the opportunities that musical activities give to children to solve problems with creative thinking. Finger plays, action songs, music games, writing words for songs, and melody composition are considered. Teachers must encourage children to ask questions and support them in their search for answers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Provides information and suggestions to help parents and teachers deal constructively with issues concerning acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to transmit less anxiety to young children. Issues discussed include what the disease is and how the epidemic started, treatment of the disease, contagion, how to minimize risk of contracting AIDS, how to cope when a child in the classroom has AIDS, how to cope when a parent of a child in the classroom has AIDS, and dealing with issues of grief and death. Resources for adults and children are listed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the use of simulation exercises as a training method to develop advocacy skills in people who work with children. Role-playing converts 3rd-person ideas into 1st-person action and can clarify thinking, develop change strategies, concretize viewpoints, and provide a laboratory for alternative solutions. Guidelines are presented for simulation exercises, and the design and organization of a realistic example is outlined. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Points out that the past 2 decades of early childhood (ECH) intervention programs have demonstrated the potentially strong linkages between research, public policies, and program implementation. However, the conceptual models and theoretical frames of reference that have historically guided American behavioral and social scientists have generally lacked significant formative input from those who are the objects of investigation. For the government role in ECH education to make a significant break from the cultural myopia of its past, there must be a clear recognition of the severe limitations of the current approach. As long as African-American scholars, researchers, and program developers are considered a radical fringe whose only purpose is to reflect a minority perspective, the fundamental nature of ECH education programs will not drastically change. A meaningful emphasis on the promotion of biculturalism can only come about when African-American professionals assume the responsibility for developing conceptual models, conducting research to determine the appropriateness of the models, and initiating programs based in valid and empirical results. The outcome will likely be the widespread development of programs that play major roles on the development of self-confident, independent, and bicultural African-American children. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Proposes a cognitive theory to explain why children whose parents have read to them often learn to read early and easily in school. Perhaps brain structures unique to reading are formed in this early process. Young children may unconsciously learn the rules that govern the procedures of reading. It is important that children see the printed page while the story is read, that they help turn pages to learn phrasing, that many repetitions are provided, that words are pointed out, and that they have free access to the books. Previous explanations have focused on identification and social modeling of the adult reader, positive reinforcements, emotional security, and language development. Affect and cognition are considered to interact in developing reading fluency. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
For children attending day care, there may be some risks in the domain of social development. These risks are not necessary evils of day care; rather, the risks may be the result of a failure to provide systematic opportunities to encourage the development of prosocial behaviors. The present study describes how a day care program dealt with aggressive peer interactions through social curriculum intervention. The introduction of a comprehensive curriculum approach involving environmental rearrangement, staff development, and curriculum activities for children successfully enhanced the social skills of the children attending the center. The essential element of the approach was that it was formal and systematic. Socialization no longer was a haphazard process of randomly praising appropriate and punishing inappropriate behaviors. Findings indicate that the curriculum has been effective in reducing aggressive behavior among the children. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses reasons why traditional "structured" and traditional "free play" school settings are not satisfactory teaching approaches for American Indian children. Cultural values such as respect for the dignity of the individual, cooperation, sharing, and deemphasis of time must be considered in planning learning centers for them. Open education offers a degree of permissiveness that blends with the child-rearing practices of many Indian parents. It has worked well in several reservation schools and should be extended to allow a better "fit" between home and school for Indian pupils. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews articles reflecting the modern trend of professionals to accept parents as partners with a unique role in educating their young children. Mother–child–worker relationships may produce parental apprehension, overdependency, competition for the child's attention, or feelings of inadequacy. Intervention may focus primarily on the parent as a person or as a teacher. Group workshops have been effective with parents of retarded or learning-disabled children. Home-based programs are illustrated by the work of S. Fraiberg et al (1969) in promoting the love-bond between parent and blind infant. Paraprofessionals are important because of their sensitivity to cultural clues. Earning parents' confidence is a major goal. Techniques may include demonstrations of how to work with the child, making direct suggestions, consulting parents on selection of materials, and encouraging to attend school meetings. It is concluded that special education training must include courses for the teacher on how to work with parents of handicapped children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses how art activities can facilitate cognitive, social, affective, and motor learning in children. Basic learning and thinking skills can be implemented by training in arts and crafts such as painting, clay, and collage. Specific areas such as language development and math and science are related to art education. Knowing what to look for, setting specific goals for learning, and supporting the personal involvement of the children as they explore and create are prime functions of the teacher during "art periods." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses sand as a resource for stimulating play and language skill development with young children. The use of sand in reading, writing, teaching, and listening is considered. The teacher is considered an active participant in the children's sandbox involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the negative impact of L. Canter and M. Canter's (1976) model of assertive discipline for use in the classroom. The effects of the model on the self-concepts of children, the learning atmosphere in the classroom, and the sensibilities of professional teachers are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Research provides no clear-cut evidence that children's use of Black English interferes with their learning to read or write. However, the learning of children who speak Black dialect can be negatively affected by teacher attitudes toward socially nonstandard dialects, teacher comprehension of such dialects, and the relationship of dialect to social class and self-esteem. Strategies for facilitating the success of young Black writers are the same as those appropriate for any beginning writer. A good deal of classroom time should be spent on oral activities to develop the ability to communicate ideas clearly. Reading to the children provides models of the syntax and form of written language and also expands their knowledge of the world. In teaching writing, children should be helped with both ideas and the mechanics of writing, but instruction should not be narrowly grammatical, nor should the teacher correct too frequently or without consideration of the child's feelings. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses issues involved in the move toward the professionalization of early childhood educators. The meaning of professionalization is considered in terms of pedagogic authority and the knowledge base that grounds early childhood teaching practice. Suggestions for increasing the knowledge base of the field include (1) supporting qualitative research that deals directly with teachers, (2) structuring teacher training so that teachers view themselves as choice makers, and (3) examining the advantages and disadvantages of working with teachers at other levels. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Summarizes empirical and theoretical studies having to do with young children's play leadership in the classroom. Issues addressed include the identification of leading and following skills, the skills of effective leader/followers, types of unskilled leaders (e.g., bullies, isolates, bootlickers), and implications for teaching. Both leading and following are viewed as essential aspects of effective social participation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues against the use of traditional instructional methods in which the objective is for the child to merely internalize what is taught and discusses the pedagogical implications of Piagetian theory, in which children's construction of knowledge through their own mental activity is emphasized. Curricula for arithmetic and for reading and writing are considered in relation to the concept of constructivism and the distinction between physical, logico-mathematical, and social knowledge. The relation of Piagetian theory to associationism and behaviorism is outlined, and the need for a developmental view of early childhood education is stressed. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses data that indicate that the greatest gains in language occur during the 1st grade. Black children are asked to learn 2 language skills at that time: competence in understanding and reading. Experimental kindergarten children taught spontaneous and creative types of language activities expanded their oral language. It is concluded that use of the English language in realistic situations at kindergarten level improves the black child's linguistic competence and, in turn, his productive control over standard English. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Trained 4 Black male recorders to interview and observe 36 suburban, middle-class, Black working families with 19 boys and 17 girls. Questions included the Cognitive Home Environment Scale and the Thomas Self-Concept Values Test. Results show much interaction between father and child, and the majority (77%) of observed interactions were warm, loving, and supportive. Fathers perceived themselves to be strict in controlling their children's behavior, were vitally concerned about their children, and actively involved in decisions regarding the child's welfare. The Black children in this sample felt good about themselves and felt valued by both parents, by their teachers, and by peers. The fathers did not fit the stereotype of the invisible man, although some of them had outside stress related to their employment that limited the amount of nurturance they could give their children. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews empirical research on stepfamilies and discusses the complexities involved in living in a blended (reconstituted) family. Research findings on the effects of children living in blended families are mixed. The nature of the blended family network, however, is strikingly different from the unbroken family network, so stepfamilies experience some complications that unbroken families do not. The teacher's unique role in facilitating a stepchild's adjustment after a parent's remarriage is discussed, and suggestions concerning what the teacher can do are presented. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the advantages of building with blocks for young children and how they can learn about space and spatial relationships from positioning blocks. Developmental changes in the symbolic representation of space with blocks are reviewed: As children mature, they make use of a wider range of spatial forms to represent spatial configurations. Basic spatial representations (e.g., on, by, in) with blocks are generally mastered before 4 yrs of age, after which further spatial elaborations (e.g., enclosure) begin to emerge. Also emergent at this time are the differentiation of objects within a construction, clarification of indoor and outdoor space, and coordination of landmarks. Suggested activities for increasing children's awareness of spatial concepts are presented, and implications for classroom teachers are noted. To promote spatial representation by children with blocks, teachers should provide a sufficient number of blocks and ample space, help children notice and explore spatial features of their world, and pay attention to the configurations in children's block constructions and how they relate to their development of spatial concepts. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests guidelines for the teacher in selecting and using picture books designed to facilitate a child's emotional health, a process termed "bibliotherapy." These include hints for evaluating crisis-oriented literature, identifying the appropriate audience, and knowing when and how to present the material. It is emphasized that the authenticity of a teacher's attitude is fundamental to successful bibliotherapy. A suggested list of children's books is also provided. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents disciplinary measures for teachers and parents who want to increase their students' or children's self-control, distinguishing between discipline and punishment. Children are punished when their behavior is controlled through fear; when punished, children feel humiliated, hide their mistakes, have a poor self-concept, and fail to develop inner controls to handle future problems. Children are disciplined when they see the possible consequences of their actions; alternative behaviors are proposed, and children learn to control themselves and balance their needs with those of others, while becoming increasingly independent. The effects of interaction style, environment, and expectations on children's misbehavior are considered as possible means of preventing discipline problems. Several relevant problem-solving skills, including emphasis on a sense of the consequences of actions, redirection of activities, time-out, restraint holding, and ignoring inappropriate behavior are discussed. Before trying these techniques, it is important to consider the fact that how the techniques are applied is just as essential as the ability to use them. Suggestions for the effective use of these techniques are included. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the psychological and emotional aspects of a child's transition from preschool to kindergarten. The need for teachers to involve parents in the transition and to develop plans to make the leave-taking a positive experience for the child is emphasized. Some curriculum suggestions for aiding in the transition include understanding growth, serving as a role model, and keeping in touch with the children. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Summarizes the key findings by R. Ruopp et al (1979), who examined federally subsidized childcare programs and found that the development of preschool children is affected by child–staff ratio, group size, caregiver qualifications, and other characteristics that can be regulated. A survey of 1981 state child care regulations as they pertain to these characteristics is included. It is concluded that there is little evidence that Ruopp's findings have been acted upon except in the area of caregiver qualifications. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses basic principles of good care for babies, including a loving and responsive caregiver who respects the baby's individuality. The types of childcare are reviewed (home care, family day care, group care). Other topics include the cost of child care, how to find good care, and when to begin supplemental care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the lack of a comprehensive plan for childcare in the US and how this affects children, families, employers, and childcare providers. It is argued that in developing a national childcare policy, the danger of too rapidly institutionalizing childcare must be avoided. Other guidelines include retaining racial, cultural, and religious diversity in childcare and engaging a variety of societal institutions (e.g., schools, churches) in childcare roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the use of a learning-center approach in kindergarten to integrate developmental theory and educational practice. The history, design, functions, and types of learning centers are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the development of the Head Start (HS) program and research efforts designed to assess its effectiveness. HS began in the 1960's as a comprehensive early intervention program for low-income parents and their young children. HS now reaches more than 400,000 3–5-yr-olds annually, providing education, opportunities for healthy social and emotional development, nutrition, and medical/dental care so that children can develop and learn at their best. HS models continue to affect childcare, the public schools, health care, and social services. It is argued that debates about the future of HS, which concern the role of government, federal fiscal policy, the needs of children, and the conditions of minorities and low-income families, are in a larger sense debates about the care of all children in the US. Studies from 3 categories of HS research periods—dismal, latency, and watershed—are reviewed, and the influence of research on public policy is examined. The role of the HS program in promoting social progress is considered. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes challenges to the Head Start program posed by 4 trends in family life—the feminization of poverty, the rise in teen parenting, increased labor force participation by mothers of preschool children, and the persistence of economic distress among many low-income families. The need to increase the comprehensiveness of the program is emphasized, and strategies to address each of these problems are presented, as are recommendations to improve the parent involvement component of Head Start. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes a model for consultation with educational personnel by mental health clinicians. The consultant establishes a nonauthoritative atmosphere in which staff members provide observations and facts for discussions of an individual child, but the consultant does not observe the child directly or have direct contact with parents. It is believed that the teacher's role and influence extend beyond the classroom boundaries. For many children, school is their most structured consistent life experience, often a major source of caring and effective management. Parents are helped to participate in the child's educational experience. If mental health consultation helps teachers understand specific children, the long-term preventive and curative effects spread to other children and to many different future classes. Two case histories illustrate these principles and methods. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examines the images attributed to the child throughout history, including those of the past (e.g., as young citizen, chattel, plaything), present (e.g., sensual, malleable, competent), and future (e.g., sophisticated, self-sufficient). Such images are viewed as a result of prevailing political, social, and/or religious ethos. It is argued that the images of children in the present will be replaced by equally false images in the future; parents will spend less time parenting, and there will be increasing emphasis on social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examines research concerning the origins and characteristics of shyness in children. Issues addressed include genetics and shyness, cognition and shyness, situational specificity, social difficulties of shy children, sex differences, and the persistence of shyness. 25 suggestions for caregivers on helping shy children are outlined; included are strategies for observation, interaction, social skills teaching and learning, group formation, and encouragement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the prevalence of childhood obesity; its mechanical, physiological, and psychological consequences; and ways in which parents and teachers can prevent it. Childhood obesity may involve factors including heredity, form and structure of fat tissue, energy balance, and central nervous control. The development of healthy eating habits is discussed, as is the value of proper nutrition and exercise. It is concluded that parental encouragement and support can determine the success of nutrition education for young children. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the effectiveness of concrete materials as a stimulus to oral language, using a series of 3 tasks intended to stimulate story language. 23 boys and 25 girls in kindergarten through Grade 3 were asked to tell a story about a picture and an 8-page wordless picture book. Three stories told by a 5-yr-old illustrate both the differences in the qualities of language used and the potential influence of the context in which language is produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Cites research showing caregiver, teacher, parent differences in treating and responding to male and female children. Such differences appear from birth onward in ways that reflect what adults believe to be typical or desirable pathways and behaviors for each sex. Some of these differences reflect a bias toward expecting males to be active, decision-making achievers and expecting girls to be nurturant, submissive, and interpersonally sensitive to others. It is suggested that adults need to do more to help both sexes toward achievement and toward tenderness; adults should become aware of the critical importance their nurturance has for the development of interpersonal sensitivities in males; and they must think about the consequences of overprotection of girls. Competence should be encouraged in both males and females in whatever form competence appears. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Posits that dramatic and sociodramatic play provide children with valuable opportunities to develop and practice important cognitive, social, and emotional skills. Suggestions concerning ways in which early childhood teachers can enhance such play are presented. Discussed are observation of children's play, setting the stage for play (time, space and basic equipment, and props), the teacher's role, and adaptation of play facilitation methods to the players. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews studies on single-father families, which indicate that such a family structure is a healthy and workable one. Early childhood educators should encourage the family, provide help in adjusting the family's schedules, watch for signs of stress in the fathers, provide parenting information, and learn about the family's custody arrangements. Daycare curricula should be adjusted to help all children learn about alternative family arrangements, and parental involvement in daycare activities should be encouraged. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents professional, nonprofessional, and unprofessional teacher reactions to a situation in which 2 children are arguing over the use of a tricycle. The skilled professional teacher would attempt to turn the disagreement into an experience for learning social skills, such as turn taking, negotiating, coping, communication, social perspective, and the rudiments of justice. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests ways in which kindergarten or early primary teachers can make their statements of praise more effective and more consistent with the early childhood education goals of developing the child's self-concept, autonomy, self-reliance, and motivation for learning. Also discussed are reasons why many common expressions of praise are not consistent with intended early childhood environments characterized by cooperation, encouragement, and positive relationships. In contrasting encouragement with praise, encouragement is depicted as specific, teacher initiated, focusing on process rather than evaluation, assisting children with the development of appreciation of their own behaviors and achievements, and avoiding comparisons or competition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests how teachers of children 3-7 yrs old can develop a creative dramatics program. Music and movement, with children walking to a steady drum beat, can lead to drama. Children can dramatize songs, stories, and poems. Trips to the river, firehouse, or the zoo can also be dramatized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews trends and developments in early childhood education since the 19th century, focusing on school entrance age, kindergarten and early reading, agents of social change, women's roles, and concepts of knowledge. It is argued that an understanding of early childhood education's saga (i.e., an embellished understanding of an organization's development that defines the organization and suggests that its past and present members share common characteristics) will strengthen the identity of modern early childhood educators. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a case report to illustrate an ethical dilemma that has yet to be resolved in early childhood education: when a parent requests special treatment for his or her child. Five perspectives on the issue are presented: personal, legal, employment, social theory, and ethical. The drafting of a code of ethics for early childhood educators is considered. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews research on children's and adolescents' awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of bombing, the influences of nuclear threat on personality, and denial of threat. Studies of 4–18 yr olds suggested that early childhood is the period in which children become aware of nuclear weapons and their threat and that this awareness comes from TV and the classroom. Fear of bombing also appears to develop in early childhood and is often expressed in fears of being left alone or of losing loved ones. This fear may have implications for personality development: A study by W. Beardslee and J. Mack (1982) of adolescents showed that the threat of nuclear war caused the Ss to reconsider marriage and family and that it had contributed to uncertainty about the future and a sense of helplessness. There is evidence that children use denial strategies when confronted with the possibility of nuclear war. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the complexities of evaluating effectiveness in teachers of young children. Relevant literature points to the interaction of many factors, including teacher and child characteristics and the physical and social environment of the program. There are 2 general approaches to teacher effectiveness research: (1) experimental design that focuses on particular teacher variables in controlled situations and (2) more naturalistic observations of children's behavior in school settings. Studies of teachers' personal characteristics have found significant relationships between teacher effectiveness and (1) how teachers view their childhoods, (2) individual teachers' styles of perception and judgment, and (3) teachers' levels of abstractness or concreteness. A teacher's attitudes and beliefs may also affect effectiveness, and it is widely believed that teacher behavior has a strong impact in early childhood settings. Research on the effects of teacher sex, education, experience, and situational factors is considered. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Susan Neuman
  • New York University
Alice Sterling Honig
  • Syracuse University
Marcy Whitebook
  • University of California, Berkeley
Douglas H. Clements
  • University of Denver
Carollee Howes
  • University of California, Los Angeles