World Journal of Educational Research

Published by Scholink Co, Ltd.

Online ISSN: 2333-5998


Print ISSN: 2375-9771


The American Documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 under the Vision of Structural Anthropology
  • Article
  • Full-text available

August 2018


57 Reads

Zeyuan Gao


Lifan Deng
p> This thesis starts from structural anthropology, combines some shooting methods of film-documentary, and conducts initial structural analysis to the documentary Fahrenheit 9/11, which was directed by Michael Moores and which won an award at Cannes International Film Festival. On the basis of confirming the effectiveness of the documentary, this thesis analyzes how the film director uses methods of shooting and organizing to criticize the series of domestic and diplomatic policies adopted after the September 11 attacks by the U.S. president G·W·Bush. </p

Table 2 .
Table 3 .
ITPs and Indigenous Programmes
2020 ITPs and Indigenous Programmes
The Visibility of an Indigenized Curriculum during Covid 19 New Zealand. An Exploration of the Experience from Indigenous Academics

August 2021


34 Reads

The 2020 Covid19 global pandemic disrupted teaching practices of 8 universities and 16 Institutes of Technology and Polytechnics (ITPs) in New Zealand. This disruption led to the curriculum being transferred from internal classes to online delivery. It unleashed a surge of research activity and publications in the education sector. However, little research was conducted to investigate the effect to the academic experience and even less research explored the impact to Indigenized curriculums. This paper explored websites for the visibility of Indigenous programmes and Indigenous academic experiences. It does this by: 1) describing the 8 universities and 16 Polytechnics for context; 2) identifying the type of Indigenous Schools/Faculties in universities and ITPs and whether Indigenous programmes of study were visible; 3) two authors providing personal accounts as Indigenous academics moving from internal teaching to online delivery. Specific mention is made of an Indigenous avatar named “Digi Hami from NZ.” The exploration utilized a M?ori-Centered and social research approach. The analysis drew main themes and suggested that some universities and ITPs were better prepared in the transition and the virtual mode of teaching was unable to retain the same quality and depth of learning required for an Indigenized curriculum.

Table 1 .
Effect of COVID-19 on Academic Performance in Four CORE Subjects of selected Senior Secondary School Students in Upper West Region of Ghana
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October 2023


42 Reads

COVID-19 created lots of distortions in the world. This study investigated effect of COVID-19 on academic performance among selected senior secondary school students from Ghana. WASSCE results from 2017/2018 through 2021/2022 academic sessions were considered to determine order in academic performance before, during and after COVID-19. Two research questions and hypotheses were stated, while a descriptive correlational survey was adopted, and convenience sampling technique employed to select needed sample for the study. WASSCE results of five (5) academic sessions were extracted for core subjects in senior high schools for pre-, during, and after COVID-19. Data used are standardized scores with reliability coefficients of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 respectively at p=0.01 (2-tailed). Data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentages. Results revealed that highest and lowest mean scores recorded occurred in 2017/2018 and 2021/2022 academic sessions respectively. Also, the relationship between academic performance after COVID-19 was established to be significant and stronger than the relationship between academic performance before COVID-19 which was weak but, not significant. Models introduced into the school system during COVID-19 should continue since academic performance in the core subjects is improving as desired by stakeholders in education.

Figure 1. The Comparison of Different Sources of Anxiety things between the Chinese International Students in China and the Chinese International Students Abroad
Psychological Impacts of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Chinese International Students: Examining Prevalence and Associated Factors

July 2020


504 Reads

Background: As the international community has grappled to bring the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under control, many social factors have emerged and unbearable pressure has been placed on us all. This study aimed to explore the psychological symptoms and influencing factors of the pandemic on Chinese international students. Method: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other psychological symptoms were investigated using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Demographic data and data pertaining to the impact of COVID-19 on Chinese international students was also collected.Result: Chinese international students in their fourth year of university education showed higher depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and stress symptoms than students in other years of their degree programs. Each of these psychological symptoms were higher for Chinese international students in high school than for students in their first and second years of university education. Chinese international students who were abroad were found to be most anxious about the risk of infection, financial stress, and travel restrictions following the COVID-19 outbreak.Conclusion: Our study suggest that the effect of COVID-19 on Chinese international students’ psychological symptoms are significant. Our results are valuable for legislators and healthcare providers, who may need to develop effective psychological interventions for Chinese international students.

Scrambling to Digitalize—COVID-19 Pandemic as a “Disclosing Tablet” for Japan’s Education Woes and the Way Forward

October 2021


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While in the past online education was an educational option, during the COVID-19 pandemic it has become an essential tool for colleges and universities to maintain their academic activity. Like a disclosing tablet that makes plaque visible, indicating the areas where more brushing is needed, the COVID-19 crisis has highlighted some critical issues in education that require further attention. This paper discusses the challenges that universities, teachers and students in Japan faced after the breakout of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lessons learned from them. Following the literature review and the author’s experience teaching foreign language classes at Japanese universities, the study identifies four main areas of concern: (1) a lack of digital devices and stable internet connections, (2) low levels of digital literacy among teachers and students alike, (3) insufficient institutional support, and (4) a lack of familiarity with online teaching formats and course delivery. The paper continues to examine the conditions needed for further integration of technology in education. Attention is given to teacher development, student training, and the selection and use of digital technologies in blended and fully online synchronous and asynchronous classes. While statistics and examples come from the Japanese context, many of the problems described are not unique to Japan. It is hoped that shared experiences and perspectives will help teachers and institutions in other countries identify common problems and develop the adequate strategies to confront them.

Social Networks Marketing in COVID-19 Epidemic Storm-A Case Study from Cultural and Creative Parks in Middle Taiwan

February 2021


66 Reads

In order to attract more consumers, cultural and creative parks in Taiwan has launched new media marketing methods in recent years, hoping to attract more tourists. Starting in 2020, in the global COVID-19 epidemic storm, cultural and creative parks had tried so hard to keep customers’ concern. So they have strengthened the social networks links to social media. This study used group networks connection and qualitative methods, such as in-depth interview. Try to understand cultural and creative industries business promotion methods and effects.The results of this study found that starting from social networks is an important way to attract crowds, but there must be three supporting methods. 1) The function of social networks must be communicated with community groups to be effective. 2) Each marketing promotion must have certain issues before it can exert influence. 3) The characteristics of the topic must be combined with the local particularity.

Analysis of Intelligent Campus Construction in 2.0 Era of Educational Informatization

August 2022


19 Reads

The construction of university informatization in China has already entered the 2.0 era. It requires universities to explore a new way of thinking when strengthening campus construction. At present, colleges and universities have found a new construction direction of “smart campus construction”. On the basis of drawing lessons from the construction experience of “smart campus” pilot schools, they are gradually improving the construction method of smart campus. The achievements of some colleges and universities are not ideal. This affects the actual quality of smart campus construction. Therefore, colleges and universities should take educational informationization 2.0 as the basic guidance when embarking on the innovative development path of intelligent education. The bright future of the smart campus construction will be revealed by exploring the smart campus construction methods that meet the requirements of The Times. This provides sufficient practical reference for the innovation and development of intelligent education in colleges and universities.

Examining the Effectiveness of In-Service English Language Teacher Training in Khartoum State/Sudan 2011/2012

November 2016


27 Reads

em>This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of in-service English language teacher training in Khartoum state: A case study of in-service teacher training programme “English for Teaching 1” (EfT1) provided by the British Council (2011-2012). The Researchers adopted the descriptive analytical method to analyze the collected data. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire which was analyzed with the Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS). All the Hypotheses of the study were verified to be true and according to the analysis of the questionnaire. The study has come up with the following findings: Teacher training programme English for Teaching (1) (EfT(1)) has a positive impact on developing teaching process, the components of the programme satisfy the training needs of the English language teachers in Khartoum State, and the trainees who attended the programme have a positive attitude and opinions towards the programme. The study has been included with some recommendations that reflect the importance of in-service teacher training for Sudanese English language teachers and the effectiveness of partnership between national and international educational institutions in this field.</em

Figure 2. The Personnel Training as the Core Mechanism
Research on Innovation Mechanism and Path of Engineering Talents Cultivation in Applied Colleges and Universities in the Context of “Made in China 2025”

February 2019


27 Reads

em>This paper examines the essential attributes of engineering and the new requirements of the development of the times for talent cultivation, probes into the existing problems in engineering talents cultivation in applied colleges and universities and proposes the innovative mechanism of engineering talents cultivation and corresponding talents cultivation paths in the context of “Made in China 2025”.</em

Lifelong Inclusive Education Service System in the Context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

May 2020


33 Reads

Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is issued by the United Nations in 2015, put forward 17 goals for sustainable development to promote worldwide peace and freedom. Among the 17 goals, one goes to the education vision, stating that “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. This goal further and clearly describes the features of the future education: lifelong, inclusive, fair and high-quality. To make the dream true, every country should rethink the present education service and make reforms based on the national situation. In this context, this paper discusses the direction, construction, objects and layout of a lifelong inclusive education service suitable for present China’s national conditions, in hope of contributing Chinese wisdom to the “Community of shared future for mankind”. It is suggested in this paper that we should give priority to the construction and perfection of the macroscopic system and operating mechanisms for the lifelong inclusive education service in consideration of input and output efficiency; that we should update our mind and think of the education from a new perspective, that is, regard the lifelong inclusive education service as part of public service for all the people; that we should provide suitable education service for all students, regardless of age, race, disability, gender and wealth; that we should design and implement the educational projects reasonably and scientifically in order to better realize the goal.

Figure 4. Students Participating in the Reforestation Campaign
Figure 7. Plant Watered with Saline Solution
Figure 8. Evidence of the Campaign
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: How to Get Students Involved?

September 2018


215 Reads

p> This paper shows a novel way to work with the UN ’ s Agenda for the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, implementing a project based approach in a chemistry high-school course. The integration of inquiry-based learning, as well as the project based strategies, allowed students to develop multicultural skills that are crucial for becoming a global citizen. What is more, it provided the opportunity to integrate the scientific method and improve scientific writing by submitting a paper at the end of the project. </p

Figure 1. Example of Leaders, Prices/Awards, and Achievements  
Gamification and Game-Based Learning: Two Strategies for the 21st Century Learner

November 2016


8,751 Reads

p>The use of emergent technologies in education has evolved tremendously since the 21st century. For plenty of educators this has become a challenging task, most of all when 21st century learners fill the classrooms. But these digital natives differ tremendously from those who started the millennium. These students want to be challenged, engaged and motivated through a learning process, which connects them to a different learning experience. This has become a challenging task for educators due to the student profile and characteristics. Although to achieve the learning outcomes necessary for the 21st century, educators are adapting approaches suited for these learners, involving game theory, video games, and gamifying instruction. Two of these approaches are Gamification and Game-Based Learning (GBL). These two approaches have been widely used based on the theoretical approach towards game design and the opportunity they bring for the learner to be engaged and motivated throughout instruction. The following article provides a clear overview of both strategies, and how motivation is integrated with both. In addition it provides a clear description on planning effective instruction using aligned learning objectives, research and educational implications, and resources for the teaching and learning process using these approaches and strategies.</p

Implementation of Chemistry Curriculum in Nigeria: Challenges for the 21st Century

February 2022


87 Reads

The study examined the level of implementation of chemistry curriculum by teachers and the available material resources necessary for the implementation of the curriculum in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. A sample of 250 chemistry teachers in Nigeria were used for the study. The instrument tagged “Chemistry Curriculum Implementation and Material Resources Questionnaire (CCIMRQ) was used for study. CCIMRQ was prepared by the researcher and validated by experts in curriculum studies with a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and t-test. Results showed that more than 30% of Chemistry teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria did not implement effectively the four themes in the curriculum as they tend to skip some difficult concepts in the curriculum. Also, results of t-test analysis (t = 3.01, p=0.03) revealed that there was a significant difference between the teachers’ view on the problem militating against the implementation of chemistry curriculum and the adequacy of material resources. The study concluded that some chemistry teachers in Nigeria did not implement the chemistry curriculum effectively due to inadequate material resources and lack of mastery of the subject matter. To meet the challenges for the 21st century, chemistry teachers in Nigeria should be exposed to capacity building on the subject matter and be retrained on how to handle difficult concepts in the chemistry curriculum.

Research on Network Entrepreneurship Mode of College Students in the 5G Era

October 2023


12 Reads

This paper studies the network entrepreneurship model of college students in the 5G era, and puts forward the framework of network entrepreneurship model for college students based on 5G technology by dividing the characteristics of 5G technology and the current situation and problems of college students’ network entrepreneurship, and verifies its feasibility and advantages through case analysis. This study has certain reference value for promoting the development of college students’ network entrepreneurship and promoting the application of 5G technology.

“Ekphrasis”: A Study of Transmedia Narrative in the Works of A.S. Byatt

August 2023


29 Reads

With the development of transmedia research, many writers begin to pay attention to the comparison and transformation between literature and other artistic media, and practice it in literary creation. Contemporary English novelist A.S. Byatt is one of the practitioners of transmedia literary creation. Through the use of “ekphrasis”, she skillfully and naturally integrates the art work into the literary creation, making the text have a visual effect. This paper takes A.S. Byatt’s three short stories Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, Art Work and Rose-Colored Teacup as examples to explore the ekphrarstic re-creation of paintings, sculptures and pottery in her works, and then analyzes the deep connotation brought by the ekphrasis between different artistic media to literary texts.

Figure 1. Pictograms Representing Some of the Animals/Transportation Means, Featured in the Green Pouch's Activities
Figure 3. Example of Pictograms Where Sequences of Images are Presented
ABC Traffic Light: A Health Education Tool

November 2016


47 Reads

It is during the childhood period of one’s life trajectory that the exponential increase of vocabulary acquisition occurs. In Portugal, language disorders are the most frequently seen child development impairments, affecting 3 to 15 per cent of children under six years. Because delays in the acquisition of basic vocabulary can compromise inter-peer relational communication, a timely therapeutic assessment and intervention becomes all the more crucial. A speech therapy ludic-pedagogic intervention tool—the ABC Traffic Light—was created so as to aid in promoting basic vocabulary acquisition in children aged between three and six years. It consists in a traffic light with three built-in pouches, each of which containing cards suggestive of activities of varying difficulty levels. The empirical range of the proposed tool in the context of speech therapy assessment and intervention sessions should be highlighted.

Mathematical Abilities of Preschool Children

February 2020


501 Reads

Regardless of the fact that people are born with innate sense of number, mathematical thinking requires certain intellectual effort for which many children are not ready. While children investigate and discover new issues in everyday life, they meet the world of mathematics although they are not aware of it. As mathematics is becoming more and more important in today’s age of technology, it is very important that children are introduced to the spells of mathematics before they start attending school, and to continue to learn mathematics with that knowledge throughout school education. As well as reading, mathematics is a subject necessary for adequate functioning in society. What is more, mathematics is a subject that develops logical thinking and perception, thus mathematical teaching of children ought to be on more accessible level than it is currently. Parents and educators have access to various games and activities that involve children into mathematical thinking and creative resolving, which develops their self-confidence.Through the research that has been conducted with both preschool and primary school children using various mathematical examples appropriate for their age, it has been found out that the children of younger age have early math skills, whereas, regarding primary school children, their later math achievement is fading over time or their conclusions are grounded upon the “expected”. The traditional way of teaching mathematics and extensive material can cause poor mathematical achievement and cause a well-known fear of mathematics.

School Climate and Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra State

October 2022


142 Reads

This study investigated school climate and students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Anambra State. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study. This is a correlational survey of the ex-post-facto research design. 127(50%) respondents were sampled from a population of 254 principals using a simple sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire titled School Climate Questionnaire was employed to collect information from respondents. While a checklist was used to obtain information on students’ academic achievement. The questionnaire was validated through the face and content validity. It was also subjected to a reliability test using Cronbach-Alpha and a coefficient of .79 was obtained revealing a high-reliability index. Coefficient of determination, Pearson r, and Regression were used for data analysis. The finding shows that the relationship between teachers’ motivation, instructional supervision, school climate, and students’ academic achievement in Anambra State was significant. It was thus, recommended that since educational supervision enhances instructors’ professional competence and the effectiveness of their instructional activities school principals should ensure that the climate of the school enhances the teacher’s job.

An Assessment of Bridging Program Participants’ Sources of Academic Self-Efficacy at a Regional Australian University

December 2020


308 Reads

Academic bridging and other remedial programs are designed to maximize outcomes for all students and are designed around an inclusive framework which targets the most disadvantaged or at need students. This study questions the validity of this practice through an evaluation of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy for bridging program participants within two distinct cohorts, first-in-family and non-first-in-family students. The study comprised students at a regional Australian university (N=1806) which prides itself on high rates of first generation student enrolment. Data was analyzed using SPSS® software to construct regression analyses for each cohort and determine for each which of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy predicted current academic self-efficacy. For both first-in-family and non-first-in-family students who did not participate in bridging programs, all four of Bandura’s sources of academic self-efficacy were significant predictors of current academic self-efficacy. For first-in-family students who participated in bridging programs, vicarious learning did not significantly predict academic self-efficacy. For non-first-in-family students who participated in bridging programs, mastery experience and social persuasion did not predict academic self-efficacy. Some suggestions for the disparity between the results for bridging program participants and the bulk of accepted literature are offered as are some implications for bridging program pedagogy.

Table 3 . Selected Subject Details
A Comparative Study on the Academic Performance of Students in Bachelor’s Degree of Information Technology Having Arts and Science Background in Uganda

March 2017


22,266 Reads

em>Variations in the academic performance among students at all levels of education are one issue for years now that has attracted the attention of many researchers across the globe. This has prompted researchers and educationists to find out what factors or reasons can be attributed to these variations. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the various reasons to explain this cause. The purpose of this study therefore, was to compare the academic performance of students in the Bachelor’s degree of Information Technology (BIT) having Arts and Science backgrounds in universities of Uganda. In order to achieve the objective of this study, a sample of 202 final year BIT students were purposively selected from two universities in Uganda. These students were categorized on the basis of their A’ level backgrounds (130 Arts and 72 Sciences). A descriptive approach employing the Welch’s t-test was used to determine the difference between the performance of the two groups and a simple linear regression analysis was used to examine the correlation among students’ performance between semesters. The results indicated that there’s a significant difference in the academic performance of the two groups, with the science group outperforming arts. However, it was found that there is a more linear increase in the performance of Arts students from semester one through semester five. Furthermore, Arts students performed slightly better than Science counterparts in some course units. Thus the study concludes that Science students perform better than Arts students in the overall semester final examination with Arts students having room for improvement in their performance.</em

Descriptive Statistical Analysis Table of Basic Personal Information of College Students
Component Matrix
Study on Academic Growth and Ability Training of Students in Private Colleges and Universities with Engineering Cost Major as an Example

August 2023


8 Reads

In order to adapt to the actual demand for talents under the new era, new normal and new industrial background, and change the status quo of traditional engineering cost major in private colleges and universities, such as light practice and weak innovation consciousness. Through literature research, this paper obtains the ability cultivation model of engineering cost major students, including ideological and moral quality, ability to acquire knowledge, and ability to adapt to society. The questionnaire survey method and SPSS software are used to analyze the model. The analysis shows that students pay more attention to physical and mental health, practical ability, professional knowledge, learning ability, unity and cooperation, communication ability, adaptability and adaptability in the model. Finally, the article also puts forward some suggestions on the cultivation of some abilities, hoping to provide some suggestions for the reform of talent training objectives and programs in private colleges and universities, so as to improve the abilities of students majoring in engineering cost.

Impact of Brain-Based Instructional Strategy on Academic Performance of Deaf Students in Mathematics in Oyo School of Handicapped, Nigeria

October 2016


59 Reads

This study investigated the impact of brain-based instructional strategy on academic performance of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) in mathematics. A pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design was adopted with a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial matrix. The sample size of 41 students who are D/HH were randomly selected in the school. Two intact classes each were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Brain-Based Instructional Strategy-BBIS) and the Control Group respectively. The instruments used were, Mathematics Attitude Questionnaire (r = 0.81), Cognitive Style Test (r = 0.80), and Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (r = 0.81). Three research questions guided the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean scores and standard deviations to explain and compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control groups in all the criteria measured. Brain-based instructional strategy was more effective at improving students’ attitude to mathematics than the conventional method. The findings of the study also indicated that tension and test-phobia which normally permeates the teaching-learning process of mathematics was highly reduced due to the optimal use of diverse brain compatible instructional materials among students who are D/HH.

Academic Success and College Readiness: A Study of Predominantly Hispanic Students in South Texas High Schools

July 2016

p> The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between Early College High School students, ECHS students within a traditional high school, and traditional public high school students in south Texas as pertaining to college readiness. End of Course tests scores for English classes in grades nine and ten were tested. The population comprised of students from a 98% Hispanic and low socio-economic education region. In the state of Texas, EOC scores determine college readiness. Results revealed the ECHS stand-alone model had a significant difference in English EOC scores among the three models. </p

Strategies for Improving the Academic Performance of Students in Botswana Primary Schools

April 2016


230 Reads

p> Background: The Government of Botswana has since attaining independence from Britain in 1966 demonstrated a lot of interest in the improvement of primary education by adopting two policies; the Education for kagisano of 1977 and the Revised National Policy on Education of 1994 to guide the development of education in the country. Other efforts include partnering with organizations from countries such as the USA and Britain and others to help improve the quality of the primary education. The other major aim for these was to improve the performance of students in the final examinations. Purpose/Aims: The purpose of the study was to establish strategies that can be used to influence student’s performance in Primary School Leaving Examinations. Methodology: A mixed-method design allowed the researcher to triangulate data from the professional literature and a questionnaire comprised of closed and open-ended questions. Out of the two hundred questionnaires distributed, one hundred and twenty seven questionnaires were returned; while only one hundred questionnaires were properly completed and therefore used in the study. Respondents were also interviewed. Data Analysis: For the closed ended section of the questionnaire, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used. Data from the interviews and open-ended section of the questionnaire was coded, and then emerging patterns and themes were identified and described in order to understand the meanings of these categories from the perspectives of the respondents, with verbatim texts included. The findings of the study show that there are various strategies that can be used to help improve the performance of students in PSLE. Some of the strategies include parental involvement, infrastructure provision and human resources. </p

Application of Brain-Based Teaching Strategies on Academic Performance of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) In Mathematics

February 2020


242 Reads

Catherine A. Ayantoye



Mari Caballero




Kelly O’Neal Hixson
This study examined application of Brain-based Teaching Strategies on academic performance of children with ADHD in Mathematics. Gender and Mathematics anxiety level were introduced as moderator variables. A pre-test, post-test, control group experimental design was employed for this study. Two groups were involved (experimental and control groups). The experimental group was exposed to the application of Brain-based Teaching Strategies while the control group was exposed to the conventional method. Two instruments were used (i) Achievement Test in Mathematics (ATM) (r = 0.83) and (ii) Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (r = 0.80). Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics of means scores and standard deviations to explain and compare pretest and posttest mean scores of the experimental and control groups in all the criteria measured. Inferential statistics of Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses and estimate the impacts of various factors on the dependent variables. Treatment was more effective at improving children with ADHD attitude to mathematics than the conventional method. Findings indicated significant improvement on children’s attention span resulting from taking cognizance of “prime times” in the teaching-learning episode. Also, tension that is normally associated with the teaching-learning process of mathematics was significantly reduced.

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