Yoga Mimamsa

Published by Medknow Publications
Print ISSN: 0044-0507
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Background of Study: The Indian school education system is textbook-oriented that focuses on rote memorization of lessons and demands long hours of systematic study every day. The elaborate study routines that are expected by high school students span from the morning to till late evening hours, leaving little time for socialization, recreation, play games and sports by full strength. Objective of Study: The present study was conducted with a view to see the effect of Sahaja Yoga meditation on stress among school children. Materials and Method: Non-equivalent control group design was used for this experiment. The participants were 8th grade students from a school located in Mumbai. The students were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Experimental group received the treatment of Sahaja Yoga meditation program for 6 weeks, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. Both groups were free to do their daily routine activities. Stress was assessed using a questionnaire before and after 6 weeks of Sahaja Yoga meditation program. Statistical Analysis: Collected data were analyzed with the help of the standard statistical technique t-test to conclude the investigation. Results: The results of the study showed a significant difference in academic stress (p < 0.05) after 6 weeks of Sahaja Yoga meditation program. However, there was no significant improvement in academic stress (p > 0.05) in the control group. Conclusion: Sahaja Yoga meditation program is helpful to manage the academic stress of school girls.
 
Background: Women of reproductive age suffer from menses-associated health problems such as premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and irregular menstrual cycles. Research has proved that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a psychophysiological and a stress-induced disorder and that stress is a cause of symptoms of PMS. Objective: This controlled experiment was conducted with a view to examine the effect of full course of yoga training (suggested by Swami Kuvalayananda) on psychophysiological responses across menstrual cycle in low fit college women. Methods: A total of 55 low fit college women, aged 20–30 years, with problems in menstrual cycle, volunteered in this study and were divided randomly into two groups, namely, yoga group (n1 = 27) and control group (n2 = 28). At the baseline and after completion of 12 weeks of yoga training, both the groups were assessed for menstrual status, pain tolerance, resting pulse rate, and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) using standard tools. The yoga group practiced a set of full course of yoga for 1 h daily in the morning (6:30–7:30), 6 days in a week (except Sundays and holidays), for a total period of 12 weeks, whereas the control group did not participate in the said yoga program but were involved in some recreational activities and/or library reading during the tenure of experiment. Results: The result of factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post hoc test indicates that yoga training could bring down pulse rate (CD = 0.43, p < 0.05) and blood pressure (CD = 0.47, p < 0.01) at a normal range, whereas it could bring a statistically significant improvement in the symptoms of menstrual problems (CD = 0.45, p < 0.01) and pain tolerance ability (CD = 0.40, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Yoga training could contribute to improvement in the psychophysiological responses across menstrual cycle among the low fit college women.
 
Delta amplitude changes after immediate yogasana practice
Theta amplitude changes after immediate yogasana practice
Alpha amplitude changes after immediate yogasana practice
Gamma amplitude changes after immediate yogasana practice
Observations of brain wave amplitudes after immediate yogasana practice
Background: Yoga is a practice to control and develop the mental function. Scientists are trying to establish the effect of yoga on the various systems and organs in the human body by using different scientific methods and research techniques. The brain is one of the main targeted organs in yoga research. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the electrical responses of the brain after immediate yogasana practices. Materials and Methods: Ten male (n=10) yoga practitioners having more than 8 years of experience in yogasana practice were selected as participants. Before and after immediate practices of six specific yoga postures were assessed on three different consecutive days for 15, 22.5, and 30 min. Delta, theta, alpha, sensory-motor rhythm (SMR), beta, and gamma amplitudes were assessed under the circumstance of electrical activity of the brain and measured using NeXus-10 device. Results: The outcome of the brain wave components showed that there was a decrease in delta (9.12%, 12.3%, and 19.52%), theta (12.32%, 15.9%, and 16.09%), alpha (11.99%, 17.49%, and 13.21%), SMR (6.89%, 17.27%, and 13.5%), beta (0.29%, 13.95%, and 14.4%) amplitude immediately after 15, 22.5, and 30 min practice of yoga postures, respectively. In the case of gamma amplitude, initially, it increased 8.58% in 15 min practice, there after decreasing trend was observed in 22.5 min (11.47%) and 30 min practice (15.9%). Conclusions: Immediate yogasana practices may enhance the functions of brain wave activity which increases motor activity, autonomic flexibility, and associates with a better cognitive state.
 
Context: Need for yogic lifestyle education in schools is being recognized eloquently. However, effectiveness of yogic lifestyle for enhancing adolescent health in schools remains partially or minimally attempted. Aims: To examine the relevance of yogic lifestyle education in improving holistic aspects of adolescent health in schools. Method: A four week field experiment was conducted among a sample of 100 students enrolled in a residential school located in a semi-urban setting by using a 2 (control and intervention group) ×2 (male and female students) ×2 (pre and post-test) factorial design. Standardized self-report adolescent health questionnaires were used before and after yogic lifestyle education to assess its holistic effects. Results: ANOVA was used to analyze efficacy of yogic lifestyle education in promoting different aspects of adolescent health. Results revealed that yogic lifestyle education group participants' responses displayed significantly greater enhancement on a variety of self-reported positive health outcomes and a reduction on different negative health outcomes than the control group participants. Conclusions: Yogic lifestyle education programme has promising potential to not only reduce health problems but also enhance positive aspects of health in school going adolescents.
 
Context: We are passing through a period of general unrest. People are unable or incapable to adjust to the different circumstances and conditions of life. They are at the breaking point every moment. Our students are no exception to this phenomenon. Yoga incorporates a system of discipline of integrated development of all the aspects of personality. Yoga helps in various ways to balance the sedentary lifestyle. Aims: To investigate the yoga-based module technique on the mindfulness of adolescents. Settings and Design: The study follows pre–post single group design. Fifty-one adolescents were recruited, with age ranging between 11 and 14 years for yoga intervention. The attendance was 100% during the intervention. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 participants were recruited in the present study, with age ranging between 11 and 14 years. The sample size was calculated with G-Power software by fixing the alpha at 0.05, power at 0.80, and an effect size of 0.99 based on the mean and standard deviation of an earlier study. The calculated sample size was 36, but due to possible dropout, we considered 51 individuals in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were found normally distributed using the Shapiro–Wilk test (P > 0.05). Within-group comparison was performed using the paired sample t-test. This was done using RStudio. Results: The normality test of data was done by the Shapiro–Wilk test, and the p value was found to be 0.26, which was >0.05 level, showing that the data were normally distributed. Therefore, the paired sample t-test was done between pre- and post-data; the outcome of the study reported that there was a significant change from pre- to postdata in mindfulness. The p value was found to be 0.012, which proved the alternative hypothesis: the mean of differences is not equal to zero. The mean of the difference is equal to 2.29, which showed that yoga has its effects on mindfulness. Conclusions: In this study, we compared 60 days of yoga-based intervention. The yoga module included some standing and balancing asanas, pranayama mudra, and short relaxation. The effect of this yoga module could be seen in the result of this study, which revealed that this yoga module improves mindfulness in adolescents.
 
Distribution of clinical characteristics
Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of yoga therapy and its influence on blood glucose parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Method: This was a prospective study conducted at Diabetes Centre, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, India, from January 2016 to December 2016. A total of 1000 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study with informed consent. We assessed the patients for pre- and post-assessment blood parameters after a period of 12 months for fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol, and triglycerides. A qualitative in-depth interview of the participants and therapist was conducted at baseline, end of 6 months, and end of 12 months. Statistical Analysis: The observations were recorded and analyzed for significance using SPSS version 20.0 statistical tool. Results: During pre-assessment, the results revealed an increase in the level of FBS (181.75 ± 71.47), PPBS (262.04 ± 97.23), HbA1c (10.30 ± 5.3), cholesterol (180.13 ± 47.1), and triglycerides (159.77 ± 110.39). However, the participants who completed the yoga therapy had significantly lower FBS (133.01 ± 46.98) (p < 0.0001), PPBS (187.67 ± 68.61) (p < 0.0001), and HbA1c (7.89 ± 1.6) (p < 0.0001) at the end of the 12th month. There was statistically significant positive correlation observed in yoga group as compared to the control group during postassessment blood parameters. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrated that yoga is effective in reducing the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study also showed positive benefits of yoga in the management of diabetes with real impact on glycemic control and lipid profile.
 
Background: Ahiṃsā is a word formed by adding the negative prefix“a” to the word hiṃsā, a derivative from the root“hiṃs” meaning“to harm” and“to injure.” Accordingly, Ahiṃsā carries the meaning of nonkilling. The most evolved concept of Ahiṃsā can be traced out in the Pātañjala Yoga Sūtras. Aim: The aim of the paper is to make a comparative study of multiple commentaries on Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra and to bring out the import of the concept of Ahiṃsā. Method: The concept of Ahiṃsā has been studied through the identification of commentaries. As well, a comparative and analytical study has been done using primary sources. Results: The study of various commentaries leads to the conclusion that most of the commentators have a common observation regarding the nature of Ahiṃsā, essentially necessary for yoga seekers. Conclusion: The comparative studies of commentaries of Pātañjala Yoga Sūtra bring out the essence of Ahiṃsā most objectively.
 
Context: Patañjali Yoga Sūtras classify Citta Vṛttis into the Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa (Desikachar, 2014, p.16). After this initial mention, there are no further discussions on this 2-fold classification of the Vṛttis in the text. Though Kleśas are discussed in the second chapter of text, the terms Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa themselves do not appear as part of discussion in the entire text after this initial mention. This gives rise to quite a few questions: What is the purpose of classifying the Vṛttis into Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa? What is meant by Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis? What is the nature of association of Kleśas with Vṛttis? Should both Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis be restrained or will it be enough if one focuses on restraining the Kliṣṭa Vṛttis? and so on. Aim: Though the Sūtras themselves do not reveal any further information on this, many Sanskrit commentaries of Yoga Sūtra, beginning from the one ascribed to Vyāsa, address these questions. The aim is to study these commentaries to find answers to the questions raised above. Method: A descriptive method of analyzing arguments is used because of the philosophico-literary nature of the study. Result: The commentaries along with presenting various possible answers to the questions on the Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis of the Yoga sūtras also reveal more relevant insights. Conclusion: On scrutiny of the commentaries, it becomes evident that all the techniques of Patañjali in the Yoga Sūtras, be it Abhyāsa vairagya, Kriyā Yoga, or Aṣṭāṅga Yoga, operate on the principles discussed under the Sūtra on Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa classification establishing Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis as the foundational principles of Yoga Sūtras. The diverse yogic methods and techniques that are prescribed centered onthe body, breath, emotions, intellect, etc., seem to be aimed only at the generation of progressively varying levels of Akliṣṭa Vṛttis and ultimately to overcome even these Akliṣṭa Vṛttis to attain absolute Citta-vṛitti-nirodha.
 
Background: Anuṣṭhāna Yōga Vedānta (AYV) is a comprehensive system developed by Yogacharya Raparthi Rama Rao, who attained the state of jīvaṇmukti (liberated while living). He was the spiritual head of Yoga Consciousness Trust, Vizinigiri, Andhra Pradesh, India. AYV comprises of two integrated parts of yōga and vedānta emphasizing on the applied aspects of both. Aim: The current study focused on exploration and analysis of the AYV methodology and techniques. Methods: a) Extensive review of a total of five books written by Yogacharya in English representing the AYV method; b) one book on the biographical details of Yogacharya including his selected works & letters; c) personally attending numerous lectures of Yogacharya and listening to CD recordings of his lectures; d) personal interactions with him regarding clarification and correction of the concepts and methodology of AYV; and e) insights gained through following the stipulated methodology of AYV. Results: Yogacharya’s zealous faith that every human being has the inherent capacity to liberate themselves in this life itself, had led him to develop a well integrated and balanced methodology which according to him, is not only a surest path, but also the swiftest and safest one. Anuṣṭhāna yōga is the amalgamation of karma, bhakti, maṇtra, kuṇḍalini, and rāja yōgas. All these yōgas are practiced in a systematic manner, initially with a focus on attaining the bindu or chaitaṇya darshan, and then practicing to be in the awareness of the chaitaṇya. Anuṣṭhāna vedānta deals with imparting knowledge that helps in analyzing and realizing the nature of one’s true Self. Conclusion: Yogacharya developed a systematic methodology of achieving the objectives of yōga and vedānta, which is tailored to the needs and levels of the modern person and is a surest, swiftest and safest method. The stage-by-stage learning process of AYV, guides all types of sādhakas in a phased manner and helps them progress to reach the goal.
 
Design of Maharishi's Vedic Mathematics Curriculum Intervention 
Context: Many children have low self-confidence in mathematics, leading to math anxiety, disturbed cognitive skills, and reduction of the quality of their educational experience. Aims: This study aimed to compare methods of reducing such anxiety and improving cognitive skills using pranayama; and second, introducing pattern recognition in problem solving, using methods of Vedic Mathematics. These methods were chosen because pranayamas are well-established, standardized means of anxiety reduction for any stressful condition, offering a precise standard for comparison, while, Vedic Mathematics shortens and facilitates calculations. Settings and Design: The study design was a randomized controlled trial with three groups: Yoga pranayama (YP), Vedic Mathematics (VM), and controls (CG) taking 12th grade students from a private preuniversity college in India. Method: Intervention was 15 days each of 30 min daily instruction in either selected YP or VM for the two experimental groups. All the three groups received conventional math training every day. Exclusion criteria were major psychological problems. Assessments used the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Revised and Children's Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental groups improved on all subscales of both tests, p < 0.001: the VM group improving more on the first test and the pranayama group performing better on the second test. Controls showed no improvements. Conclusion: Introducing pranayama and VM methods as teaching aids would improve cognitive skills and reduce math anxiety and offer a means to improve examination results, as later demonstrated.
 
Introduction: Yoga was originally founded in South Asia and it was practiced by various South Asian individuals. It is a spiritual practice about the mind and body, as well as the meaning of life and the nature of the universe. The intended belief was yoga assist with self-development believed to reduce stress, increase beauty, strength, and muscle flexibility. Aim and Objective: The main objective of this article is to highlight how yoga has transformed into controversial, elite, counter cultural and pop culture varieties with undertones of cultural appropriation. Argument: The case of yoga and its appropriation by the Western culture creates a paradoxical situation. In this situation, approval and adoption of yoga in the West has made the practice more trendy and popular among middle-class urban Indian consumers and helped re-brand the practice. Such re-marketing has allowed to make yoga more appealing to the modern consumer and more concerned with the aspects related to physical performance, health and scientific explanation. Conclusion: Although the notion of cultural appropriation can be discussed in the negative light, the article explores how yoga has transformed from a sacred practice to cultural appropriation by Western culture.
 
Background: Autism is one of the most common developmental disorders. It is a lifelong brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood. Autism is a spectrum disorder varying in severity and impact from individual to individual. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to find the effect of yogic intervention on children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder. Settings and Design: Thirty children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder were selected from Abhiprerna Foundation, Haridwar for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 5 to 16 years. The design used for the study was pre-post design. Purposive sampling was used for collection of the sample. Methods: The current study was performed with parents/caregivers who gave information regarding the daily activities of the child; pre and post values for the study were assessed on the basis of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. yogic practices including OM Chanting, Asanas, and Pranayama were used as intervention for a period of 3 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired samples t-test was used for comparing the means of pre and post values. Results: Though there was statistically significant reduction in the symptoms of autism in children after a period of 3 months, yet the effect size was very small to draw an assertive conclusion. Conclusions: The results conclude that continuous practice of yoga may significantly improve the symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children. Such an effect also calls for a detailed study on their effectiveness in the long run.
 
Background: Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP), little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. Objective: To study the effect of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) on disability, depression, and pain in patients with CLBP. Method: Seven days intensive residential IAYT program in a single group pre-post study was conducted in a holistic health centre at Bengaluru, India. Thirty-five patients (22 females, 13 males) with CLBP were selected conveniently to undergo the IAYT program. The IAYT program was a combination of Asanas (physical postures), Pranayama (breathing practices), and meditation, apart from interactive sessions on the philosophical concepts of yoga. The modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Straight Leg Raising (SLR) Test were administered before and after the IAYT program. Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. The Shapiro–Wilk test showed that the data was normally distributed. Paired samples t-test was used to compare the means. Results: The data analysis showed significant change (p< 0.001, in all cases) with 54.13% decrease in the RMDQ scores (t = 0.759), 36.46% increase in right (t = 0.887) and 36.04% (t = 0.884) in left SLR scores, and 71.47% decrease in BDI scores (t = 0.797). Conclusion: The present study suggests that 7-day intensive residential IAYT program reduces disability and depression and improves spinal mobility in patients with CLBP. Thus, yoga may play a vital role in the management of CLBP. Additional randomized control trials are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
 
Context: The ancient Indian science of yoga is both an experiential science as well as a set of practices which are very suitable to be evaluated using conventional research methods. Despite the rapidly growing scientific literature on the effects of yoga and its applications, there has been no survey carried out to determine whether yoga practitioners are themselves aware of this research. Aims: The current study aimed at conducting a survey to document the beliefs about yoga as a science among its practitioners. Methods: The current survey was conducted chiefly on graduate students of Mumbai University as well as some of the staff. The study surveyed 972 respondents (with an average age of 26 years and a male-female ratio of 54.8:45.2), out of which 54.7 percent practiced yoga. Results: Among the yoga practitioners, 66.1 percent were aware of scientific research on yoga and 57.6 percent associated yoga with scientific research. Interestingly, 60.4 percent of yoga users were keen to have online yoga courses. Among those who did not practice yoga (45.3 percent), 45.0 percent had no intention of starting to practice yoga. Conclusion: The current survey, which is the first documentation of its type in India, showed interesting trends in beliefs about yoga as a scientific discipline among a predominantly young, educated, and urban Indian sample.
 
Background: The claims of ancient yogic text indicate that yoga practice leads to enhanced body awareness; however, the present research tool, as seen in research reviews, to measure such psychophysiological phenomenon aspect of body awareness has not been proven so far. Therefore, this study is taken to propose bio-electrical activity as a suitable experimental variable to quantify the awareness phenomena of yoga practices. Objective: To explore conceptual plausibility for establishing a suitable cellular electrophysiological variable to quantify body awareness. Method: The separate reviews of past research literature on both whole-body bio-electrical activity and human information processing (HIP) aspect of body awareness in relation to yoga were explored. The studies which indicate improvement in energy storage, energy circulation, and energy expenditure at cellular and somato-cortical levels were included in this review. Furthermore, studies indicating enhancement in brain abilities such as perception, attention, learning, and motor functions demonstrating that profile of bio-electrical activity may be a suitable parameter common to both quantification of body awareness and whole-body bio-electrical activity were included. Results: The present study explores the bio-electrical energy dynamics of human consciousness. The bio-electrical response variables, such as impedance (Z), reactance (Xc), and relative arrival time of current (I), and voltage (V), measured as phase angle of the cell, have been proposed to be a valid tool to understand enhancing psychobiological basis of body awareness due to yogic practices. Conclusion: The bio-electrical measure of cell activity reflects HIP aspect of awareness from cellular level to whole-body level.
 
Introduction: Laghu sankhaprakshalana (LSP) is a type of yogic cleansing technique (Shatkarma) which is being practiced since ancient time. In this technique, set of Asanas that aid the intestinal motility are practiced along with intake of lukewarm saline water. It is an easy and effective technique to clean the gastrointestinal canal. This study aims to study the effect of LSP on bowel health. Aim and Objectives: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of LSP practice on bowel health in normal individuals and safety of it. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy individuals (males – 30 and females – 30) of the mean age 20.70 ± 2.89 were randomly recruited for study group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). The study group was made to practice LSP once a week, for 4 weeks. The control group received no intervention. Constipation score (CS) was recorded by using the Cleveland Clinic CS, before and after completion of four sessions of LSP. Results: There was a significant reduction in CS, p < 0.0001 after the four sessions of LSP practice. Conclusion: The present study showed that LSP has a tendency to improve the bowel health. The practice of LSP once a week, for 4 weeks is safe and effective in a normal individual.
 
Introduction: Sport like swimming requires maximum accuracy in style, fitness, skill and training. Moreover, the swimmers must possess a better reaction time as well as breath holding capacity that saves time for exhibiting best performance. Objective: It is thought that regular practice of kumbhaka phase of pranayama may improve swimmers' breath holding capacity and reaction time. Since literature is silent about this concept, the present investigation was carried out. Method: Thirty male state level swimmers (n = 30), age: 16-18 years, volunteered in this study. This experiment considered a single group design, where all the selected subjects were assessed for two variables viz., reaction time and breath holding capacity at the baseline (i.e., 1st test or pre-test). Further, after a 6-week of swimming practice (1½ hours daily in the afternoon), the variables were re-tested (i.e., 2nd test or mid-test). After the 2nd test was over, all the subjects underwent 6 weeks of combined practice (i.e., swimming followed by pranayama) for 1½ hours daily in the morning. Finally, the subjects were assessed for the selected variables (i.e., 3rd test or posttest). Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA followed by Newman-Kuels post hoc test was employed to record influence of pranayama practices on the variables. Results: The results revealed that swimming plus pranayama training leads to significant increase in breath holding capacity whereas reduction in reaction time. Conclusion: Pranayama practice leads to significant improvement in breath holding capacity and reaction time of swimmers.
 
The verse speaking the highest quality standards of breath in a pranayama cycle in Tirumantiram
Tirumūlar's Tirumantiram is the earliest known Tamil treatise on yoga, in which 14 poems are dedicated to the practice of pranayama. These poems give a detailed insight on the methods and benefits of pranayama. The purpose of the study is to advance ideas related to pranayama by proposing a test to identify the stages of progression of a pranayama practitioner. The proposed test is based on the method prescribed in the poems of pranayama in Tirumantiram on evaluating the qualitative standard of the pace of exhaling breath in pranayama practitioners. The verse 567 from the research edition of Tirumantiram critically edited by Annamalai was selected for decoding in which the highest quality standard for the three phases of breath in a pranayama cycle, namely Pūraka (inhalation), Kumbhaka (retention) and Rēsaka (exhalation) is described. On the highest quality standard of Rēsaka, Tirumūlar says 'the exhaling breath should not cause flutters in powder of bran kept nearby'. The description exhibits a method to visually evaluate the pace of exhaling breath by observing its impact on powder of bran. Tirumūlar's ideology on “the exhaling breath and its impact on rice bran powder” could be developed in the name of 'Bran test' to identify the stages of progression of a pranayama practitioner.
 
Background: Considering the need to unearth the knowledge of yoga hidden in various handwritten manuscripts, the Philosophico-Literary Research Department of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavala has undertaken a long-term project on unpublished manuscripts. Aims: The current research work aims to study an unpublished yoga manuscript, "Yogāsana-Jaina," by exploring the details in relation to the author as well as the content. Method: The method followed for the current study was descriptive. First, translation of the Ms. from Sanskrit to English, and then a critical analysis of the content were done. Results: The whole manuscript, Yogāsana-Jaina, is devoted to the description of āsana s related with Jaina tradition. It describes around 107 āsana s with illustration of each āsana . Out of 107 āsana s, some āsana s are variations of many popular yoga āsanas , some āsana s are presented with right and left variations, whereas some āsana s are presented in different variations as well as names. Conclusion: The current Ms. can serve to be of great interest to the yoga practitioners/scholars/researchers interested in the variations of āsana s according to tradition, religion, and/or culture.
 
Paramahansa Yogananda (1893–1952) founded the Yogoda Satsanga Society (YSS) of India in 1917. With the blessings of his guru Sri Yukteswar, he then traveled to the United States in 1920 where he eventually established the American branch of the YSS known as the Self-Realization Fellowship to teach Kriyā-yoga and “original Christianity.” Tracing the history of the World Brotherhood Colony movement as it made its way from India to America and back to India, this article shows how Yogananda's colonies today continue to provide a space for members of the growing global middle class to live a simpler life grounded in yogic principles. Scholars concerned with yoga's historical transmission and entrance into transnational practice will find this article useful for understanding the implications of Paramahansa Yogananda's World Brotherhood Colonies in the history of modern yoga.
 
Clinical yoga trials, which were conducted in medical research institutes, found to skew toward imposing positive health impacts. Several concerns related with the clinical yoga trials including the availability of exclusive ethical committee to review yoga research proposal, compensation to the poor patients, patient's actual will to participate in the study, yoga trainer qualification, insurance policy for patients if being harmed, standard yoga protocols (exercise, stretching, bending, meditation, music, timings, and duration), mode of training (self-practice by video or personal trainer), assessment of level of compliance, religious concerns, law and legislation have been neglected, not highlighted, or not well justified by most of the studies. The present article represents the grassroot level of experience of clinical yoga trials in medical research institutes and recommended that, until and unless the global standards for clinical yoga trials have not been introduced, for the safety of the patient, either yoga trials should not be allowed in medical and research institutes or all institutions should follow the standard study designs described in highly indexed standard journals.
 
More than 153 million children worldwide have been orphaned by the loss of one or both parents and millions more have been abandoned. There is a strong association between child health measures and the health of their primary caregivers. Poor caregiver health is a strong signal for poor health of orphan children. The strategies to support orphan children may include taking steps to ensure food security, foster gender equality, and prevent and treat traumatic events. Yoga, a feasible and acceptable activity with self-reported benefits to child's mental and physical health, may play effective role in the rehabilitation of orphaned children.
 
Background: The art of learning may contribute to various skills required for better performance in human abilities involving memory, learning (attention fluctuation, sentence completion, and general intelligence), perception, motor functions, etc. Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of yoga training intervention toward improvement in the selected psychological correlates of learning ability among the school children. Method: A parallel group, research design was considered in this experiment, which was conducted on sixty male students (n = 60), age group of 12–14 years, who were randomly assigned into two identical groups (Group A: exp group and Group B: control) and each group consists of thirty students. The research design includes pretest, yoga training, mid-test, detraining, and posttest. The variables of learning abilities (viz., attention fluctuation, sentence completion, and general intelligence) were tested three times (pre-, mid-, and post-) using standard methods. The yoga training intervention comprising prayer recitation, Yoga Asanas, Anuloma Viloma (Pranayama), and Omkar Chanting was imparted for 45 min daily in the morning (except Sundays and holidays) for a total period of 45 days, whereas the controlled students were kept busy with recreation and library readings. Then, mid-test was conducted. Further, the detraining phase (Phase II) was considered for the next 45 days, and then posttest was conducted. Thus, total duration of the experiment was 90 days. Statistical Analysis: All statistical analyses were carried out by 2 × 3 × 3 factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. Result: The results revealed that Hatha Yogic practices lead to the reduction in attention fluctuation which implies improvement in attention ability among the school children. Further, improvement in sentence completion ability and general intelligence was evident after yoga training intervention. Moreover, detraining phase of 6 weeks could maintain similar trend of results as compared to the controlled subjects. Conclusion: Hatha Yogic practices lead to a significant improvement in the selected correlates of better learning ability in school children.
 
Context: Obesity has been globally recognized as a risk factor for human health. It not only affects our health but also challenges our emotions and behavioral patterns. It is a significant problem among Indian women because many of them are homemakers and have sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, there is a growing urgency to counter obesity among women. Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of yogic practices on cholesterol and triglyceride levels among obese women. It was hypothesized that yogic practices would significantly decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels among obese women in comparison to the control group. Method: The study consisted of yoga and control group, each containing twenty obese women randomly selected from Mogappair (Chennai). The yoga program was conducted three days a week (50–60 min/day) for twelve weeks. Cholesterol and triglycerides were tested on both groups at zero time and after 12 weeks, and the data were analyzed with independent t-test. Results: The post-test mean value of total cholesterol (193.4 mg/dL) and triglyceride (144.9 mg/dL) of the yoga group considerably reduced with respect to the corresponding mean value of post-test total cholesterol (213.1 mg/dL) and triglyceride level (167.8 mg/dL) of the control group. The independent t-test indicated that the total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and triglyceride (p < 0.05) levels were significantly decreased in the yoga group after twelve weeks of yogic practices. Conclusion: Regular practice of yoga significantly improved the health condition of obese women by decreasing total cholesterol and triglyceride.
 
Background: Yogic relaxation techniques endow its practitioners with the relaxation of Citta (i.e., mind, intellect, and ego) and freedom from psycho-physiological fatigue. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare the differential impact of the guided instructions in Shavasana and meditation in supine posture on verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores. Research Design: This was a randomized controlled trial. Method: Randomly selected 45 healthy college students were equally divided into meditation group (n = 15), Shavasana group (n= 15), and control group (n = 15), with age range of 22–30 years. All individuals were assessed for total memory through Wechsler Memory Scale before and after the 30-day intervention of yoga, consisting of two types of relaxation techniques (Shavasana and meditation in supine posture). The sessions were of 30 min each for both the intervention groups for 6 days a week. Results: Results showed significant changes in memory scores among meditation and Shavasana groups as compared to the control group. Meditation group had shown a higher magnitude of change as compared to the other groups. Within-group comparison revealed significant changes in memory scores in both meditation (P < 0.001) as well as in Shavasana (P < 0.01) groups. Conclusion: This study has concluded that the guided relaxation techniques of yoga could bring a deeper relaxation at the psycho-physiological level which, in turn, could bring about a deeper impact at higher psychological levels resulting into significant improvement in verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores.
 
Meditation practice is one of the most important health factors that need attention, especially in developing countries including India. This is keeping in view of the recent increase in the trend of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in the population. The need of the hour is to address the need for practice of meditation at a community level to improve the populace health. This article explains the importance of meditation, its awareness generation, and the factors required to improve its practice in the community.
 
Thirvalluvar was a Tamil Philosopher belonging to the pre Christian Era. The government has given his birth date as late as 31 BC. Some scholars date Thiruvalluvar and his work “Thirukural ”as early as 500 BC. Vethathiri Maharishi is a Yogi and Spiritual leader of the 21st century. He was a Siddha, Ayurvedic, Homeopathic practitioner and Founder of the World Community Service Center. This study tries to compare the message of the 2500 year old Thirukural with the teaching of the modern day yogi Vethathiri Maharishi. Maharishi always stressed on the “Art of Living ”as a way to balance and achieve inner as well as world peace. He took this term from the message of Thirukural and in this study we will compare how successfully Maharishi has preached the essence of Thirukural to the modern world.
 
Studying a single Shāstra (treatise) is not enough to grab the true import of any concept. For a truly inter-disciplinary approach, knowledge of as many allied branches, be it from science or philosophy, is desirable. Nyāya philosophy is a system of logic or rules, whereas Āyurveda is the science of life. The relationship of Manas (~mind) to the body is accepted by both Āyurveda and Nyāya philosophy. In order to gain a better understanding of the concept of Manas, it is necessary to screen the philosophical views, which are present in ancient Āyurvedic as well as Nyāya texts . Therefore, in the current article, an attempt has been made to derive the concept of Manas from Nyāya philosophy as well as Āyurvedic science .
 
Background: In order to have a clearer understanding of yogic concepts as described in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra (PYS), the seminal, most authentic and authoritative, but extremely compact ancient text of yoga, there is a need for their critical study with reference to relevant commentaries and secondary sources of the PYS. Aim: The current study focused on the word dvandva (general meaning - pair, conflict) as used in the PYS, as well as various relevant commentaries on the PYS, in an attempt to explain the end effect of yogic āsana in relation to dvandva. Methods: A thorough review of the PYS and 22 commentaries on it that pertained to the concept of dvandva was conducted. The commentaries referred to were of two types: (a) Direct commentaries on the PYS and (b) indirect commentaries, i.e., commentaries on bhāṣya (commentary) of Vyāsa on the PYS. After this review, descriptive and analytical methods were used to correlate the philosophical understanding of dvandva, found in the PYS and its 22 relevant commentaries, with the psycho-physiological understanding of the concept. Results: There are mainly five pairs of words regarding dvandva pertaining to āsana in PYS and the 22 commentaries referred to. They are śïta-uṣṇa, sukha-duḥkha, māna-avamāna, kāma-krodha, and kṣut-tṛṣṇā/pipāsā. These five pairs of words are either opposites or compound words, and all of them seem to represent disturbing elements of a conflict. The psycho-physiological mechanisms, by which these five pairs of disturbing elements related to dvandva become ineffective as a result of perfection in āsana, can be hypothesized. Conclusion: The current study has attempted to critically analyze one of the important yogic concepts, dvandva. An effort has also been made to understand the mechanisms of transcending dvandva as a result of perfection in āsana, which the extremely compact PYS or its direct and indirect commentary seems to fall short of elucidating. Thus, the present study has thrown light on the need for fundamental studies of important terms or concepts mentioned in the PYS to understand their deeper meanings and probable mechanisms of action.
 
Background: Mindfulness has received consistent attention from researchers in the last few decades due to its positive effects on physical and mental health, psychological well-being, as well as several therapeutic outcomes. In an attempt to discern its dispositional source, researchers have also looked at its relation with personality traits. Aims: The current study aims to carry the above effort ahead by looking at the relation of mindfulness to the big-five personality traits in the Indian context in an exploratory way to give some amount of cross-cultural validity to established relations in the Western context. Methods: The current study adopted the method of correlational research to fulfill the above aim. Results: Results of the current investigation on 60 plus Yoga students supported earlier meta-analysis by revealing highly significant moderate correlations, negative of -0.45 with neuroticism and positive of 0.49 with conscientiousness after controlling for demographics. Mindfulness also showed a positive relation to extraversion ( r = 0.29), to a lesser extent though. The study, very surprisingly, showed no gender difference in neuroticism in the current sample of Yoga students, thereby creating a deviation to a widely present gender difference. Conclusions: The current paper discusses the above results in detail, and draws the personality mini-profile of a mindful individual to be that of one who is emotionally stable and/or well-disciplined in his/her approach toward life although, studies with larger, representative and cross-cultural samples are needed to further validate this claim.
 
Physical attributes of the four books which were scrutinized for the present study 
Background: In Uttar Pradesh, yoga is included in the undergraduate (UG) curriculum either as an optional topic of physical education practical or as a compulsory paper of foundation course in any 1 year of UG, by most of the state universities for the students. However, there is no uniformity in the yoga syllabus adopted by various universities. Swami Kuvalayananda, in his book“Āsanas,” has prescribed three yoga modules, namely, easy course, short course, and full course. Aim: The aim of this study was to survey whether the three courses as described in the book can be used as a part of the model curriculum for the 3-year UG studies in physical education. Method: Along with a specifically prepared questionnaire, a photocopy of Appendixes I, II, and III of book“Āsanas” was sent to the participants to elicit their opinions regarding the yoga modules. Results: The results of the survey showed that three courses prescribed by Swami Kuvalayananda are scientifically and systematically arranged and are according to the laws of physical education training. The study showed that 84.60% of the survey participants agreed on introducing the three yoga modules prescribed by Swami Kuvalayananda as model yoga syllabus in the 3 successive years of the UG physical education curriculum. Conclusions: The results of the survey of academicians in higher education gave the conclusion that inclusion of yoga modules described in the book would increase the efficacy of the learning of UG students of physical education.
 
Dental education is associated with a significant amount of stress and anxiety which may lead to depression and suicidal intent in few cases. Musculoskeletal disorder is also a prevalent occupational health problem in dental professionals. This alarming situation indicates a need to modify the current education system and provide timely interventions for physical and psychological health of our future dental professionals. There is a need to develop multidisciplinary team approach of integrating dental education with yoga to promote students' health and facilitate effective health-care services to the patients. This paper attempts to identify the application of yoga in dentistry and explores the possibility of incorporating yoga in dental education. Benefits of yoga greatly contribute to preventive dentistry and oral medicine as add-on therapy complementary to standard dental procedures. Yoga offers a promising, cost-effective, complementary, preventive, and therapeutic modality. Yogic practices are useful in quitting tobacco addiction. Yoga can be beneficial for comprehensive and sustained dental care and oral health. Dental professionals with knowledge of yoga can analyze, diagnose, and prescribe yoga for therapeutic benefits to their patients and help them reduce anxiety during dental treatment. Including yoga in dental curriculum will facilitate dental students to manage patients effectively, reduce occupational hazards, cope with stress, and improve academic performance. In future, more competent dental professionals with improved work efficiency will be produced. Incorporating yoga in dental education will facilitate positive health and well-being of future dental professionals, effective patient care, and improved health-care services to the community.
 
Top-cited authors
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
  • Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed University)
Sukriti Singh
  • University of Nottingham
Meena Ramanathan
  • Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University
Joanne George
  • Symbiosis International University
Shravani Deolia
  • Vidya Cancer Hospital