World Journal of Gastroenterology

Print ISSN: 1007-9327
Measurement of usefulness and satisfaction 
Demographic characteristics of the patients at base line 
Summary of results n (%) 
Summary of results on location 
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium hyaluronate solution (SH) in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric neoplasms. Methods: A prospective multicenter randomized, double blind, controlled trial was designed and utilized in this study. A total of 76 patients with 5-20 mm sized gastric neoplasms were enrolled at three academic hospitals in South Korea from June 2011 to October 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to the 0.4% sodium hyaluronate or control groups. All lesions underwent endoscopic ESD. ESD was performed with 0.4%SH and normal saline (NS) solution for submucosal injection. Efficacy was assessed using en bloc resection and the number of additional injections. Secondary evaluation variables were the volume of injection material, steepness of mucosal elevation, bleeding rate, procedural time and operator satisfaction. Finally, the safety was assessed by analyzing adverse events during the study. Results: The usefulness rate in the 0.4%SH group and the controlled group had statistically significant difference under intention to treat (ITT) analysis (90.91% vs 61.11% P = 0.0041). Under per protocol (PP), the usefulness rate is statistically significant different (93.10% vs 61.76%, P = 0.0036). The difference in volume of the solution injected between 0.4%SH group and the controlled group and NS group was also statistically significant under intention to treat and per protocol analysis (ITT: 0.03 ± 0.02 mL vs 0.06 ± 0.03 mL, P = 0.0003, PP: 0.03 ± 0.02 mL vs 0.06 ± 0.03 mL, P = 0.0004). Satisfaction above the grade good was significantly higher in the SH group under intention to treat and per protocol analysis (ITT: 90.91% vs 61.11%, P = 0.0041, PP = 93.11% vs 61.77%, P = 0.0022). Adverse events above grade 3 were not noticed in either group. All adverse events were treated and were judged as not associated with the submucosal injection solutions. Conclusion: 0.4%SH solution is a safe and effective agent that doesn't cause any significant adverse events and is useful for submucosal injection during ESD.
To investigate the efficacy of topical application of 0.5% nifedipine ointment in healing acute anal fissue and preventing its progress to chronicity. Thirty-one patients (10 males, 21 females) with acute anal fissure from September 1999 to January 2005 were treated topically with 0.5% nifedipine ointment (t.i.d.) for 8 wk. The patients were encouraged to follow a high-fiber diet and assessed at 2, 4 and 8 wk post-treatment. The healing of fissure and any side effects were recorded. The patients were subsequently followed up in the outpatient clinic for one year and contacted by phone every three months thereafter, while they were encouraged to come back if symptoms recurred. Twenty-seven of the 31 patients completed the 8-wk treatment course, of them 23 (85.2%) achieved a complete remission indicated by resolution of symptoms and healing of fissure. Of the remaining four unhealed patients (14.8%), 2 opted to undergo lateral sphincterotomy and the other 2 to continue therapy for four additional weeks, resulting in healing of fissure. All the 25 patients with complete remission had a mean follow-up of 22.9 +/- 14 (range 6-52) mo. Recurrence of symptoms occurred in four of these 25 patients (16%) who were successfully treated with an additional 4-wk course of 0.5% nifedipine ointment. Two of the 27 (7.4%) patients who completed the 8-wk treatment presented with moderate headache as a side effect of nifedipine. Topical 0.5% nifedipine ointment, used as an agent in chemical sphincterotomy, appears to offer a significant healing rate for acute anal fissure and might prevent its evolution to chronicity.
To construct a recombinant vector which can express outer membrane protein (OMP) with M(r)18,000 and heat shock protein A (HspA) from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in E. coli BL21, and to exploit the possibility for obtaining the vaccine conferring protection from H. pylori infection. The target gene of HspA was amplified from H. pylori chromosome by PCR, and then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) by restrictive endonuclease enzyme kpn I, BamH I simultaneously. The recombinant vector was used to sequence, and then together with pET32a (+)/Omp(18), digested by restrictive endonuclease enzyme Hind III and BamH I simultaneously. pET32a(+)/HspA and Omp(18) were recovered from 1 % agarose gel by gel kit, and ligated with T(4) ligase by BamH I digested viscidity end. The recombinant plasmid of pET32a(+)/HspA/Omp(18) was transformed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under induction of IPTG. After purification, its antigenicity of the fusion protein was detected by Western blot. Enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing showed that the target genes were inserted into the recombinant vector, composed of 891 base pairs, encoded objective polypeptides of 297 amino acid residues. Compared with GenBank reported by Tomb et al, there were 1.3 % and 1.4 % differences in obtained H. pylori nucleotide sequence and amino acid residues, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that relative molecule mass (M(r)) of the expressed product was M(r) 51,000, M(r) of protein expressed by pET32a (+) was about M(r) 20,000, and soluble expression product accounted for 18.96 % of total bacterial protein. After purification with Ni(+2)-NTA agarose resins, the purification of recombinant fusion protein was about 95 %. Western blot showed that recombinant fusion protein could be recognized by the patients' serum infected with H. pylori and anti-Omp(18) monoclone, suggesting that this protein had good antigenicity. The gene coding for H. pylori M(r)18,000 OMP and HspA was cloned and expressed successfully. The results obtained lay the foundation for development of H. pylori protein vaccine and a quick diagnostic kit.
Effects on esophageal lesions, gastric secretion volume and acidity, oxidative variable in rats with gastroesophageal reflux 
To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity (158.5 ± 22.79), esophageal MDA (1.87 ± 0.13) and SH group (0.72 ± 0.05) concentrations vs the positive control (P = 0.002; P = 0.001; P = 0.02; P = 0.003; P = 0.002, respectively). Acute oral administration of D-002 decreased macroscopic esophageal lesions and oxidative stress in rats with experimentally induced GER, without modifying gastric secretion acidity.
To evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of action of NCB 02, a standardized Curcumin preparation, against 2, 4 dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Ulcerative colitis was induced in male rats by sensitizing with topical application of DNCB in acetone for 14 d and intra-colonol challenge with DNCB on day 15. A separate group of animals with vehicle treatment in similar fashion served as control group. Colitis rats were divided into different groups and treated with NCB-02 at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt p.o. for 10 d. Sulfasalazine at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt for 10 d served as a reference group. On day 10 after respective assigned treatment, all the animals were euthanized and the length of the colon, weight of entire colon and distal 8 cm of the colon were recorded. The distal part of the colon was immediately observed under a stereomicroscope and the degree of damage was scored. Further distal 8 cm of the colon was subject to the determination of colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. A small piece of the sample from distal colon of each animal was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned for immunohistochemical examination of NFkappa-B and iNOS expression. NCB-02 showed a dose dependent protection against DNCB-induced alteration in colon length and weight. NCB-02 treatment also showed a dose dependent protection against the elevated levels of MPO, LPO and ALP, induced by DNCB. NCB-02 demonstrated a significant effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., which was almost equipotent to 100 mg/kg b.wt. of sulfasalazine. Treatment with sulfasalazine and curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt. inhibited the DNCB-induced overexpression of NFkappa-B and iNOS in the colon. Curcumin treatment ameliorates colonic damage in DNCB induced colitic rats, an effect associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress and downregulation of colonic NFkappa-B and iNOS expression.
Primers used for polymerase chain reaction amplification of mRNA 
To investigate the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced steatosis in L-02 cells. Cellular steatosis was induced by incubating L-02 cells with a FFA mixture (oleate and palmitate at the ratio of 2:1) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dmethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Cellular total lipid was determined using a photocolorimetric method after Nile red staining, and triglyceride content was measured using an enzymatic kit. To study the effects of Sch B on steatosis, L-02 cells were treated with Sch B (1-100 μmol/L) in the absence or presence of 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h, and cellular total lipid and triglyceride levels were measured. To explore the mechanisms of action of Sch B in the steatotic L-02 cells, mRNA levels of several regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism including adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein levels of ADRP and SREBP-1 were measured by immunoblotting. Treatment with 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L-02 cells comparable to that in human steatotic livers without causing apparent apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Sch B mitigated cellular total lipid and triglyceride accumulations in the steatotic L-02 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment of L-02 cells with 100 μmol/L Sch B reverted the FFA-stimulated up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1. Sch B inhibits FFA-induced steatosis in L-02 cells by, at least in part, reversing the up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1.
To investigate the safety and efficacy of the formulation HD-03/ES capsules in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. A total of 25 patients were recruited to the study and were given HD-03/ES, two capsules twice daily for six months. Clinical assessment of symptoms and signs were done using the " clinical observation table" once a month before and after the treatment. Biochemical investigations of total bilirubin, ALT, AST, serum protein for liver function tests were done every month after initiating treatment. Serum was analyzed for HBV markers for HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA at baseline, 4 and 6 mo after therapy using ELISA kits from Roche. After 6 mo of therapy with HD-03/ES, a significant reduction of ALT values from 66.5 +/- 11.1 to 39.1 +/- 5.2 (P < 0.01) and a significant HBsAg loss (52%, P < 0.001), HBeAg loss (60%, P < 0.05) and HBV DNA loss (60%, P < 0.05) was observed. Adverse effects were mild and never warranted withdrawal of the drug. The results of this pilot study indicate that HD-03/ES might be a safe and effective treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection and a long-term multicentric comparator trial is warranted and under way.
To assess the associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*0301 and/or DRB1*1101 allele with spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance by meta-analysis of individual dataset from all studies published till date. To clarify the impact of HLA class II polymorphisms on viral clearance, we performed a meta-analysis of the published data from 11 studies comparing the frequencies of DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 alleles in individuals with spontaneous resolution to those with persistent infection. As we identified the heterogeneity between studies, summary statistical data were calculated based on a random-effect model. Meta-analyses yielded summary estimates-odds ratio (OR) of 2.36 [95%CI (1.62, 3.43), P<0.00001] and 2.02 [95%CI (1.56, 2.62), P<0.00001] for the effects of DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 alleles on spontaneous clearance of HCV, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that specific HLA class II alleles might influence the susceptibility or resistance to persistent HCV infection. Both DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 are protective alleles and present HCV epitopes more effectively to CD4(+)T lymphocytes than others, and subjects with these two alleles are at a lower risk of developing chronic HCV infection. Large, multi-ethnic confirmatory and well-designed studies are needed to determine the host genetic determinants of HCV infection.
To investigate the mechanism and in vivo effects of MK-0626, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on hepatic steatosis using ob/ob mice. We analyzed obese (ob/ob) 8-wk-old male mice that had been randomly divided into two groups of ob/ob mice (n = 16 each) and were treated with 1.5 or 3 mg/kg MK-0626 and two control groups of untreated ob/ob mice and lean littermates (n = 16 each). All mice were fed a normal chow diet with or without MK-0626 for either four or eight weeks. Blood samples were collected, and total hepatectomy was performed. The administration of dietary MK-0626 ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in ob/ob mice treated with 3 mg/kg MK-0626 (3 MK), P < 0.05, vs untreated ob/ob mice (ob/ob). The MK-0626 treatment reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase levels (both treatment groups, P < 0.05 vs ob/ob) and glucoses/insulin levels/calculated HOMA scores (1.5 MK, P < 0.05 vs ob/ob; 3 MK, P < 0.01 vs ob/ob) and increased the serum adiponectin levels (3 MK, P < 0.05 vs ob/ob) in a dose-dependent manner. The MK-0626 treatment increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (1.5 MK, P < 0.05 vs ob/ob; 3 MK, P < 0.01 vs ob/ob) but reduced the sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor-1c/fatty acid synthase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (both treatment groups, P < 0.01 vs ob/ob). The MK-0626 treatment increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (both treatment groups, P < 0.01 vs ob/ob). MK-0626 could attenuate hepatic steatosis through enhancing AMPK activity, inhibiting hepatic lipogenic gene expression, enhancing triglyceride secretion from liver and increasing serum adiponectin levels.
To determine the association between the HLA-DRB1 alleles and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (p-ANCA) positive in Mexican patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Ninety Mexican mestizo patients (45 females) with UC, confirmed by biopsy, were studied. High resolution HLA typing was performed by PCR-SSO reverse dot blot and PCR-SSP. Molecular typing techniques were applied to define HLA-DRB1 alleles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence techniques were used to detect p-ANCA. Forty-eight (53%) UC patients were positive for p-ANCA by ELISA and IF. We found that p-ANCA-positive UC patients had a significantly increased frequency of HLA-DR7 compared with p-ANCA-negative controls (22% vs 5.1%; pC=0.02, OR=5.2, CI 95%: 1.06-37.82). Disease activity was scored as severe in 20 patients, moderate in 8, mild in 14 and no activity in the remaining 38 patients according to the Truelove and Witts criteria. Subgroup analysis showed a significantly increased frequency of the HLA-DRB1*07 allele in 15 of 20 UC patients with severe activity of UC and p-ANCA positivity [100% vs 0%; pC=0.0000001; OR=35]. No significant differences were found between p-ANCA positive patients, HLA-DR alleles and other clinical features such as extraintestinal manifestations, proctocolectomy and extension. The HLA-DRB1*07 is associated with p-ANCA positive UC Mexican patients.
ASA physical status classification 
To analyze the hemodynamic and respiratory effects of propofol on patients undergoing gastroscopy and colonoscopy. In this prospective study, conducted over a period of three years, 1,104 patients referred for a same day GI endoscopy procedure were analyzed. All patients were given a propofol bolus (0.5-1.5 mg/kg). Arterial blood pressure (BP) was monitored at 3 min intervals and heart rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded continuously by pulse oximetry. Analyzed data acquisition was carried out before, during, and after the procedure. A statistically significant reduction in mean arterial pressure was demonstrated (P < 0.001) when compared to pre-intervention values, but severe hypotension, defined as a systolic blood pressure below 60 mmHg, was noted in only 5 patients (0.5%). Oxygen saturation decreased from 96.5% to 94.4 % (P < 0.001). A critical decrease in oxygen saturation (< 90%) was documented in 27 patients (2.4%). Our results showed that propofol provided good sedation with excellent pain control, a short recovery time and no significant hemodynamic side effects if carefully titrated. All the patients (and especially ASA III group) require monitoring and care of an anesthesiologist.
Depicts the body weights of different group of animals.
To investigate the chemo preventive effects of vanadium on rat colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in Group A received saline vehicle alone for 16 weeks. Rats in Group B were given DMH injection once a week intraperitoneally for 16 weeks; rats in Group C, with the same DMH treatment as in the Group B, but received 0.5-ppm vanadium in the form ammonium monovanadate ad libitum in drinking water. Rats in the Group D received vanadium alone as in the Group C without DMH injection. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16. Compared to DMH group, vanadium treated group had less ACF (P<0.001). At the end of week 32, all rats in DMH group developed large intestinal tumors. Rats treated with vanadium contained significantly few colonic adenomas and carcinomas (P<0.05) compared to rats administered DMH only. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.05) in colon tumor burden (sum of tumor sizes per animal) was also evident in animals of Group C when compared to those in rats of carcinogen control Group B. The results also showed that vanadium significantly lowered PCNA index in ACF (P<0.005). Furthermore, vanadium supplementation also elevated liver GST and Cyt P-450 activities (P<0.001 and P<0.02, respectively). Vanadium in the form of ammonium monovanadate supplemented in drinking water ad libitum has been found to be highly effective in reducing tumor incidence and preneoplastic foci on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that vanadium administration can suppress colon carcinogenesis in rats.
A myriad of healthful effects has been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial issue remains that of anticancer activity. This study was aimed at investigating the putative anti-cancer effects of lactic acid bacteria strains on the progression of colon tumor in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated animals. The strain of lactic acid bacteria used in this study was lactic acid bacteria NZ9000 that conformed to the characteristics of plasmid free. Sixty male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt or saline once a week for 10 weeks. The rats were divided into 6 experimental groups. After the last DMH injection, animals in groups 1 and 4 were gavaged with 1 ml of lactic acid bacteria at a dose of 5 X 10(9) per day or vehicle until sacrifice at the end of week 22 or week 52. Animals in groups 1-3 were killed at the end of week 22 for histopathological examination. The whole period of experimental observation was 52 weeks. By the end of 22nd week, final average body weights of the rats treated with DMH alone and all animals receiving lactic acid bacteria were significantly decreased compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05). No differences in tumor incidence, multiplicity, dimensions and stage in the colonic mucosa were observed among the groups. At week 52, the survival rate of the rats administered lactic acid bacteria was lower than that of the rats treated with DMH that were fed on control fluids of non-lactococcus lactis. The mean survival time of lactic acid bacteria-treated animals was 39 weeks. These results indicate that lactic acid bacteria lacks inhibitory effects on the progression of colon tumor in DMH-treated animals, and does not support the hypothesis that alteration of colonic flora may exert an influence on the progression of colon tumor.
To develop an efficient animal colitis-associated carcinogenesis model and to detect the expression of beta-catenin and p53 in this new model. Dysplasia and cancer were investigated in mice pretreated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg body mass of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine prior to three repetitive oral administrations of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium to give conditions similar to the clinically observed active and remission phases. Immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin and p53 was performed on paraffin-imbedded specimens of animals with cancer and/or dysplasia, those without dysplasia and the normal control animals. At wk 11, four early-invasive adenocarcinomas and 36 dysplasia were found in 10 (90.9%) of the 11 mice that underwent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-pretreatment with 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium-exposure. Dysplasia and/or cancer occurred as flat lesions or as dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM) as observed in humans. Colorectal carcinogenesis occurred primarily on the distal portion of the large intestine. No dysplasia and/or cancer lesion was observed in the control groups with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine pretreatment or 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium exposure alone. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that beta-catenin was translocated from cell membrane to cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 100% of cases with dysplasia and neoplasm, while normal membrane staining was observed in cases without dysplasia and the normal control animals. Nuclear expression of p53 was not detected in specimens. A single dose of procarcinogen followed by induction of chronic ulcerative colitis results in a high incidence of colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Abnormal expression of beta-catenin occurs frequently in dysplasia and cancer. This novel mouse model may provide an excellent vehicle for studying colitis-related colon carcinogenesis.
To investigate the effects of oral Lactococcus lactis (L lactis) containing endostatin on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colorectal cancer. Recombinant endostatin was produced by the expression of L lactis NZ9000. Sixty male Wistar rats were injected with DMH (40 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for 10 wk to induce colorectal cancer. The rats were gavaged with 1 mL of endostatin at a dose of 1 x 10(8)/d and fed with the basal diet. The animals were killed after 22 wk for histopathological examination. The total time of experimental observation was 58 wk. Rat endostatin protein was expressed in L lactis. Recombinant endostatin exhibited a significant effect on colorectal cancer (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean survival time of the rats treated with endostatin was longer than that of the animals treated with DMH. There was no statistically significant difference between the rats treated with endostatin and those treated with DMH. The results showed that endostatin could not result in complete cure.
To examine the potency of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) as a hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer and its regulation in HepG2 cells. Expression of HO-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed by Western blot, immunofluorescence assay, and flow cytometry. Transfections of HO-1 gene, small interfering RNAs for HO-1 and Nrf2, and dominant-negative gene for MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were carried out to dissect the signaling pathways leading to HO-1 expression in HepG 2 cells. PGG up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide. Moreover, PGG induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which was found to be an upstream step of PGG-induced HO-1 expression, and ERK activation, of which pathway was involved in PGG-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. PGG up-regulates HO-1 expression by stimulating Nrf2 nuclear translocation in an ERK-dependent manner, and HO-1 expression by PGG may serve as one of the important mechanisms for its hepatoprotective effects.
To study the mechanism and the preventive role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in acute rejection following orthotopic liver transplantation. Rats were randomly divided as donors or recipients for orthotopic liver allotransplantation model. Four groups were designed in the study, Group I: syngenic control (Wistar to Wistar); Group II: acute rejection (SD to Wistar); Group III: acute rejection treated with cyclosporine A, and Group IV: acute rejection treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3. Liver function, rejection activity index and mRNA of IFN-gamma, IL-10 in intragraft in recipients were measured in on day 1, 5, 7, 15, 30 posttransplant for assessing graft function, severity of acute rejection and immune state of recipients. Survival time of recipients in Group VI was significantly prolonged (over 100 days) in comparison with other groups (vs Group II, P<0.001; vs Group III, P>0.05). After treatment with 1,25-(OH)2 D3, mean value of all the assay tested on each experimental time was compared, liver function in group IV was significantly improved (AST 127+/-41 U/L-360+/-104 U/L, BIL 13+/-5 mmol/l-38+/-11 mmol/l; vs Group II, P<0.05; vs Group III, P>0.05. Rejection activity index was significantly decreased (0-3.3+/-1.6; vs Group II, P<0.05; vs Group III, P>0.05). Level of hepatic IFN-gamma mRNA in group IV was decreased, while level of hepatic IL-10 mRNA was increased (vs Group II, P<0.05; vs Group III, P>0.05). Our results indicated that 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced the secretion of cytokine toward to Th2 type, which would alleviate acute rejection, protect liver function and prolong survival of recipient after orthotopic liver transplantation.
To study the immunoregulatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D(3) Von dominant Th1 response in rats. Sixty adult Lewis rats were randomized into three groups. Rats in group 1 (n=25) were treated with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) first and then challenged with LPS, rats in group 2 (n=25) were treated with vehicle first and then challenged with LPS. Ten animals in groups 1 and 2 were preserved for mortality observation. The remaining animals were injected (i.p) with endotoxin, 24 h after the last administration of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and vehicle. Rats in group 3 (n=10) were treated with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) only. Serum IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-4 levels were measured and target gene of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on Th cells was studied after 6 h. Gene abundance was verified by real-time quantitative PCR. No death occurred in rats pretreated with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) after LPS injection. Death occurred 9 h after LPS injection in rats pretreated with the vehicle, and the number of deaths was 5 within 24 h, with a mortality rate of 50%. There was no change in the number of deaths within 96 h. Six hours after endotoxin stimulation, serum IL-12 and IFN-gamma levels decreased significantly in rats pretreated with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) as compared with those in rats pretreated with the vehicle. The serum content of these two cytokines was very low in rats not challenged by endotoxin, and there was a significant difference as compared with the previous two groups. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) attenuates injury induced by the lethal dose of LPS, regulates Th1 and Th2 cells at the transcription level, and dominantly responds to cytokine production in rats.
Combined effects of 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and resveratrol on various cellular markers in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Expression pattern of apoptotic, DNA damage/repair and cell cycle regulatory proteins after drug treatment. Data are the representation of one of the replicates of three different experiments. Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) served as a loading control. BAX: Bcl-2-associated X protein; BCL-XL: B-cell lymphoma-extra large; PARP: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PCNA: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PTEN: Phosphatase and tensin homolog; FEN1: Flap endonuclease 1; CDC-2: Cyclin dependent kinase-1; Res: Resveratrol; BCNU: 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea; APE: Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. 
Characterization of 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells. The cell lysates of HCT-116 and 5-FU-R cells were immunoblotted using specific antibody. The lower panel shows the expression of β-actin, which was the loading control (to ensure the same amount of protein loaded in each lane). Data are the representation of one of the replicates of three different experiments. CK1: Casein kinase 1; FLIP: FLICE-like inhibitory protein; NFκB: nuclear factor κB; POL-β: DNA polymerase beta; POLH: DNA polymerase eta; protein Flap FEN1: Endonuclease 1; DDB2: DNA damage-binding protein 2; 5-FU: 5-fluorouracil; Res: Resveratrol; BCNU: 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea; TS: Thymidylate synthase. 
1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and Res synergistically increased apoptosis in 5-fluorouracil-resistance cells. A: Comet assay. Images were taken using a fluorescent microscope (Nikon-Eclipse, Japan) at × 20 magnification. Data are the representation of one of the replicates of three different experiments; B: Bar diagram representing the average comet score of the treated and untreated 5-FU-R cells in pixels, as obtained from TriTek CometScore™ software. Data are the mean ± SD of three different experiments, a P < 0.05 vs 20 µmol/L BCNU; C: Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by BCNU, Res and their combination in 5-FU-R cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was done after the desired treatment and then the DNA content was measured by Cell Quest Software. Data are the representation of one of the replicates of three different experiments; D, E: Western blotting of 5-FU-R cell lysate after treatment with BCNU and Res individually, as well as in combination. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as the loading control. Data are the representation of one of the replicates of three different experiments; F: Isobolograms for combinations of BCNU and Res in HCT-116 and 5-FU-R cells. The bold line represents the isobologram of BCNU and Res in HCT-116 and dotted lines represents the isobologram of BCNU and Res in 5-FU-R cells. The point P and Q represent the 50% cell death of the combined drug in case of 5-FU-R and HCT-116 cells, respectively. 5-FU: 5-fluorouracil; Res: Resveratrol; BCNU: 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. 
To study the mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in colon cancer cells and to develop strategies for overcoming such resistance by combination treatment. We established and characterized a 5-FU resistance (5-FU-R) cell line derived from continuous exposure (25 μmol/L) to 5-FU for 20 wk in 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells. The proliferation and expression of different representative apoptosis and anti-apoptosis markers in 5-FU sensitive and 5-FU resistance cells were measured by the MTT assay and by Western blotting, respectively, after treatment with Resveratrol (Res) and/or 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest was measured by 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole hydrochloride staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, respectively. The extent of DNA damage was measured by the Comet assay. We measured the visible changes in the DNA damage/repair cascade by Western blotting. The widely used chemotherapeutic agents BCNU and Res decreased the growth of 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells in a dose dependent manner. Combined application of BCNU and Res caused more apoptosis in 5-FU sensitive cells in comparison to individual treatment. In addition, the combined application of BCNU and Res caused a significant decrease of major DNA base excision repair components in 5-FU sensitive cells. We established a 5-FU resistance cell line (5-FU-R) from 5-FU-sensitive HCT-116 (mismatch repair deficient) cells that was not resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., BCNU, Res) except 5-FU. The 5-FU resistance of 5-FU-R cells was assessed by exposure to increasing concentrations of 5-FU followed by the MTT assay. There was no significant cell death noted in 5-FU-R cells in comparison to 5-FU sensitive cells after 5-FU treatment. This resistant cell line overexpressed anti-apoptotic [e.g., AKT, nuclear factor κB, FLICE-like inhibitory protein), DNA repair (e.g., DNA polymerase beta (POL-β), DNA polymerase eta (POLH), protein Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2)] and 5-FU-resistance proteins (thymidylate synthase) but under expressed pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., DAB2, CK1) in comparison to the parental cells. Increased genotoxicity and apoptosis were observed in resistant cells after combined application of BCNU and Res in comparison to untreated or parental cells. BCNU increased the sensitivity to Res of 5-FU resistant cells compared with parental cells. Fifty percent cell death were noted in parental cells when 18 μmol/L of Res was associated with fixed concentration (20 μmol/L) of BCNU, but a much lower concentration of Res (8 μmol/L) was needed to achieve the same effect in 5-FU resistant cells. Interestingly, increased levels of adenomatous polyposis coli and decreased levels POL-β, POLH, FEN1 and DDB2 were noted after the same combined treatment in resistant cells. BCNU combined with Res exerts a synergistic effect that may prove useful for the treatment of colon cancer and to overcome drug resistance.
Effect of FTY 720 on serum ALT and AST activities in BCG+LPS -induced liver injury (mean±SD) 
Effect of FTY720 on serum ALT and AST activities in Con A-induced liver injury (mean±SD) 
Alteration of serum cytokines after treatment with FTY 720 in Con A-induced liver injury (mean±SD) 
Effect of FTY720 on spleen cell apoptosis 
To investigate the protective effect against two immune liver injury models in mice by 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl) propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride and its possible mechanisms in Con A-induced liver damage. Liver tissue or hepatocyte injury was monitored biochemically by measuring alanine aminotransferase (sALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) activity. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used for histopathological examination. To evaluate the role of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the liver injury, serum levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 were determined using commercially available ELISA kit at 12 h after Con A challenge. We also determined FTY 720-induced spleen cell apoptosis by flow cytometry analysis or spleen cell proliferation test. Different doses of FTY 720 treatment dramatically reduced circulating markers of hepatocyte injury in two kinds of immunological liver injury models. FTY 720 dramatically reduced the elevated serum IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels after Con A injection. Effect of spleen cell supernatants treated with Con A or FTY 720 on hepatocytes showed that ALT activities in cultured hepatocyte supernatants in Con A treatment group increased markedly and FTY 720 could reduce this elevated ALT activities in FTY 720 treatment group. FTY 720 dose-dependently increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in T cells and inhibited splenocyte proliferation induced by Con A. Pretreatment with FTY 720 was shown to produce protective effect on the immune liver injury in mice. The possible mechanism of FTY 720 on Con A-induced liver damage is that it could inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and induce lymphocyte apoptosis, resulting in the reduction of IL-4 or IFN-gamma release, and subsequently protecting liver from being damaged by Con A.
To evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA), fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and glutamine (GLN) on mucosal cell proliferation and apoptosis of small bowel graft. One hundred and ninety-six inbred strain Wistar rats were grouped as donors and recipients, and underwent heterotopic small bowel transplantation (SBT). n-3FA, FDP and GLN were administered via gastric tube as well as venous infusion for 10 days before and after surgery, respectively. The proliferation and apoptosis of mucosal cells were analyzed with flow cytometry and in situ cell death detection kits. Apparent apoptosis and minor proliferation of mucosal cells of small bowel graft after transplantation were observed. A higher mucosal cell proliferative index and lower apoptotic index were found in all small bowel grafts after supplying with n-3FA, FDP and GLN. Nutritional support with n-3FA, FDP and GLN promotes mucosal cell proliferation significantly, and prevents mucosal cell from undergoing apoptosis with different degrees. These regulatory effects on the apoptosis alter the structure and absorption function of transplanted small bowel favorably.
To investigate the expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) 1.3-fold genome plasmid (pHBV1.3) in an immortalized mouse hepatic cell line induced by SV40 T-antigen (SV40T) expression. Mouse hepatic cells were isolated from mouse liver tissue fragments from 3-5 d old Kunming mice by the direct collagenase digestion method and cultured in vitro. The pRSV-T plasmid was transfected into mouse hepatic cells to establish an SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line. The SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells were identified and transfected with the pHBV1.3 plasmid. The levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the supernatant were determined by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after transfection. The expressions of HBsAg and hepatitis B c antigen (HBcAg) in the cells were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. The presence of HBV DNA replication intermediates in the transfected cells and viral particles in the supernatant of the transfected cell cultures was monitored using the Southern hybridization assay and transmission electronic microscopy, respectively. The pRSV-T plasmid was used to immortalize mouse hepatocytes and an SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line was successfully established. SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells have the same morphology and growth characteristics as primary mouse hepatic cells can be subcultured and produce albumin and cytokeratin-18 in vitro. Immortalized mouse hepatic cells did not show the characteristics of tumor cells, as alpha-fetoprotein levels were comparable (0.58 ± 0.37 vs 0.61 ± 0.31, P = 0.37). SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells were then transfected with the pHBV1.3 plasmid, and it was found that the HBV genome replicated in SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells. The levels of HBsAg and HBeAg continuously increased in the supernatant after the transfection of pHBV1.3, and began to decrease 72 h after transfection. The expressions of HBsAg and HBcAg were observed in the pHBV1.3-transfected cells. HBV DNA replication intermediates were also observed at 72 h after transfection, including relaxed circular DNA, double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, a few 42 nm Dane particles, as well as many 22 nm subviral particles with a spherical or filamentous shape, were detected in the supernatant. SV40T expression can immortalize mouse hepatic cells, and the pHBV1.3-transfected SV40T-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line can be a new in vitro cell model.
To investigate the usefulness of 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography with the use of the contrast agent Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and for the evaluation of therapeutic response. Phantom experiments were performed to compare the contrast effects of 2(nd) harmonic imaging and 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography was employed to examine 36 patients with HCC (42 nodules) before and after the treatment and to compare against the findings obtained using other diagnostic imaging modalities. In 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography, the tumor vessels of HCCs were clearly identified during the early phase, and late-phase images clearly demonstrated the differences in contrast enhancement between the tumor and surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Blood flow within the tumor was detected in 36 nodules (85.7%) during the early phase and in all 42 nodules (100%) during the late phase using 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography, in 38 nodules (90.5%) using contrast-enhanced CT, in 34 nodules (81.0%) using digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and in 42 nodules (100%) using US CO(2) angiography. Following transcatheter arterial embolization, 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography detected blood flow and contrast enhancement within the tumors that were judged to contain viable tissue in 20 of 42 nodules (47.6%). However, 6 of these 10 cases were not judged in contrast-enhanced CT. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography was compared with the US CO(2) angiography findings as the gold standard, and the sensitivity and specificity of these images for discerning viable and nonviable HCC after transcatheter arterial embolization were 100% and 100%, respectively. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography permits the vascular structures of HCCs to be identified and blood flow within the tumor to be clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography is potentially useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of transcatheter arterial embolization on HCC.
To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean +/- SD age of 49.12 +/- 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis.
To conduct a cohort study of 101 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting to a tertiary care medical referral center in Germany between 1997 and 1999. Data were retrospectively analyzed by chart review. In 95 cases (72 males and 23 females) sufficient data were available for analysis. Twenty five (29%) of 85 patients were HBsAg or anti HBc positive, 21/85 (25%) were anti HCV positive, and 6/85 (7%) were positive for both HBV and HCV-markers. Age was significantly lower in HBV positive patients than in the other two groups. Thirty one (34%) of 90 patients had histories of alcohol abuse. In 79/94 (84%) patients, cirrhosis was diagnosed. Of these cirrhotic patients, 29/79 (37%) belonged to Child Pugh's group (CHILD) A, 32/79 (40%) to CHILD B, and 18/79 (23%) to CHILD C. AFP was elevated in 61/91 (67%) patients. A single tumor nodule was found in 38/94 (40%), more than one nodule in 31/94 (34%), and 25/94 (26%) had a diffusely infiltrating tumor, i.e. the tumor margins could not be seen on imaging procedures. Portal vein thrombosis was present in 19/94 (20%). Imaging data consistent with lymph node metastases were found in 10/92 (11%), while distant metastases were found in 8/93 (9%). According to Okuda 28/94 (30%) were grouped to stage I, 53/94 (56%) were grouped to stage II, and 13/94 (14%) were grouped to stage II. Survival data were available for 83 patients. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for median survival was 8 4 months. Factors influencing survival were the Okuda score, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the presence of ascites. The presence of non complicated liver cirrhosis by itself, distant metastases, or infection with hepatitis viruses did not influence survival. AFP positivity by itself did not influence survival, though patients with an AFP value greater than 100 microg/L did experience shortened survival. Treatment besides tamoxifen or supportive care was associated with prolonged survival. The influence of therapy on survival was most pronounced in Okuda stage II patients. There was longer survival in those Okuda stage II patients who were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection. Even in a low incidence area such as Germany, the majority of HCC is caused by viral hepatitis and therefore potentially preventable. Reflecting the high proportion of advanced stage tumors in our patients, the median survival was poor. Patients who received active therapy had a longer survival.
To analyze the characteristics of ulcerative colitis(UC) in China. From 1981 to 2000, a total of 10218 patients of UC reported in Chinese medical literature and including our cases diagnosed were analyzed according to the diagnostic criteria of Lennard-Jones. The number of cases increased by 3.08 times over the past 10 years (2506 patients were diagnosed from 1981 to 1990 while 7512 patients were diagnosed from 1991 to 2000). Lesion range were described in 7966 patients, 5592 (70.20%) were proctosigmoiditis or proctitis, 1792(22.50%) left-sided colitis, 582(7.30%) pancolitis. Among the 8122 patients, 2826 (34.8%) had first episode, 4272 (52.6%) had chronic relapse, 869 (10.7%) were of chronic persist type, 154 (1.9%) were of acute fulminant type. The course of the illness were described in 5867 patients, 4427(75.5%) were less than 5 years, 910 (15.5%) between 5 and 10 years,530 (9.1%) more than 10 years. Six hundred and sixteen patients 618 patients(6.1%) had extraintestinal manifestations. The mean age at the diagnosis was 40.7 years( range 6-80 years, and the peak ages 30-49 years). The male to female ratio was 1.09. Among 270 patients diagnosed in our hospital,36 had histories of smoking, there was no negative association between the severity of UC and smoking(P>0.05), 21 smokers were followed up for one year, 15 of them had given up smoking when the disease were diagnosed, and one year later, 7 patients relapsed, another 6 patients continued smoking, and one year later,2 patients relapsed. Among 270 UC patients diagnosed in our hospital, 4 patients(1.48%) from 2 families had familial history of UC. Treatment was mentioned in 6859 patients, only 5-ASA and/or corticosteroid only in 1276 patients(18.6%), only Chinese herbs in 1377 patients(20.1%), combined Chinese and western medicine in 4056 patients(59.1%), surgery was performed in 87 patients(1.3%),other treatments in 63 patients(0.9%). In China, number of UC patients increased significantly in the past 10 years. Lesions are commonly located to left side colon. The course is short with rare extraintestinal manifestations. The age of onset is relatively high. Males and females are nearly equally affected. No negative relation was found between smoking and severity of the disease. Familial relatives are rarely involved Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is widely used in the treatment of UC.
To validate a radioactivity assay, the TCA-RA method, for the measurement of C-1027 in serum and to evaluate its application in determination of pharmacokinetics of C-1027 in mice. (125)I-C-1027 was prepared by the Iodogen method and separated by HPLC. The radioactivity assay was established and used to determine (125)I-C-1027 in mice at doses of 10, 50 and 100 microg/kg after precipitation with 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA-RA method). Several pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after intravenous injection of (125)I-C-1027 to mice. After intravenous injection of (125)I-C-1027 to mice, at doses of 10, 50 and 100 microg/kg; the apparent distribution volumes (V(d)) were 0.26, 0.31 and 0.33 L/kg; the biological half-lives (T(1/2)) were 3.10, 3.40 and 3.90 h; the areas under curve (AUC) were 18.41, 103.69 and 202.74 ng/h/mL; the elimination rate constants (K) were 1.04, 1.26 and 0.58/h; and the total body clearance (Cl) were 0.54, 0.48 and 0.49 L/kg/h, respectively. TCA-RA is a sensitive, reliable and suitable method for the determination of (125)I-C-1027 in mouse serum.
To observe competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027 (B. ado 1027). The binding of bacteria to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo was counted by adhesion assay. The inhibition of adherence of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 was evaluated quantitatively by flow cytometry. The purified adhesin at the concentration of 10 microg/mL, 20 microg/mL and 30 microg/mL except at 1 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL could inhibit significantly the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo. Moreover, we observed that a reduction in bacterial adhesion was occurred with increase in the concentration of adhesin, and MFI (Mean fluorescent intensity) was decreased with increase in the concentration of adhesin. The purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 can inhibit the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo in a dose-dependent manner.
To investigate the associations between miRNA-103 (miR-103) and insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Serum samples were collected from 50 NAFLD patients who were overweight or obese (NAFLD group) and from 30 healthy subjects who served as controls (normal control group). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect expression of miR-103. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Patient height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Compared with the normal control group, higher serum levels of miR-103 were expressed in the NAFLD group (8.18 ± 0.73 vs 4.23 ± 0.81, P = 0.000). When P = 0.01 (bilateral), miR-103 was positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.881), TG (r = 0.774) and BMI (r = 0.878), respectively. miR-103, TG and BMI were all independent factors for HOMA-IR (β = 0.438/0.657/0.251, P = 0.000/0.007/0.001). miR-103, TG, BMI and HOMA-IR were all risk factors for NAFLD (odds ratio = 2.411/16.196/1.574/19.11, P = 0.009/0.022/0.01/0.014). miR-103 is involved in insulin resistance and NAFLD, and may be a molecular link between insulin resistance and NAFLD and a therapeutic target for these disorders.
To compare the causes and clinical outcome of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGB) and a history of gastric surgery to those with AUGB but without a history of gastric surgery in the past. The causes and clinical outcome were compared between 105 patients with AUGB and a history of gastric surgery, and 608 patients with AUGB but without a history of gastric surgery. Patients who underwent gastric surgery in the past were older (mean age: 68.1+/-11.7 years vs 62.8+/-17.8 years, P = 0.001), and the most common cause of bleeding was marginal ulcer in 63 patients (60%). No identifiable source of bleeding could be found in 22 patients (20.9%) compared to 42/608 (6.9%) in patients without a history of gastric surgery (P = 0.003). Endoscopic hemostasis was permanently successful in 26 out of 35 patients (74.3%) with peptic ulcers and active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessel. Nine patients (8.6%) were operated due to continuing or recurrent bleeding, compared to 23/608 (3.8%) in the group of patients without gastric surgery in the past (P = 0.028). Especially in peptic ulcer bleeding patients, emergency surgery was more common in the group of patients with gastric surgery in the past (9/73 (12.3%) vs 19/360 (5.3%), P = 0.025). Moreover surgically treated patients in the past required more blood transfusion (3.3+/-4.0 vs 1.5+/-1.7, P = 0.0001) and longer hospitalization time (8.6+/-4.0 vs 6.9+/-4.9 d, P = 0.001) than patients without a history of gastric surgery. Mortality was not different between the two groups (4/105 (3.8%) vs 19/608 (3.1%)). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to be more severe in surgically treated patients than in non-operated patients.
To investigate the possible association of G-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the -1082 position of interleukin (IL)-10 promoter with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA) in a population of a high incidence region of North China. IL-10-G1082A promoter SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 355 cancer patients (203 ESCC and 152 GCA) and 443 healthy controls. Smoking significantly increased the risk of ESCC and GCA development (the age and sex adjusted OR = 1.42 and 2.64, 95%CI = 1.11-1.81 and 1.46-4.76, respectively). Similarly, family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) significantly increased the risk of developing ESCC and GCA (the age and sex adjusted OR = 1.44 and 3.10, 95%CI = 1.18-1.75 and 1.94-4.97, respectively). The A/A, A/G and G/G genotype frequencies of IL-10-G1082A were 60.3%, 37.0% and 2.7% in healthy controls, 57.6%, 39.9% and 2.5% in ESCC and 61.2%, 36.8% and 2.0% in GCA patients, respectively. The frequencies of A and G alleles were 78.8% and 21.2% in healthy controls, 77.6% and 22.4% in ESCC patients and 79.6%, 20.4% in GCA patients. The distribution of genotype and allelotype in ESCC and GCA patients was not significantly different from that in healthy controls (P>0.05). Compared to the A/A genotype, the combination of A/G and G/G genotypes did not show a significant effect on the risk of developing ESCC and GCA; the adjusted odds ratio was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.76-1.11) in ESCC and 0.95 (95% CI = 0.61-1.46) in GCA, respectively. When stratified for smoking status and family history of UGIC, the combination of A/G and G/G genotypes also did not show any significant influence on the risk of ESCC and GCA development compared to A/A genotypes. IL-10-G1082A polymorphism might not be used as a stratification marker to predicate the risk of ESCC and GCA development in North China.
To investigate the association between interleukin (IL)-10-1082 (G/A) promoter polymorphism and acute rejection (AR) in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism and AR were calculated in a fixed- and a random-effects model as appropriate. This meta-analysis included seven case-control studies, which comprised 652 cases of LT recipients in which 241 cases developed AR and 411 cases did not develop AR. Overall, the variant A allele was not associated with AR risk when compared with the wild-type G allele (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.64-1.39). Moreover, similar results were observed when the AA genotype was compared with the AG/GG genotype (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.55-2.02). When stratifying for ethnicity, no significant association was observed among either Caucasians or Asians. Because only one study was performed in Asian patients, the result of subgroup analysis by ethnicity would not be reliable for Asians. Limiting the analysis to the studies with controls in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results were persistent and robust. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism may be not associated with AR risk in LT recipients among Caucasians.
To study the role of P38 kinase in esophageal cancer cell apoptosis induced by genotoxin, cisplatin and the unfolded protein response (UPR) inducer, dithiothreitol (DTT). Esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109 was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium to 70% confluency and treated with either cisplatin, DTT, or cisplatin plus DTT in the presence or absence of P38 inhibitor, SB203580. The untreated cells served as the control. The esophageal carcinoma cell apoptosis was detected by agarose gel DNA ladder analysis and quantified by flow cytometry. The P38 phosphorylation was detected by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific to phosphorylated P38 protein. (1) Both cisplatin and DTT induced apoptosis in the esophageal cancer cell line Eca109 as shown by DNA ladder formation; (2) As detected by antibodies specific for the phosphorylated P38 protein (p-P38), both cisplatin and DTT treatments activated the stress-activated enzyme, MAP kinase P38. The number of positive cells was about 50% for the treatment groups, comparing to that of 10% for untreated group. DTT treatment, but not cisplatin treatment, induces nuclear localization of p-P38; (3) As measured by flow cytometry, inhibition of P38 activity by SB203580 blocks DTT- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The rates for DTT, cisplatin, and DTT plus cisplatin-induced apoptosis were 16.8%, 17.1%, and 21.4%, respectively. Addition of the SB compound during the incubation reduced the apoptotic rate to about 7.6% for all the treatment groups, suggesting that P38 activation is essential for cisplatin- and DTT-induced apoptosis in Eca109 cells. (1) Both DTT and cisplatin were able to induce apoptosis in esophageal cancer cell line Eca109; (2) P38 MAP kinase is essential for DTT- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in Eca109 cells; (3) P38 activation may be the common signaling component relaying the multiple upstream signaling events to the downstream cell death program.
To investigate the effects of 8-Br-cAMP on differentiation and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109, and the related gene expression. The cultured Eca-109 cells were divided into four groups: E1 group (co-cultured with 8-Br-cAMP for 24 h); E2 group (co-cultured with 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h); C1 group (treated without 8-Br-cAMP for 24 h); and C2 group (treated without 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h). The same concentration of cell suspension of each group was dropped separately onto the slides and nitrocellulose membranes (NCM). The biotin-labeled cDNA probes for c-myc, wild-type (wt) p53, bcl-2 and iNOS were prepared for in situ hybridization. The expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p38 kinase, FAS, FasL and caspase-3 were detected using immunocytochemistry, and the NOS activity and the ratio of differentiated cells/proliferating cells were examined by cytochemistry. Immunocytochemistry, cytochemistry, and in situ hybridization were separately carried out on both slides and NCM specimens for each group. In addition, TUNEL was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate in each group. The apoptotic rate of E2 group was significantly higher compared to E1 group, while there was no difference in the ratio of differentiated cells/proliferating cells between E1 and E2 groups. The signals of wt p53 and iNOS were markedly stronger, while the signals of c-myc and EGFR were obviously weaker in E1 group than those in C1 group (P<0.05). Moreover, the signals of wt p53, iNOS, p38 kinase, caspase-3 and NOS activity were significantly stronger, whereas, the signals of bcl-2, c-myc and Fas/FasL were markedly weaker in E2 group than those in C2 group (P<0.05). The differentiation and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell Eca-109 can be induced after 24- and 48-h treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, respectively. Upregulation of wt p53, iNOS and downregulation of c-myc may be associated with differentiation and apoptosis of Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of FasL, p38 kinase and caspase-3 as well as downregulation of bcl-2, and Fas may be involved in the apoptosis of Eca-109 cells.
To develop a fusion vaccine of esophageal carcinoma cells and dendritic cells (DC) and observe its protective and therapeutic effect against esophageal carcinoma cell line 109 (EC109). The fusion vaccine was produced by fusing traditional polyethyleneglycol (PEG), inducing cytokine, sorting CD34+ magnetic microbead marker and magnetic cell system (MACS). The liver, spleen and lung were pathologically tested after injection of the fusion vaccine. To study the therapeutic and protective effect of the fusion vaccine against tumor EC109, mice were divided immune group and therapeutic group. The immune group was divided into P, E, D and ED subgroups, immunized by phosphate buffered solution (PBS), inactivated EC109, DC and the fusion vaccine respectively, and attacked by EC109 cells. The tumor size, weight, latent period and mouse survival period were recorded and statistically analyzed. The therapeutic group was divided into four subgroups: P, inactivated EC109, D and ED subgroups, which were attacked by EC109 and then treated with PBS, inactivated EC109, DC, and EC109-DC respectively. Pathology and flow cytometry were also used to study the therapeutic effect of the fusion vaccine against EC109 cells. Flow cytometry showed that the expression of folate receptor (FR), EC109 (C), DCs (D) in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (HNE1) (B) was 78.21%, 89.50%, and 0.18%, respectively. The fusion cells (C) were highly expressed. No tumor was found in the spleen, lung and liver after injection of the fusion vaccine. Human IgG was tested in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the immune group, the latent period was longer in EC109-DC subgroup than in other subgroups, while the tumor size and weight were also smaller than those in ED subgroup. In the therapeutic group, the tumor size and weight were smaller in ED subgroup than in P, inactivated EC109 and DC subgroups. Fusion cells are highly expressed not only in FR but also in CD80. The fusion vaccine has a distinctive protective effect against tumor EC109 and can inhibit the growth of tumor in mice, and its immune protection against tumor attack is more significant.
To investigate the effect of lithium on proliferation of esophageal cancer (EC) cells and its preliminary mechanisms. Eca-109 cells were treated with lithium chloride, a highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), at different concentrations (2-30 mmol/L) and time points (0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h). Cell proliferative ability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry. Expressions of p-GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, cyclin B1, cdc2 and cyclin D1 protein were detected by Western blotting, and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin was determined by immunofluorescence. The mRNA level of cyclin B1 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lithium could inhibit the proliferation of Eca-109 cells. Lithium at a concentration of 20 mmol/L lithium for 24 h produced obvious changes in the distribution of cell cycle, and increased the number of cells in G(2)/M phase (P<0.05 vs control group). Western blotting showed that lithium inhibited GSK-3beta by Ser-9 phosphorylation and stabilized free beta-catenin in the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence further confirmed that free beta-catenin actively translocated to the nucleus. Moreover, lithium slightly elevated cyclin D1 protein expression, whereas lowered the cyclin B1 expression after 24 h lithium exposure and no obvious change was observed for cdc2 protein. Lithium can inhibit the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109 by inducing a G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, which is mainly mediated through the inhibition of lithium-sensitive molecule, GSK-3beta, and reduction of cyclin B1 expression.
To detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in esophageal carcinoma (EC) 109 cells and investigate the relationship between HPV and EC. Genomic DNA and total RNA from EC109 cells were isolated. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the general primer sets of My09/11 and GP5 +/6 + for the HPV L1 gene and type-specific primer sets for HPV18 E6 and HPV18 E6-E7. Reverse transcription (RT) of mRNA isolated from EC109 cells was performed to produce a cDNA. And then a PCR-based protocol for the amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts was used to analyze HPV18 DNA and integrated transcripts of HPV18 in the chromosomes of EC109 cells. The final nested PCR products were cloned into a pMD-18T vector and sequenced to analyze the chromosomal location of HPV integration. HPV18 DNA was detected in EC109 cells by PCR using the general primer sets of My09/11 and GP5 +/6 + for HPV L1 and the type-specific primer sets for HPV18 E6 and E6-E7 to generate products of 450 bp, 150 bp, 335 bp and 944 bp, respectively. Approximately 600 bp of integrated HPV18-specific transcript was identified. The final nested PCR product of integrated HPV18 DNA was cloned into a pMD-18T vector and sequenced to analyze the chromosomal location of HPV integration. Sequence alignment showed that the HPV18 sequence from EC109 cells was identical to that of the encoded early protein E7-E1 of the standard HPV18 strain X05015, and another partial gene sequence was identical to a partial sequence of human chromosome 8. Integration of the HPV genome into the host cell chromosome suggests that persistent HPV infection is vital for malignant cell transformation and carcinogenesis.
To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008. Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008). Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.
To analyze loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and homozygous deletion on p53 gene (exon2-3, 4 and 11), chromosome 10q22-10q23 and 22q11.2 -22q12.1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PCR and PCR-based microsatellite polymorphism analysis techniques were used. LOH was observed at D10S579 (10q22-10q23) in 4 of 20 tumors (20%), at D22S421 (22q11.2-22q12.1) in 3 of 20(15%), at TP53.A (p53 gene exon 2-3) in 4 of 20(20%), at TP53.B (p53 gene exon 4) in 6 of 20(30%), and at TP53.G (p53 gene exon 11) in 0 of 20(0%). Homozygous deletion was detected at 10q22-10q23(8/20; 40%), 22q11.2-22q12.1(8/20; 40%), p53 gene exon 2-3(0/20;0%), p53 gene exon 4(6/20; 30%), and p53 gene exon 11(2/20; 10%). There might be unidentified tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 10q22-10q23 and 22q11.2-22q12.1 that contribute to the pathogenesis and development of HCC.
Endoscopic view. A: Polyps noted during colonoscopy, prior to colectomy; B: Endoscopic view of colonic polyps in the patient described. 
Juvenile polyps are relatively common findings in children, while juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare hereditary syndrome entailing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mutations in BMPR1A or SMAD4 are found in roughly half of patients diagnosed with JPS. Mutations in PTEN gene are also found in patients with juvenile polyps and in Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Cowden syndrome. Several previous reports have described microdeletions in chromosome 10q23 encompassing both PTEN and BMPR1A causing aggressive polyposis and malignancy in childhood. These reports have also described extra-intestinal findings in most cases including cardiac anomalies, developmental delay and macrocephaly. In this report we describe a boy with a 5.75 Mb deletion of chromosome 10q23 and a 1.03 Mb deletion within chromosome band 1p31.3 who displayed aggressive juvenile polyposis and multiple extra-intestinal anomalies including macrocephaly, developmental delay, short stature, hypothyroidism, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and hypospadias. He required colectomy at six years of age, and early colectomy was a common outcome in other children with similar deletions. Due to the aggressive polyposis and reports of dysplasia and even malignancy at a young age, we propose aggressive gastrointestinal surveillance in children with 10q23 microdeletions encompassing the BMPR1A and PTEN genes to include both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts, and also include a flowchart for an effective genetic testing strategy in children with juvenile polyposis.
To investigate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. Thirty cases of normal gastric mucosa, advanced and early stage gastric cancer, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, and atypical hyperplasia were analyzed for PTEN LOH and mutations within the entire coding region of PTEN gene by PCR-SSCP denaturing PAGE gel electrophoresis, and PTEN mutation was detected by PCR-SSCP sequencing followed by silver staining. LOH rate found in respectively atrophic gastritis was 10% (3/30), intestinal metaplasia 10% (3/30), atypical hyperplasia 13.3% (4/30), early stage gastric cancer 20% (6/30), and advanced stage gastric cancer 33.3% (9/30), None of the precancerous lesions and early stage gastric cancer showed PTEN mutations, but 10% (3/30) of the advanced stage gastric cancers, which were all positive for LOH, showed PTEN mutation. LOH of PTEN gene appears in precancerous lesions, and PTEN mutations are restricted to advanced gastric cancer, LOH and mutation of PTEN gene are closely related to the infiltration and metastasis of gastric cancer.
To detect aneusomic changes with respect to chromosome 11 copy number in esophageal precancers and cancers wherein the generation of cancer-specific phenotypes is believed to be associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on esophageal tissue paraffin sections to analyze changes in chromosome 11 copy number using apotome-generated images by optical sectioning microscopy. Sections were prepared from esophageal tumor tissue, tissues showing preneoplastic changes and histologically normal tissues (control) obtained from patients referred to the clinic for endoscopic evaluation. Our results demonstrated that aneusomy was seen in all the cancers and preneoplastic tissues, while none of the controls showed aneusomic cells. There was no increase in aneusomy from precancers to cancers. Our results suggest that evaluation of chromosome 11 aneusomy in esophageal tissue using FISH with an appropriate signal capture-analysis system, can be used as an ancillary molecular marker predictive of early neoplastic changes. Future studies can be directed towards the genes on chromosome 11, which may play a role in the neoplastic transformation of esophageal precancerous lesions to cancers.
To explore the effect of intratumoral expressions of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) on clinical features, angiogenesis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma. The expressions of IL-12 and IL-18 from 50 samples of gastric cancer tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined with microscopic imaging analysis system. The positive expression rates of IL-12 and IL-18 were 44% (22/50) and 26% (13/50), respectively. IL-12 was significantly associated with pathologic differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage, and IL-18 was closely related to distant metastasis. Intratumoral IL-12 and IL-18 expressions were not statistically related to MVD scoring. IL-12-positive patients survived significantly longer than those with IL-12-negative tumors, but there was no significant difference between IL-18-positive patients and IL-18-negative ones. The multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard model revealed IL-12, MVD and T stage were independent prognostic factors. The positive expressions of IL-12 and IL-18 can play an important role in progression and metastasis of gastric cancer, and IL-12 might be an independent factor of poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma.
The relationships between microsatellite instability (MSI) and survival in colorectal cancer patients are not consistent. The favorable survival of patient with MSI has been suggested to be related to pronounced inflammatory infiltration; however, the reason for non-association of MSI with survival is unclear. Our aims were to investigate the associations of inflammatory infiltration and tumor necrosis (TN) with microsatellite status and clinicopathological factors in colorectal cancer patients in whom MSI was not related to survival. Three hundred and one colorectal adenocarcinomas were evaluated for inflammatory infiltration and 300 for TN under light microscope. Low infiltration at invasive margin (chi2 = 3.94, P = 0.047) and in whole tumor stroma (chi2 = 3.89, P = 0.049) was associated with MSI, but TN was not (chi2=0.10, P = 0.75). Low infiltration was related to advanced stage (chi2 = 8.67, P = 0.03), poorer differentiation (chi2 = 8.84, P = 0.03), DNA non-diploid (chi2 = 10.04, P = 0.002), higher S-phase fraction (chi2 = 11.30, P = 0.004), positive p53 expression (chi2 = 7.94, P = 0.01), and worse survival (P = 0.03 for both univariate and multivariate analyses). Abundant TN was related to advanced stage (chi2 = 17.74, P = 0.001) and worse survival (P = 0.02 for univariate, and P = 0.05 for multivariate analysis). The result that high inflammatory infiltration was not related to MSI might help explain the non-association of MSI with survival in colorectal cancer patients.
There is strong evidence that interleukin-11 (IL-11) is involved in the regulation of tumor progression, cellular growth and differentiation. Recently, interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) has been detected on some cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-11 and IL-11R in colorectal adenocarcinoma. To elucidate the involvement of IL-11 and IL-11Ra in human intestinal adenocarcinomas, we examined 115 cases of surgically resected human colonic adenocarcinoma and 11 cases of adenoma by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Among 115 cases of adenocarcinoma, 100 cases (87.0%) showed positive staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells for the IL-11, and 87 cases (75.6%) were positive for the IL-11Ra. Six cases (54.5%) and four cases (36.4%) of 11 adenomas were positive for IL-11 and IL-11Ra, respectively. The expression of IL-11Ra correlated with the histological differentiation (P = 0.033503), the depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.006395), Dukes'classification (P = 0.015648) and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.003865). However, the expression of IL-11Ra was not correlated with the venous invasion and the presence of lymph node metastasis. The expression of IL-11 was not correlated with any clinicopathological factors. In Western blot analysis, two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines and four tissues of surgically resected human carcinoma expressed both IL-11 and IL-11Ra proteins. IL-11 and IL-11Ra are highly expressed in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and the IL-11Ra expression is correlated with clinicopathological factors. These findings suggest that the expression of IL-11Ra is an important factor for the invasion of human colorectal adenocarcinoma.
To examine whether trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10c12) or cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9t11) inhibits heregulin (HRG)-beta-stimulated cell growth and HRG-beta-ErbB3 signaling in HT-29 cells. We cultured HT-29 cells in the absence or presence of the CLA isomers and/or the ErbB3 ligand HRG-beta. MTT assay, [3H]thymidine incorporation, Annexin V staining, RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and in vitro kinase assay were performed. HRG-beta increased cell growth, but did not prevent t10c12-induced growth inhibition. T10c12 inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells, whereas c9t11 had no effect. T10c12 decreased the levels of ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB3 proteins and transcripts in a dose-dependent manner, whereas c9t11 had no effect. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot studies revealed that t10c12 inhibited HRG-beta-stimulated phosphorylation of ErbB3, recruitment of the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to ErbB3, ErbB3-associated PI3K activities, and phosphorylation of Akt. However, c9t11 had no effect on phospho Akt levels. Neither t10c12 nor c9t11 had any effect on HRG-beta-induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2. These results indicate that the inhibition of HT-29 cell growth by t10c12 may be induced via its modulation of ErbB3 signaling leading to inhibition of Akt activation.
To investigate whether NF-kappaB is activated in human gastric carcinoma tissues and, if so, to study whether there is any correlation between NF-kappaB activity and heparanase expression in gastric carcinoma. NF-kappaB activation was assayed by immunohistochemical staining in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from 45 gastric carcinoma patients. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) method was used for nuclear protein from these fresh tissue specimens. Heparanase gene expression was quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. The nuclear translocation of RelA (marker of NF-kappaB activation) was significantly higher in tumor cells compared to adjacent and normal epithelial cells ((41.3+/-3.52)% vs (0.38+/-0.22) %, t = 10.993, P = 0.000<0.05; (41.3+/-3.52)% vs (0+/-0.31)%, t = 11.484, P = 0.000<0.05). NF-kappaB activation was correlated with tumor invasion-related clinicopathological features such as lymphatic invasion, pathological stage, and depth of invasion (Z = 2.148, P = 0.032<0.05; chi(2) = 8.758, P = 0.033<0.05; chi(2) = 18.531, P = 0.006<0.05). NF-kappaB activation was significantly correlated with expression of heparanase gene (r = 0.194, P = 0.046<0.05). NF-kappaB RelA (p65) activation was related with increased heparanase gene expression and correlated with poor clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancers. This suggests NF-kappaB as a major controller of the metastatic phenotype through its reciprocal regulation of some metastasis-related genes.
CT scan characteristics of patients with abdominal tuberculosis 
To analyze the experience within our hospital and to review the literature so as to establish the best means of diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. The records of 11 patients (4 males, 7 females, mean age 39 years, range 18-65 years) diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis in Harran University Hospital between January 1996 and October 2003 were analyzed retrospectively and the literature was reviewed. Ascites was present in all cases. Other common findings were weight loss (81%), weakness (81%), abdominal mass (72%), abdominal pain (72%), abdominal distension (63%), anorexia (45%) and night sweat (36%). The average hemoglobin was 8.2 g/dL and the average ESR was 50 mm/h (range 30-125). Elevated levels of cancer antigen CA-125 were determined in four patients. Abdominal ultrasound showed abnormalities in all cases: ascites in all, tuboovarian mass in five, omental thickening in 3, and enlarged lymph nodes (mesenteric, para-aortic) in 2. CT scans showed ascites in all, pelvic mass in 5, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in 4, mesenteric stranding in 4, omental stranding in 3, bowel wall thickening in 2 and mesenteric lymphadenopathy in 2. Only one patient had a chest radiograph suggestive of a new TB lesion. Two had a positive family history of pulmonary TB. None had acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the sputum and the tuberculin test was positive in only two. Laparotomy was performed in 6 cases, laparoscopy in 4 and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 2. In those patients subjected to operation, the findings were multiple diffuse involvement of the visceral and parietal peritoneum, white 'miliary nodules' or plaques, enlarged lymph nodes, ascites, 'violin string' fibrinous strands, and omental thickening. Biopsy specimens showed granulomas, while ascitic fluid showed numerous lymphocytes. Both were negative for acid-fast bacilli by staining. PCR of ascitic fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in all cases. Abdominal TB should be considered in all cases with ascites. Our experience suggests that PCR of ascitic fluid obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is a reliable method for its diagnosis and should at least be attempted before surgical intervention.
To evaluate the relationship of expression of paxillin, syndecan-1 and EMMPRIN proteins with clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-one patients who underwent HCC resection were recruited in the study. Paxillin, syndecan-1 and EMMPRIN proteins in HCC tissues were detected with immunohistochemical staining. Of 51 cases of HCC, 23 (45%) exhibited paxillin protein positive expression. Of 42 cases of adjacent non-tumor liver tissues, 24 (57%) exhibited positive expression. Positive paxillin protein expression was associated with low differentiation (r = 0.406, P = 0.004), with the presence of portal vein thrombosis (r = 0.325, P = 0.021), with extra-hepatic metastasis (r = 0.346, P = 0.014). Of 51 cases of HCC, 28 (55%) exhibited syndecan-1 protein positive expression. Of 42 cases of adjacent non-tumor liver tissues, 23 (55%) exhibited positive expression. Positive snydecan-1 protein expression was associated with well differentiation (r = 0.491, P = 0.001), with no extra-hepatic metastasis (r = 0.346, P = 0.014). Of 51 cases of HCC, 28 (55%) exhibited EMMPRIN protein positive expression. Of 42 cases of adjacent non-tumor liver tissues, 21 (50%) exhibited positive expression. Expression of EMMPRIN protein was not associated with serum AFP level, HBsAg status, presence of microsatellite nodule, tumor size, presence of cirrhosis and necrosis, differentiation, presence of portal vein thrombosis, extra-hepatic metastasis, disease-free survival and overall survival (P>0.05). Expression of paxillin protein was correlated conversely with the expression of syndecan-1 protein in HCC (r = -0.366, P = 0.010). Expression of paxillin and syndecan-1 proteins in HCC may affect its invasive and metastatic ability of the tumor. There may be a converse correlation between the expression of paxillin and syndecan-1 protein in HCC. Expression of EMMPRIN protein may be detected in HCC, but it may play little role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC.
To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control.
Top-cited authors
Katherine D Crew
  • Columbia University
Antonio Gasbarrini
  • Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Zhao-You Tang
  • Fudan University
Giovanni Tarantino
  • University of Naples Federico II
László Lakatos
  • Veszprém Megyei Csolnoky Ferenc Kórház Nonprofit ZRT.