World Journal of Educational Research

Published by Scholink Co, Ltd.
Print ISSN: 2375-9771
Publications
p> This thesis starts from structural anthropology, combines some shooting methods of film-documentary, and conducts initial structural analysis to the documentary Fahrenheit 9/11, which was directed by Michael Moores and which won an award at Cannes International Film Festival. On the basis of confirming the effectiveness of the documentary, this thesis analyzes how the film director uses methods of shooting and organizing to criticize the series of domestic and diplomatic policies adopted after the September 11 attacks by the U.S. president G·W·Bush. </p
 
ITPs and Indigenous Programmes
2020 ITPs and Indigenous Programmes
The 2020 Covid19 global pandemic disrupted teaching practices of 8 universities and 16 Institutes of Technology and Polytechnics (ITPs) in New Zealand. This disruption led to the curriculum being transferred from internal classes to online delivery. It unleashed a surge of research activity and publications in the education sector. However, little research was conducted to investigate the effect to the academic experience and even less research explored the impact to Indigenized curriculums. This paper explored websites for the visibility of Indigenous programmes and Indigenous academic experiences. It does this by: 1) describing the 8 universities and 16 Polytechnics for context; 2) identifying the type of Indigenous Schools/Faculties in universities and ITPs and whether Indigenous programmes of study were visible; 3) two authors providing personal accounts as Indigenous academics moving from internal teaching to online delivery. Specific mention is made of an Indigenous avatar named “Digi Hami from NZ.” The exploration utilized a M?ori-Centered and social research approach. The analysis drew main themes and suggested that some universities and ITPs were better prepared in the transition and the virtual mode of teaching was unable to retain the same quality and depth of learning required for an Indigenized curriculum.
 
The Comparison of Different Sources of Anxiety things between the Chinese International Students in China and the Chinese International Students Abroad
Background: As the international community has grappled to bring the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under control, many social factors have emerged and unbearable pressure has been placed on us all. This study aimed to explore the psychological symptoms and influencing factors of the pandemic on Chinese international students. Method: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other psychological symptoms were investigated using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Demographic data and data pertaining to the impact of COVID-19 on Chinese international students was also collected.Result: Chinese international students in their fourth year of university education showed higher depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and stress symptoms than students in other years of their degree programs. Each of these psychological symptoms were higher for Chinese international students in high school than for students in their first and second years of university education. Chinese international students who were abroad were found to be most anxious about the risk of infection, financial stress, and travel restrictions following the COVID-19 outbreak.Conclusion: Our study suggest that the effect of COVID-19 on Chinese international students’ psychological symptoms are significant. Our results are valuable for legislators and healthcare providers, who may need to develop effective psychological interventions for Chinese international students.
 
While in the past online education was an educational option, during the COVID-19 pandemic it has become an essential tool for colleges and universities to maintain their academic activity. Like a disclosing tablet that makes plaque visible, indicating the areas where more brushing is needed, the COVID-19 crisis has highlighted some critical issues in education that require further attention. This paper discusses the challenges that universities, teachers and students in Japan faced after the breakout of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lessons learned from them. Following the literature review and the author’s experience teaching foreign language classes at Japanese universities, the study identifies four main areas of concern: (1) a lack of digital devices and stable internet connections, (2) low levels of digital literacy among teachers and students alike, (3) insufficient institutional support, and (4) a lack of familiarity with online teaching formats and course delivery. The paper continues to examine the conditions needed for further integration of technology in education. Attention is given to teacher development, student training, and the selection and use of digital technologies in blended and fully online synchronous and asynchronous classes. While statistics and examples come from the Japanese context, many of the problems described are not unique to Japan. It is hoped that shared experiences and perspectives will help teachers and institutions in other countries identify common problems and develop the adequate strategies to confront them.
 
In order to attract more consumers, cultural and creative parks in Taiwan has launched new media marketing methods in recent years, hoping to attract more tourists. Starting in 2020, in the global COVID-19 epidemic storm, cultural and creative parks had tried so hard to keep customers’ concern. So they have strengthened the social networks links to social media. This study used group networks connection and qualitative methods, such as in-depth interview. Try to understand cultural and creative industries business promotion methods and effects.The results of this study found that starting from social networks is an important way to attract crowds, but there must be three supporting methods. 1) The function of social networks must be communicated with community groups to be effective. 2) Each marketing promotion must have certain issues before it can exert influence. 3) The characteristics of the topic must be combined with the local particularity.
 
The construction of university informatization in China has already entered the 2.0 era. It requires universities to explore a new way of thinking when strengthening campus construction. At present, colleges and universities have found a new construction direction of “smart campus construction”. On the basis of drawing lessons from the construction experience of “smart campus” pilot schools, they are gradually improving the construction method of smart campus. The achievements of some colleges and universities are not ideal. This affects the actual quality of smart campus construction. Therefore, colleges and universities should take educational informationization 2.0 as the basic guidance when embarking on the innovative development path of intelligent education. The bright future of the smart campus construction will be revealed by exploring the smart campus construction methods that meet the requirements of The Times. This provides sufficient practical reference for the innovation and development of intelligent education in colleges and universities.
 
em>This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of in-service English language teacher training in Khartoum state: A case study of in-service teacher training programme “English for Teaching 1” (EfT1) provided by the British Council (2011-2012). The Researchers adopted the descriptive analytical method to analyze the collected data. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire which was analyzed with the Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS). All the Hypotheses of the study were verified to be true and according to the analysis of the questionnaire. The study has come up with the following findings: Teacher training programme English for Teaching (1) (EfT(1)) has a positive impact on developing teaching process, the components of the programme satisfy the training needs of the English language teachers in Khartoum State, and the trainees who attended the programme have a positive attitude and opinions towards the programme. The study has been included with some recommendations that reflect the importance of in-service teacher training for Sudanese English language teachers and the effectiveness of partnership between national and international educational institutions in this field.</em
 
The Personnel Training as the Core Mechanism
em>This paper examines the essential attributes of engineering and the new requirements of the development of the times for talent cultivation, probes into the existing problems in engineering talents cultivation in applied colleges and universities and proposes the innovative mechanism of engineering talents cultivation and corresponding talents cultivation paths in the context of “Made in China 2025”.</em
 
Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is issued by the United Nations in 2015, put forward 17 goals for sustainable development to promote worldwide peace and freedom. Among the 17 goals, one goes to the education vision, stating that “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. This goal further and clearly describes the features of the future education: lifelong, inclusive, fair and high-quality. To make the dream true, every country should rethink the present education service and make reforms based on the national situation. In this context, this paper discusses the direction, construction, objects and layout of a lifelong inclusive education service suitable for present China’s national conditions, in hope of contributing Chinese wisdom to the “Community of shared future for mankind”. It is suggested in this paper that we should give priority to the construction and perfection of the macroscopic system and operating mechanisms for the lifelong inclusive education service in consideration of input and output efficiency; that we should update our mind and think of the education from a new perspective, that is, regard the lifelong inclusive education service as part of public service for all the people; that we should provide suitable education service for all students, regardless of age, race, disability, gender and wealth; that we should design and implement the educational projects reasonably and scientifically in order to better realize the goal.
 
Students Participating in the Reforestation Campaign
Plant Watered with Saline Solution
Evidence of the Campaign
p> This paper shows a novel way to work with the UN ’ s Agenda for the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, implementing a project based approach in a chemistry high-school course. The integration of inquiry-based learning, as well as the project based strategies, allowed students to develop multicultural skills that are crucial for becoming a global citizen. What is more, it provided the opportunity to integrate the scientific method and improve scientific writing by submitting a paper at the end of the project. </p
 
Example of Leaders, Prices/Awards, and Achievements  
p>The use of emergent technologies in education has evolved tremendously since the 21st century. For plenty of educators this has become a challenging task, most of all when 21st century learners fill the classrooms. But these digital natives differ tremendously from those who started the millennium. These students want to be challenged, engaged and motivated through a learning process, which connects them to a different learning experience. This has become a challenging task for educators due to the student profile and characteristics. Although to achieve the learning outcomes necessary for the 21st century, educators are adapting approaches suited for these learners, involving game theory, video games, and gamifying instruction. Two of these approaches are Gamification and Game-Based Learning (GBL). These two approaches have been widely used based on the theoretical approach towards game design and the opportunity they bring for the learner to be engaged and motivated throughout instruction. The following article provides a clear overview of both strategies, and how motivation is integrated with both. In addition it provides a clear description on planning effective instruction using aligned learning objectives, research and educational implications, and resources for the teaching and learning process using these approaches and strategies.</p
 
The study examined the level of implementation of chemistry curriculum by teachers and the available material resources necessary for the implementation of the curriculum in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. A sample of 250 chemistry teachers in Nigeria were used for the study. The instrument tagged “Chemistry Curriculum Implementation and Material Resources Questionnaire (CCIMRQ) was used for study. CCIMRQ was prepared by the researcher and validated by experts in curriculum studies with a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and t-test. Results showed that more than 30% of Chemistry teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria did not implement effectively the four themes in the curriculum as they tend to skip some difficult concepts in the curriculum. Also, results of t-test analysis (t = 3.01, p=0.03) revealed that there was a significant difference between the teachers’ view on the problem militating against the implementation of chemistry curriculum and the adequacy of material resources. The study concluded that some chemistry teachers in Nigeria did not implement the chemistry curriculum effectively due to inadequate material resources and lack of mastery of the subject matter. To meet the challenges for the 21st century, chemistry teachers in Nigeria should be exposed to capacity building on the subject matter and be retrained on how to handle difficult concepts in the chemistry curriculum.
 
Pictograms Representing Some of the Animals/Transportation Means, Featured in the Green Pouch's Activities
Example of Pictograms Where Sequences of Images are Presented
It is during the childhood period of one’s life trajectory that the exponential increase of vocabulary acquisition occurs. In Portugal, language disorders are the most frequently seen child development impairments, affecting 3 to 15 per cent of children under six years. Because delays in the acquisition of basic vocabulary can compromise inter-peer relational communication, a timely therapeutic assessment and intervention becomes all the more crucial. A speech therapy ludic-pedagogic intervention tool—the ABC Traffic Light—was created so as to aid in promoting basic vocabulary acquisition in children aged between three and six years. It consists in a traffic light with three built-in pouches, each of which containing cards suggestive of activities of varying difficulty levels. The empirical range of the proposed tool in the context of speech therapy assessment and intervention sessions should be highlighted.
 
Regardless of the fact that people are born with innate sense of number, mathematical thinking requires certain intellectual effort for which many children are not ready. While children investigate and discover new issues in everyday life, they meet the world of mathematics although they are not aware of it. As mathematics is becoming more and more important in today’s age of technology, it is very important that children are introduced to the spells of mathematics before they start attending school, and to continue to learn mathematics with that knowledge throughout school education. As well as reading, mathematics is a subject necessary for adequate functioning in society. What is more, mathematics is a subject that develops logical thinking and perception, thus mathematical teaching of children ought to be on more accessible level than it is currently. Parents and educators have access to various games and activities that involve children into mathematical thinking and creative resolving, which develops their self-confidence.Through the research that has been conducted with both preschool and primary school children using various mathematical examples appropriate for their age, it has been found out that the children of younger age have early math skills, whereas, regarding primary school children, their later math achievement is fading over time or their conclusions are grounded upon the “expected”. The traditional way of teaching mathematics and extensive material can cause poor mathematical achievement and cause a well-known fear of mathematics.
 
p> Background: The Government of Botswana has since attaining independence from Britain in 1966 demonstrated a lot of interest in the improvement of primary education by adopting two policies; the Education for kagisano of 1977 and the Revised National Policy on Education of 1994 to guide the development of education in the country. Other efforts include partnering with organizations from countries such as the USA and Britain and others to help improve the quality of the primary education. The other major aim for these was to improve the performance of students in the final examinations. Purpose/Aims: The purpose of the study was to establish strategies that can be used to influence student’s performance in Primary School Leaving Examinations. Methodology: A mixed-method design allowed the researcher to triangulate data from the professional literature and a questionnaire comprised of closed and open-ended questions. Out of the two hundred questionnaires distributed, one hundred and twenty seven questionnaires were returned; while only one hundred questionnaires were properly completed and therefore used in the study. Respondents were also interviewed. Data Analysis: For the closed ended section of the questionnaire, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used. Data from the interviews and open-ended section of the questionnaire was coded, and then emerging patterns and themes were identified and described in order to understand the meanings of these categories from the perspectives of the respondents, with verbatim texts included. The findings of the study show that there are various strategies that can be used to help improve the performance of students in PSLE. Some of the strategies include parental involvement, infrastructure provision and human resources. </p
 
This study investigated the impact of brain-based instructional strategy on academic performance of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) in mathematics. A pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design was adopted with a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial matrix. The sample size of 41 students who are D/HH were randomly selected in the school. Two intact classes each were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Brain-Based Instructional Strategy-BBIS) and the Control Group respectively. The instruments used were, Mathematics Attitude Questionnaire (r = 0.81), Cognitive Style Test (r = 0.80), and Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (r = 0.81). Three research questions guided the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean scores and standard deviations to explain and compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control groups in all the criteria measured. Brain-based instructional strategy was more effective at improving students’ attitude to mathematics than the conventional method. The findings of the study also indicated that tension and test-phobia which normally permeates the teaching-learning process of mathematics was highly reduced due to the optimal use of diverse brain compatible instructional materials among students who are D/HH.
 
p> The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between Early College High School students, ECHS students within a traditional high school, and traditional public high school students in south Texas as pertaining to college readiness. End of Course tests scores for English classes in grades nine and ten were tested. The population comprised of students from a 98% Hispanic and low socio-economic education region. In the state of Texas, EOC scores determine college readiness. Results revealed the ECHS stand-alone model had a significant difference in English EOC scores among the three models. </p
 
Selected Subject Details
em>Variations in the academic performance among students at all levels of education are one issue for years now that has attracted the attention of many researchers across the globe. This has prompted researchers and educationists to find out what factors or reasons can be attributed to these variations. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the various reasons to explain this cause. The purpose of this study therefore, was to compare the academic performance of students in the Bachelor’s degree of Information Technology (BIT) having Arts and Science backgrounds in universities of Uganda. In order to achieve the objective of this study, a sample of 202 final year BIT students were purposively selected from two universities in Uganda. These students were categorized on the basis of their A’ level backgrounds (130 Arts and 72 Sciences). A descriptive approach employing the Welch’s t-test was used to determine the difference between the performance of the two groups and a simple linear regression analysis was used to examine the correlation among students’ performance between semesters. The results indicated that there’s a significant difference in the academic performance of the two groups, with the science group outperforming arts. However, it was found that there is a more linear increase in the performance of Arts students from semester one through semester five. Furthermore, Arts students performed slightly better than Science counterparts in some course units. Thus the study concludes that Science students perform better than Arts students in the overall semester final examination with Arts students having room for improvement in their performance.</em
 
Academic bridging and other remedial programs are designed to maximize outcomes for all students and are designed around an inclusive framework which targets the most disadvantaged or at need students. This study questions the validity of this practice through an evaluation of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy for bridging program participants within two distinct cohorts, first-in-family and non-first-in-family students. The study comprised students at a regional Australian university (N=1806) which prides itself on high rates of first generation student enrolment. Data was analyzed using SPSS® software to construct regression analyses for each cohort and determine for each which of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy predicted current academic self-efficacy. For both first-in-family and non-first-in-family students who did not participate in bridging programs, all four of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy were significant predictors of current academic self-efficacy. For first-in-family students who participated in bridging programs, vicarious learning did not significantly predict academic self-efficacy. For non-first-in-family students who participated in bridging programs, mastery experience and social persuasion did not predict academic self-efficacy. Some suggestions for the disparity between the results for bridging program participants and the bulk of accepted literature are offered as are some implications for bridging program pedagogy.
 
This study investigated school climate and students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Anambra State. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study. This is a correlational survey of the ex-post-facto research design. 127(50%) respondents were sampled from a population of 254 principals using a simple sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire titled School Climate Questionnaire was employed to collect information from respondents. While a checklist was used to obtain information on students’ academic achievement. The questionnaire was validated through the face and content validity. It was also subjected to a reliability test using Cronbach-Alpha and a coefficient of .79 was obtained revealing a high-reliability index. Coefficient of determination, Pearson r, and Regression were used for data analysis. The finding shows that the relationship between teachers’ motivation, instructional supervision, school climate, and students’ academic achievement in Anambra State was significant. It was thus, recommended that since educational supervision enhances instructors’ professional competence and the effectiveness of their instructional activities school principals should ensure that the climate of the school enhances the teacher’s job.
 
Performance in Monduli District Community Schools
Reliability Analysis Results
Perceived Level of Parental Involvement
Social Economic Status of Parents
Attitude of Students toward Their Academic Achievement
This study investigated on the effect of home environmental factors on students’ academic achievement among secondary schools in Monduli District, Tanzania using a descriptive design. A sample of 318 students from seven schools participated by filling the questionnaire. Validity of the instrument was ensured through expert judgment and the Cronbach’s Alpha in all three variables was above 0.6. Analysis of data employed descriptive and inferential statistics. The study established existence of parental involvement in pupils’ academic affairs. This was indicated by the facts that parents were committed to monitor students’ learning activities and give all kind of supports needed. Parents’ social economic status afforded to facilitate school needs of their children. Lastly, the study established a direct correlation between parental involvement and academic achievement, between social economic status and academic achievement and between social economic status and parental involvement. Based on these conclusions the researchers recommend that there is need to encourage parents to continue their parental involvement in their children’s academic affairs as this is a way of improving academic achievement. Furthermore, parents should be encouraged to come up with strategies that will help to improve their income, as this will enable sustainable provision of basic and school needs.
 
The main objectives of this study are: 1. Evaluate the degree of utilization of online, formative self-assessment (OFSA); 2. To evaluate the effect of OFSA on summative final exam (SFE) scores. The design of the study involved students having the opportunity to take a total of eight weekly OFSA quizzes voluntarily, outside of class time and throughout the academic term. Demographic, utilization and SFE scores were collected and analyzed. The results included: 1. high participation rate with 93% (N = 173) of the total number of students having taken at least one or more quizzes and 53% (N = 98) of students took at least four or more OFSA quizzes. 2. There was a 0.72 (p=.008; CI: .196 to 1.253) increase of SFE scores per quiz taken as per linear regression. The correlation was mildly, positive (r = .194, p < .01). In post hoc analysis, the mean SFE score of the frequent (4 or more quizzes) OFSA takers was 3.52 higher than that of the infrequent (3 or fewer quizzes) takers (p < .01). Based on the results, OFSA may offer a complementary learning tool for students in a Chiropractic program.
 
Correlation of Academic Self-Regulation and Academic Performance
p> The current research aimed to submit a proposal for an intervention based on behavior modification training in academic self-regulation program for elementary school students in order to improve their academic performance. The program was developed through a quantitative methodology in which data were collected through field observations, interval rate records, permanent products and the application of the Self-Regulation Assessment in School Activities Questionnaire (Flores & Cerino, 2000); 22 sixth-grade students participated, divided into two groups (experimental/control) from an urban private elementary school in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Within the experimental group, work was focused on three children with disorder Attention Deficit (ADD) and disorder attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD) through behavior modification to ensure greater control over their learning process. The results show the effectiveness of the intervention in the students, since it is possible to increase self-regulation in the academic field. From the improvements found in academic performance, it can be concluded that the knowledge of students about their own ability in problem solving and supporting actions that impact on their tasks ’ outcomes, are aspects that make a difference have an effect on the academic performance which is reflected in the scorings. </p
 
p> The environmental condition and the nature of social interaction that goes on in the family may have some positive or negative influence on the academic achievement of a child. However, the performance of the students has been left in the hands of the teachers and they are solely blamed for the learners’ poor performance. This study investigated the perceived influence infrastructure on the secondary school students’ performance. The study used a cross-sectional survey research design. The study employed structured questionnaires and interview schedules to collect data. The target population was 109,151 consisting of students, teachers and parents. A sample size of 598 respondents consisting of purposively sampled 212 teachers and multistage sampled 212 students and randomly sampled 174 parents was used in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, standard deviation and percentages. The study established that phone ownership and excessive use of phones by students negatively affect students’ academic performance. The study also recommends that parents should control their children’s use of mobile phones. </p
 
This study examined application of Brain-based Teaching Strategies on academic performance of children with ADHD in Mathematics. Gender and Mathematics anxiety level were introduced as moderator variables. A pre-test, post-test, control group experimental design was employed for this study. Two groups were involved (experimental and control groups). The experimental group was exposed to the application of Brain-based Teaching Strategies while the control group was exposed to the conventional method. Two instruments were used (i) Achievement Test in Mathematics (ATM) (r = 0.83) and (ii) Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (r = 0.80). Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics of means scores and standard deviations to explain and compare pretest and posttest mean scores of the experimental and control groups in all the criteria measured. Inferential statistics of Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses and estimate the impacts of various factors on the dependent variables. Treatment was more effective at improving children with ADHD attitude to mathematics than the conventional method. Findings indicated significant improvement on children’s attention span resulting from taking cognizance of “prime times” in the teaching-learning episode. Also, tension that is normally associated with the teaching-learning process of mathematics was significantly reduced.
 
Comparison of the Motivation Subscale Scores between Two Quarters (n = 305)
Correlation Coefficient between Academic Performance and the Subscales of Motivation
Multiple Regression for Motivation Components Predicting Academic Achievement (n =
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between motivation and academic performance in chiropractic students. This was a cross-sectional study. Three hundred and sixty-two students were recruited from the 1st and 3rd quarters during the 2017-2018 academic year. Out of 362 students, 305 completed the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM). Total scores from the 1st quarter General Anatomy course and the 3rd quarter Immunology/Endocrinology course were used to measure the 1st quarter and 3rd quarter academic performance, respectively. The mean total motivation score for all students was 28.40 ± 3.79 (mean ± SD). There was no signi?cant difference in total motivation score between students in the two quarters (p > .05). The mean of the 1st quarter praise scores was statistically significantly higher than those of the 3rd quarter (p < .05). The means of three motivation subscale scores for females were signi?cantly higher than that for males (task, effort, and praise, p < .05) while the mean competition score for males was signi?cantly higher than that for females (p < .01). The linear analysis demonstrated a weak but statistically significant correlation of task (r = .11, p < .05) and effort (r = .13, p < .05) with academic performance indicating that task and effort were minor predictors of academic outcome (p < .05).There was a weak, but statistically significant positive correlation between the three motivation subscales and academic performance. Female students scored significantly higher on three motivation subscales while males scored higher on one.
 
, shows a Spearman Rank correlation coefficient which was run to test Perceived Parenting 
Gender Parity in Perceived Paternal Parenting Styles and Academic Performance 
p> The study examined perception of learners on parenting styles and its influence on academic performance among secondary school students in Bukonzo County, Kasese District in Uganda. A correlational study design was adopted. Data was collected from 562 students selected using proportionate stratified and systematic random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered. Findings indicated that the most prevalent parenting style was democratic style and the least was laissez-faire even as much as parents’ perception may assume that children tend to want freedom. Furthermore, Spearman Rank correlation coefficient indicated that statistically significant positive correlations exist between democratic, authoritarian parenting styles and academic performance. It therefore implied that children would wish to have parents who are in control of them as opposed to those who leaves them to do what they want. High level preference for parents who guide and mentor them. Therefore, democratic and authoritarian parenting styles proved to enhance students’ academic performance as opposed to leisure fair parenting style. </p
 
T-Test of Students' Perceptions of Linguistic Factors According to Nationality 
One-Sample T-Test Comparing between Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Difficulties 
em>Students’ perceptions of the difficulties of comprehending academic English lectures affect their academic learning. Therefore, the present study is designed to explore EFL college female undergraduate students’ perceptions of the difficulties of comprehending academic English lectures to bring to light those factors that affect students’ academic performance and suggest solutions to overcome them. Participants were 365 female college students picked randomly from various grade levels enrolled in a four-year pre-service teacher education program at the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. The study adopted a descriptive design employing Likert’s five-point scale assigned under two factors: linguistic difficulties and non-linguistic difficulties. Independent variables include age, nationality, grade level and GPA. Results showed that students’ difficulties were at a medium level. Significant differences were observed for nationality, grade level and GPA. Implications and recommendations for future research were discussed.</em
 
p> The study correlated self-awareness competence and administrative behavior of academic administrators in public universities South-South geo-political zone in Nigeria. The research question and hypothesis proposed establish the significance of correlation between the independent and dependent variables. As a result, 13 public universities and 550 academic heads in six States, South-South Nigeria was grouped into clusters and seven universities and 350 respondents were sampled in Rivers, Bayelsa and Delta States. Two independent measurement scales titled Self- Awareness Questionnaire (SEAQ) and Administrative Behaviour Questionnaire (ABQ) computed with Cronbatch Alpha presented 0.75 and 0.78 reliability index. However, final analysis was based on 200 quantitative responses actively gathered and computed with Pearson product moment coefficient for relationship, and hypothesis was tested with z statistics at 0.05 significant level. Available empirical evidence from the study revealed r-value of 0.308 for self-awareness, which affirmed positive relationship between the understudied variables. Furthermore, the tested hypothesis showed z-rcal 0.778 at df 199 greater than zrcrit 0.195 and the observed correlation between self-awareness competence and administrative behaviour was statistically significant. In conclusion, academic heads in public universities were encouraged to further enhance their self-awareness domain of emotional intelligence because their action and inaction have greater consequences to their role behaviour, institutional goals and organisational climate of universities. </p
 
p> The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the effects of motivation factors on college choice between academically advanced students and other students. College choice ranged from no college, two-year college, four-year college, moderately selective four-year college, and highly selective four-year college. Restricted data from the nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) of 2002 were used for the analysis. Using the ELS questions, 8 motivation constructs (general intrinsic motivation, math intrinsic motivation, reading Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, general academic self-efficacy, math self-efficacy, English self-efficacy, and educational expectation) were developed. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the direct and indirect effects of the factors on college choice. The results indicated that although ACT/SAT scores, followed by GPA, are the most important factors for both academically advanced students’ and other students’ choices of more selective colleges, their choices are mediated by their intrinsic reading motivation and math self-efficacy. Compared to other students’, academically advanced students’ extrinsic motivation more negatively affected, while S ocio E conomic S tatus (SES) less negatively affected, their choices of more selective colleges . Other students’ high general academic self-efficacy and educational expectations positively affected their ACT/SAT scores, GPA, and choices of more selective colleges, which did not affect academically advanced students. </p
 
The paper examined institutional research practices that promote academics’ motivation to engage in writing and publication. The idea was prompted by enormous effort and financial support UMI has committed on various research and publication-related programs and activities, including; annual research cluster grants, conference funding, graduate supervision, and guest scholars that are periodically engaged to facilitate in the areas of; research, supervision, scholarly writing, publication, grant proposal writing, etc. Every year (save for the pandemic period), the institute disburses funds to academics that respond to research grant calls in a timely fashion. Similarly, there were newly graduate doctoral candidates, still with fresh and novel publishable research ideas. It was revealed that academics are recognized for graduate supervision to completion, instead of co-publication efforts. The paper concludes that the lack of “price-tags” for research uptake, and the current accounting system that focuses on the usage of funds, instead of the outcomes has continued to diminish academics motivation to publish. Similarly, the practice to settle for the “raw research reports” instead of publications as a way of accountability had affected academics’ desire to publish. Further, collegial cooperation had affected implementation of personnel decisions related to research. Lastly, the delayed performance feedback on individual publication statuses affected their publication acumen. The paper recommends that institutions need to devise accountability systems for funded research activities as a way of sustaining academics’ research passion and motivation. Similarly, the institution should use the detailed “quarterly performance output reports” to regularly update members on their research uptake situation, other than waiting for the expiry of the five-year employment contract.
 
p> A prominent challenge, at times under-addressed in the science education literature, is considering what types of learning accommodations science teachers should employ for students with disabilities. Outside of science education, researchers have consistently outlined how Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is one efficient means by which to engage students with disabilities in the curriculum. This paper presents the results of a research study in which teachers employed co-generative dialogue as a learning space where UDL was used to differentiate and individualize instruction in an inclusive biology class. The data originated from a larger, ongoing, longitudinal ethnography of science learning in several New York City special education classrooms. This ethnographic work presents a case study where teachers and a student used co-generative dialogue to develop learning accommodations which conformed to the principles of UDL. This research demonstrates how co-generative dialogue can provide biology teachers and special education co-teachers with an opportunity to collaborate with students to create learning accommodations that connect to the broader biology curriculum. </p
 
em>The Study aimed at investigating the Teachers’ Images towards the Administrative Accountability and the Degree of Principals’ Application for it in Tafila Governorate from the Teachers’ Perspectives. The researcher developed an instrument with four dimensions: Functional Commitment, Performance Effectiveness, Career Ethics, and Self-personal Behavior. The Sample Consisted of (210) teachers (male and female). The results indicated that the teachers images were high for administrative accountability dimension and mid for the principals application for its dimensions. There are no statistically significant differences in the degree of applying administrative accountability attributed to the variables of sex, experience, and specialization. The results also indicated that there are statistically significant differences attributed to the variables of sex and specialization interaction. </em
 
Logistic Regression Models with Home Ownership at Age 15 as the Outcome Across
Linear Regression Models with Home Value at Age 15 as the Outcome in the Overall
Background: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES), such as high maternal educational attainment, show weaker protective effects on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes for Black than White families. As a result of these MDRs, families and individuals with high educational attainment still report high levels of depression, smoking, obesity, and chronic disease. Limited knowledge exists on MDRs of maternal education on indicators of wealth such as home ownership and home value. Aims: Built on the MDRs framework, we tested the hypothesis of whether the effects of maternal educational attainment at birth on home ownership and home value, as proxies of wealth, vary between Black and White families. We hypothesized that: 1) high maternal education would be associated with more wealth 15 years later, and 2) compared to Whites, Blacks would be less likely to accumulate wealth (own a house) across all educational levels, given a weaker boosting effect of maternal educational attainment on wealth for Black than White families. Methods: The Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, is a 15-year follow up study of a random sample of births in cities larger than 200,000 population in the US. A total number of 2004 White or Black youth were included and were followed from birth to the age of 15. The predictor of interest was maternal educational attainment at birth, treated as a categorical variable (college graduation). The outcomes were home ownership and home value (worth - owed) 15 years later, as proxies of wealth. Logistic and linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: High maternal education at birth was associated with home ownership and higher value of owned home at age 15. We also found that maternal educational attainment at birth and race interact with each other, suggesting that the effects of high maternal educational attainment at birth on home ownership/value at age 15 were weaker for Black than White families. Conclusions: Diminished returns of maternal educational attainment at birth on wealth accumulation in Black families may be a mechanism that contributes to racial health disparities in high socioeconomic status and also poor outcomes of high SES Black families. That is, a smaller effect of maternal educational attainment on changing the real lives of Black than White youth may be one of the mechanisms by which health remains worse than expected in high SES Black families. Not all of the health, behavioral, and developmental disparities are due to the racial gap in SES but also diminishing returns of socioeconomic status indicators such as maternal educational attainment for racial minorities. Research should study how social stratification, discriminatory mortgage and banking, residential segregation, family formation, employment, and occupational prestige reduce Black families' ability to mobilize their human capital and secure tangible economic and non-economic outcomes.
 
Due to less attention to the English phonetics improvements was paid by high school English teaching, many Chinese university freshmen lack of the most basic phonetics knowledge, for example, their verbal continuous reading is not coherent and their incomplete blasting phonetics is not clear, some freshmen even do not know how to spell words correctly according to their phonetics. This situation has made many negative effects on China’s university English EFL teaching, especially for their improvement of listening comprehension ,but if both teachers and freshmen are aware of this problems, the university English classroom teaching can be effectively improved.
 
p> The study aimed at recognizing the effective of using (PQ4R) Strategy in Teaching comprehension Reading in Arabic Subject among Ninth Basic grade Students achievement in Jordan. To achieve this aim, a survey was used. The sample consisted of (104) male and female students distributed as (52) male student and (52) female student, chosen randomly in two experimental groups and two control groups consisted of (26) male students and (26) female student s in each one. An achievement test for reading comprehension was used as an instrument for the study. The results indicated that there are statistical significant differences in favor of the experimental group which used (PQ4R). The results also showed that there are significant differences in favor of female students. The study recommended that (PQ4R) strategy should be adopted as an effective teaching method.</em
 
Obligatory Subjects in Matriculation Exams
The Average Rate of Outstanding Students Who Have Difficulty
Explained Variance Test
The education system and the higher education system are a main key to enter the occupational system in high-tech industries in science and technology areas—the most successful field in Israel in the last few years. This field ensures much higher income than the economy average and may also lead to social mobility. In order to admit these studies, the higher education system sets preliminary threshold terms as the student’s grade in mathematics matriculation test and the number of study units he studied. As a result, these two systems create a pyramid that as we go higher on it, the learner rate declines.In international perspective the State of Israel was ranked in the lowest places in quantitative literacy achievements in the years 2006-2018. In addition, Israel is one of the countries with the largest disparities among the OECD countries during all research years.This article will present findings from research literature that provide a general overview of student achievements in mathematics in Israel and in addition we will discuss the influence level of sociological factors on student achievement in mathematics.
 
Teachers Rating of Democratic Leadership Style
Teachers' Assessment of Laissez Faire Leadership Style
National Examination Performance in Sampled Schools for Year 2020
Following establishment of the low reading and writing levels among primary school levels (UWEZO, 2013), three projects were designed to test possible programs to raise primary school reading levels. These included EQUIPT literacy program, LANES and Tusome Pamoja programs. They ran parallel in Tanzania, each operating in separate districts of focus. Tusome Pamoja operated in Mbeya, Zanzibar and Morogoro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the achievement of Tusome Pamoja program in improving reading ability of standard two pupils in primary schools. Only 4 school were involved in the study. The sample of the study constituted 89 respondents including 4 teachers, 4 head of schools and 81standard two pupils. Data collected through in Morogoro municipality through testing, interviews, observation, questionnaire and documentary review. The help of Microsoft Excel Program, Microsoft Word, SPSS, and content analysis analyzed the data. Findings of the study revealed that, the teachers are not well prepared in teachers’ colleges. Most of primary teachers who teach reading are not interested with carrier development. There are some intervention programs, which help in improving teacher’s ability in teaching reading. These programs are especially important, as they are specific to early grade skills. It also revealed that, the teachers faced a number of problems in teaching reading including shortage of resources, poor cooperation from parents and lack of food program. The study recommended that the school owners should prepare in-service education program and seminars that enhanced teaching of reading skills in Tanzania.
 
Correlation Analysis of Socio-Economic Status and Senior Secondary School Students' 
Regression Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Senior Secondary School Students' 
p> This study investigated the influence of parental input and intelligent quotient on secondary school students’ achievement in Biology. The study was guided by four research questions and four hypotheses. This study employed a survey research design. A sample of 500 students was used for the study using the stratified sampling and simple random technique. The instrument that was employed in this study is intelligent quotient test and parental input questionnaire, which were adequately validated. The regression method of data analysis was employed. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between intelligence quotient, parental input and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Biology. It was recommended that Parents should spend more time to check their children’s books to see what they are doing in school s and that Parents should be in contact with teachers who on daily basis are in position to guide the children. </p
 
Pre-Test Achievements of the Students in Physics
Mean Achievement of the Students in Physics Electricity II before Pre-Test and after
Categories of Schools and the Number of Respondents
Mean Achievement of the Students in Physics (Electricity II) (Pre-Test)
One of the challenges facing Kenya in the teaching of Physics in secondary schools is how to make learners acquire knowledge, build up capacity for critical thinking in solving problems in any situation and make an effort to enable them understand the application of content in real life situations and careers. Based on this challenge, the present study was designed to determine the effect of investigative science process skill teaching strategy on students’ achievement in Physics. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine students’ achievement in school physics when using Investigative Science Process Skill (ISPS) teaching strategy. Theoretical framework of the study was based on constructivist theories of learning. Quasi- Experimental design was used. The research was carried out in eight schools in Embu County. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select participating schools, then simple random sampling was used to select and assign participating schools in experimental and control group. The sample was form three students. Research instrument used was: Physics Achievement Test (PAT) on the topic of Electricity (II). The research instrument was pilot-tested for validity and reliability. The reliability coefficient was calculated using Kunder-Richardson (KR-Formula20). A coefficient value of 0.768 was considered suitable for reliability of the instrument. Data was analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square and t-test. Hypotheses was tested at alpha (?) value of 0 .05 level of significance using a computer Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows. The findings of the study demonstrated that ISPS enhanced academic achievement in learning. It is hoped that the results of the study provide useful information to Physics teachers, curriculum developers, Quality Assurance and Standards Officer (QASO) and teacher-trainers.
 
p> The study aimed to recognize the role of training program in administrative creativity achievement among schools principals of directorate of education in Tafila Governorate from their perspective. The population and the sample consisted of (83) male and female principals. The survey descriptive approach was used, and a questioner for data collection was used after checking validity and reliability. The result indicated that the role of training program in administrative creativity achievement among schools principals of directorate of education in Tafila Governorate from their perspective. Came with a high degree with mean of (3.54), and there are no statistically significant difference due to the variables of experience, gender, and training course. The result also showed that there are no statistically significant differences attributed to the variable of school level in favor of secondary school. The research recommended that the ministry of education should intrude qualitative training programs for principals to enable them in administrative creativity achievement and to keep up with development. </p
 
Philosophy, ethics, legal mandates, educational theory, classroom application, and research has neither concluded nor reached scholarly saturation on the successful implementation of inclusion. This study examines inclusive practices for students with special needs by focusing on one innovative approach to narrowing the achievement gap between students on an Individual Education Plans (IEP) and students not on IEP. The innovative approach examined combined three research-based practices to create one school-wide pedagogy. The public middle school in this study integrated three educational approaches known as “Tribes,” “Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI)”, and “MicroSocieties”. An 11-year study revealed statistically significant relationship between the innovative approach and the achievement gap between students on IEPs and students not on IEPs. Descriptive statistics and parametric testing, a linear regression, were used to make inferences in the relationship. Implications of the study continue to support existing research on individual inclusive practices, but more importantly the innovative integration of inclusive practices.
 
em>This study aims to reveal whether the sporting achievement (high performance) among student athletes able to cultivate qualities oriented achievement motivation. Research by design ex post de facto (research after the event) in which the data collection techniques using achievement motivation questionnaire. The Achievement motivation questionnaire arranged and developed following the Likert model with reference to five levels, with a reliability of 0.85, while the alternative answers were arranged in such a way in the form of simulation. The population in this study was the PPLP student athletes in North Sumatra and students of SMA 6 Medan. Based on the results of the study at 95% confidence level (α 0.05), significantly found (1) there were differences in achievement motivation among student athletes and non-athletes, (2) there was no difference in achievement motivation by the length of exercise, (3) there were no difference in achievement motivation of athletes male and female athletes, (4) there was not difference in achievement motivation among the 7 sports. The results of the study recommended that to improve students achievement motivation should participate or engage in competitive sports.</em
 
Race of the Respondents
Pupils' Performance after Using Web-based Activities to Learn English Language
Mean, Mode and Median of Pre-test Score and Post-test Score
Vocabulary acquisition is an important aspect of second language learning. It aids communication and comprehension. Teachers are thus expected to invent very effective means of teaching this vital component to the learners. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possible effect of using web-based activities to teach vocabulary on the vocabulary acquisition performance of the students. Forty pupils were selected for the study and were exposed to web-activities. The study made use of pre and posttests to examine whether there were any changes in the performance of the students. It was found out the used of web-based activities really influenced their performance as all the respondents had scores higher than in the pretest situation. It could then be held that it is imperative that teachers of English harness all creative ways of ensuring that students are assisted to learn effectively and one of such ways is employing technology.
 
Distinctive Features of Controlled and Communicative Practice Activities
While research on language immersion education has highlighted a multitude of benefits such as cognitive skills, academic achievement and language and literacy development, some studies have also identified challenges to its effective implementation, particularly as they relate to language acquisition. It has been suggested that the less than optimal levels of students’ immersion language “persist in part because immersion teachers lack systematic approaches for integrating language into their content instruction” (Tedick, Christian, & Fortune, 2011, p. 7). Students’ interlanguage has aspects that are borrowed, transferred and generalised from the mother tongue and differs from both the immersion language and the mother tongue. After a period of sustained development, interlanguage appears to stabilise and certain non-target like features tend to fossilise. Research has long suggested that effective immersion pedagogy needs to counterbalance both form-oriented and meaning-oriented approaches. This paper reviews the literature in relation to the linguistic deficiencies in immersion students’ L2 proficiency and form-focused instruction is examined as a viable solution to this pedagogic puzzle. Key instructional elements of form-focused instruction are unpacked and some pedagogical possibilities are considered in an attempt to identify and discuss strategies that will enable immersion learners to refine their grammatical and lexical systems as they proceed.
 
International students attending schools of business at Western universities encounter various interrelated academic, language, cultural and socio-emotional challenges that impact their educational performance and success in their respective study programs, thus, shape their future professional prospects. The purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, develop a better understanding of the cultural and socio-emotional experiences of international Middle Eastern students attending American, British, and Australian universities in 2018, 2019, and early 2020. Secondly, find ways in which American, British, and Australian higher education providers can enhance their efforts in meeting the cultural and social-emotional needs of their international Middle Eastern students. Thirdly, discuss the academic and language experiences of international Middle Eastern students attending schools of business at Western universities in the above mentioned three countries. To this end, case studies have been designed for this purpose, where data is collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews. Accordingly, this study is guided by a series of research questions, as opposed to hypothesis testing. The participants involved in this study are all full-time international Middle Eastern students (n=90), undertaking their programs of study at both the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels at higher education institutions/providers in the three major world leaders in international education.
 
p> Supporting and mentoring teacher trainee competence during teaching practice forms an indispensable part of professional and personal development. A positive interaction between university assessors, secondary school principals, collaborating teachers, and regular teachers plays a vital role in fostering professional competence among teacher trainees. Consistent with professional development is that knowledge and learning is entrenched in social contexts and experiences promoted though interaction with significant others. The nature of support provided during teaching practice enhances sustained class management, improved professional development, activity based learning and learner achievement. On the other hand, inadequate support may turn teaching practice into a stressful disempowering and unproductive exercise for teacher trainees. The purpose of this study is to examine university assessors and school support in teacher trainee development at University of Nairobi. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a population of 68 student teachers on teaching practice randomly sampled from 17 Counties. Data was collected through questionnaires for teacher trainees. Data analysis involved application of descriptive and inferential statistics, and presented using tables and graphs. Analysis yielded three themes, unsupportive relations, moderately supportive, and very supportive. The results indicated considerable support during teaching practice where “ very supportive ” scored the highest percentages. The study recommends development of practical and consistent policies and infrastructure that provides coordinated support for teacher trainees. </p
 
p> While achievement test results lead to after-the-fact AYP results, this research delves into measures behind and beyond test scores, the matter-of-fact workplace norms of schools. Elementary teachers completed items in the VISTAA survey as analysis revealed five constructs of school culture: commitment to student learning, commitment to collegiality, discourse, efficacy, and sensemaking. As a single aggregate factor, defined standard deviation gains in the school culture composite increased the likelihood of attaining AYP by 81%. The results also show positive associations for individual predictors concerning the infrastructure of school culture with the outcome of AYP. </p
 
Major Theme 1: Language-Related General Living Adjustment
The Language Adjustment Assessment Tool for Foreign Students
Number of Questionnaire Items Derived from each Theme
Inter-Rater Validity Cross-Tabulation and Kappa Value
p> As part of internationalization of higher education, student mobility has expanded over the past decade. Particularly, at St. Paul University Philippines, internationalization is established by hosting foreign students from Basic Education Unit to the Graduate School. Reviewed literature shows that foreign students across countries face a range of unique acculturation difficulties brought by language difference. However, none of these focused solely on language adjustment of foreign students. The researcher considered this particular space in sociolinguistics as a potential niche to occupy, with the aim of explicating the lived experiences of foreign students to develop a language adjustment assessment tool. This study used hermeneutical phenomenology in understanding the lived experiences of foreign students on language adjustment. Considering data saturation in the qualitative phase, the researcher involved 18 college foreign students using semi-structured one-on-one interview. The data were subjected to thematic structural analysis to find emerging themes. Based on such themes, the researcher developed a language adjustment assessment tool in the quantitative phase, which was pilot-tested to 76 medical foreign students and finally administered to 51 college foreign students using purposive-convenient sampling. Cohens Kappa was used to assess the instrument’s validity while Cronbach’s Alpha for reliability. Based on the findings of the study, more enablers affecting language adjustment of foreign students were identified than constraints. Moreover, four major themes emerged including Language-related General Living Adjustments, Language-related Academic Adjustments, Language-related Socio-Cultural Adjustments, and Language-related Psychological Adjustments. The developed language adjustment assessment tool was also evaluated to be fairly valid and reliable. </p
 
p> The study was on the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in higher educational administration in Uganda. The study population comprised of four universities. Convenience sampling was used to obtain the sample size of 48 admininistrators from the population. The study aimed at identifying the roles of ICT in higher educational administration and a survey method was employed to investigate the study. Related literatures were reviewed from journals and p a st researches, data was collected using a well designed and validated questionnaire, the data was statistically analyzed and interpreted using weighted average and chi square test. The findings of this study revealed that ICT greatly enhanced educational administrator’s performance through improving cross communication at the managerial level, quick access to needed information, provides media and enhances information accuracy, analyzing data fast and effectively, their knowledge and skills a networked platform for collaborative work, motivates administrators through access to new information, for research purposes and enhances research skills of administrators, evaluation of staff and students is made easier, helps administrators in result processing, analyzes data quickly and accurately, reduces on workload, good and secure storage of information, improves coordination of tasks and activities. Therefore, the findings reveal that the proprietors of universities should procure more ICT facilities and equipment in order to ensure maximum efficiency and effectiveness in all dimensions of educational administration. </p
 
Top-cited authors
Lydia Kyei-Blankson
  • Illinois State University
Esther Ntuli
  • Idaho State University
Shervin Assari
  • Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Jorge F. Figueroa Flores
  • Texas Woman's University
Siddhartha Paul Tiwari