In this paper, we have introduced the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in an AG-groupoids. We have characterized regular and intra-regular AG-groupoids in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy left (right, two-sided) ideals, fuzzy (generalized) bi-ideals and intuitionistic fuzzy (1,2)-ideals. We have proved that all the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals coincides in regular and intra-regular AG-groupoids. It has been shown that the set of intuitionistic fuzzy two sided ideals of a regular AG-groupoid forms a semilattice structure. We have also given some useful conditions for an AG-groupoid to become an intra-regular AG-groupoid in terms their intuitionistic fuzzy ideals.
In terms of adoption, the topic of e-government has focused on the supply side (or government-related issues) such as strategies and policy, challenges, technical issues, evaluation of the usability of e-government Websites; however, less attention has been given to the demand (or citizen’s) perspective. Recent studies of the citizen adoption of e-government services suggest that trust, security, and transparency are the major issues for e-government adoption. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in the adoption of e-government (Internet users who visited public authorities’ websites in last three months to obtain information, download, and file forms) are associated with differences among national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation).
This paper describes a new model for presenting local information based on
the network proximity. We present a novelty mobile mashup which combines Wi-Fi
proximity measurements with QR-codes. Our mobile mashup automatically adds
context information the content presented by QR-codes. It simplifies the
deployment schemes and allows to use unified presentation for all data points,
for example. This paper describes how to combine QR-codes and network proximity
The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) suggests that stock prices fully reflect all available information in the market and no investor is able to earn excess return on the basis of some secretly held private, public or historical information. Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) can be further divided into three sub hypotheses depending upon the information set involved and these are weak form efficient market hypothesis, semi strong form efficient market hypothesis and strong form efficient market hypothesis. This research has examined the weak form of efficient market hypothesis on the four major stock exchanges of South Asia that are Karachi stock exchange (KSE-100), Bombay stock exchange (BSE-SENSEX), Colombo stock exchange (CSE-MPI) and Dhaka stock exchange (DSE-GEN). Historical index values of KSE-100, BSE-SENSEX, CSE-MPI and DSE-GEN on a monthly, weekly and daily basis for a period of 14 Years (July 1997 to June 2011). We applied four different statistical tests including runs test, serial correlation (Durbin Watson test), unit root and variance ratio test. Findings suggest that none of the four major stock markets of south-Asia follows Random-walk and hence all these markets are not the weak form of efficient market.
The purpose this study is to highlight the application of working capital policy and the performance assessment financial ratios and to determine their relationship with organization performance. The target respondents were the finance executives/financial analysts of the companies. 64 properly filled questionnaires were processed for analysis. This study concludes that the finance executives consider that the proper practices of working capital and financial ratios are very important for the growth and performance of the organization. This research study also finds that there is positive and significant relationship between these practices and organization performance.
A Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless communication nodes that dynamically organize themselves to form a network without the need for any fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. Multicasting can be considered as an efficient way to deliver information from source nodes to several client nodes. Although multicast routing algorithms are desirable, their forwarding structure and network resource consumption makes them significantly less efficient than unicast routing algorithms. In this research, a fuzzy-based policy was used to improve performance of On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol. The main goal of FBODMRP is to establish a small, high quality and efficient forwarding group. An evaluation shows that our approach increases packet delivery rate by up to 40%, reduces average end to end delay and consumed power by about 35% and 45% respectively.
In the present study, the antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities of bergenin was compared with its natural derivative 11-O-galloylbergenin for the first time. Both compounds were isolated from Bergenia ligulata. 11-O-galloylbergenin was found to be very active in in-vitro antioxidant assay as compared to bergenin, which was found to be almost inactive. The EC50 values of 11-O-galloylbergenin were 7.45±0.2 μg/mL and 5.39±0.28 μg/mL in DPPH antioxidant assay and reducing power assay respectively, while IC50 value for antiplasmodial assay of both compounds were less than 2.5 μM. Interestingly, in the total antioxidant phosphomolybdate assay, 11-O-galloylbergenin was found more potent (CAHT: 940.04±115.30) as compared to α-tocopherol (CAHT: 552.4±27.91).
This research paper attempts to explore ethical issues in the contemporary advertising campaigns of controversial products in Pakistan from Shari’ah perspective. The paper aims to see the offensive behavior towards these advertisements and how it is affected by the religious perceptions, gender differences and nature of advertising appeals. A survey of 200 graduate students was conducted at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Questionnaire used for survey was consisted of three sections; first section contained a list of five controversial products, second contained a list of five advertising appeals and third section contained a list of fifteen items that tend to measure the religious perceptions of the respondents. Data was coded into SPSS and tested for its validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics as well as correlations and t-tests were applied to analyze the data. Level of offensiveness towards advertisements of controversial products was found to be significantly associated with religious perceptions and nature of advertising appeals. Nudity and sexist images as advertising appeals were found to have significant association with the level of offensiveness of the consumers. This research leads to important managerial implications and identifies important ethical issues in advertising that are contradictory to the injunctions of Islam.
This study is conducted to test the impact of two fundamental values (FCF & EPS), depicted through financial reports, on security prices. Sample includes all nonfinancial firms listed in KSE-30 Index and covers 9 years period 2000-08. Valuation of securities done through discounting of free cash flows and impact on security prices variation is calculated by regressing FCFE & EPS with market price. Findings suggest that on KSE investors give relatively higher (62%) weightage to EPS and very low (9%) to FCFE. These findings are very surprising to the author as accrued income has gained more weight in the eyes of investors than free cash flows while making investment decision. It could be due to any of the following reasons. First companies’ cash flows are lacking patterns and huge variations exist. Second irrational behavior of investors and noise traders; and finally dominance of speculative activities in the market. Another aspect of these findings may be higher degree confidence of investors in financial reports.
This paper investigates the importance of antecedents of customer loyalty such as customer satisfaction and service quality dimensions. It addresses whether the dimensions of service quality impacts customer satisfaction eventually leading to customer loyalty. The Structural Equation modeling technique was used in this analysis to determine customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results suggest that empathy and assurance are the key factors in delivering customer satisfaction, whereas, tangibility, reliability and responsiveness are found to least impacting customer satisfaction. The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is also found to be very significant. Therefore, the bank managers should focus their resources on improving customer care and assuring the services provided to the bank customers will eventually create customer loyalty towards their banks.
This study highlights the level of customer awareness about Islamic banks and determines the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with respect to Islamic banks. The survey based approach is used to collect the necessary data. 167 questionnaires were processed for the study. SPSS was used to analyze the data and the model was tested through AMOS. The study finds that there is a positive and significant relationship between customer satisfaction and constructs of service quality like compliance, assurance, empathy and representativeness. This study further concludes that compliance and representativeness influence more on customer satisfaction in Pakistani Islamic banks.
Investor overconfidence has been proposed to explain various anomalous findings in security markets. The theory of investor overconfidence provides testable implications assuming investor overestimation of their abilities and private information and biased self-attributions. High (low) trading activity following market gains (losses) and excessive volatility are the two testable implications among others. We test these implications in Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan using multivariate time series analysis. Consistent with overconfidence hypothesis predictions, we find significant positive relationship between current trading activity and past returns after controlling for returns dispersion and returns volatility. However, we do not find significant positive contribution of overconfidence related trading to conditional returns volatility.
In this paper, we propose the mobility of a sink in improved energy
efficient PEGASIS-based protocol (IEEPB) to advance the network lifetime
of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The multi-head chain, multi-chain
concept and the sink mobility affects largely in enhancing the network
lifetime of wireless sensors. Thus, we recommend Mobile sink improved
energy-efficient PEGASIS-based routing protocol (MIEEPB); a multi-chain
model having a sink mobility, to achieve proficient energy utilization
of wireless sensors. As the motorized movement of mobile sink is steered
by petrol or current, there is a need to confine this movement within
boundaries and the trajectory of mobile sink should be fixed. In our
technique, the mobile sink moves along its trajectory and stays for a
sojourn time at sojourn location to guarantee complete data collection.
We develop an algorithm for trajectory of mobile sink. We ultimately
perform wide-ranging experiments to assess the performance of the
proposed method. The results reveal that the proposed way out is nearly
optimal and also better than IEEPB in terms of network lifetime.
Most organized religions including Christianity still regard homosexuality as being against their teachings, as sinful and contrary to scripture. Thus the matter of reconciling sexual orientation with religious and spiritual beliefs can be a very challenging and complicated process for those homosexual persons who uphold Christianity as their religion. This paper seeks to explore the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality faced by the respondents. A qualitative study was conducted via in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposively selected homosexual persons. The result found that a small percentage of respondents were unaffected by the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality. Nevertheless, the majority, eighty percent, were affected by the conflict, implying that both Christianity and homosexuality were important components of their lives. The most common personal effects of conflict between Christianity and homosexuality indentified include depression, self-blame/guilt, anxiety, suicidal ideation and alienation. Some implications for practice are presented at two few different levels: (1) mental health professionals and (2) church leaders and clergymen.
This study attempted to examine the variation of the asset allocation and security selectivity as known market timing for funds, which are accepted in the Tehran Stock Exchange. We calculated parameters of Treynor and Mazuy model and its adjustment such as Ferruz et al [1-2] management abilities. Regression analysis is used as similar to previous studies for testing research hypotheses. Results of this research showed that fund management doesn't obtain the excess return for stockholders, and there is a negative relation between asset allocation and selectivity in the funds. Moreover, the paper identified investment companies, and funds present a favorable picture of performance for future potential investment but couldn’t obtain added value to investors.
This is an empirical research that tried to determine the efficiency of portfolio management on investment companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange that had active portfolio management from 2005 to 2009 by Sharpe, Treynor, Jensen, M2 and Information ratios. For more profound study, the effect of macroeconomic factors on their portfolio return, monthly issued by the central bank, is evaluated. The result of statistical analyzing indicated that the performance of some investment companies is more efficient than market. Therefore, it can be deduced that in the situation of market crisis, investing on such companies are more rational than making individual portfolio. With regard to economic actors, Step Forward Anova showed that the fluctuation of currency rate is the most influential factor on the return of investment companies’ portfolio.
The aim of this study was to describe and examine Iranian's undergraduate students' integrative and instrumental motivation toward learning English as a foreign language. In the study, 79 non-English major students from Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) were selected to complete a questionnaire reflecting their motivation for learning English. In order to determine the students’ tendency towards the two kinds of motivation a modified 25-item survey adapted from Gardner’s (1985) and Clement et al.’s (1994) was administered to undergraduate students in Birjand University of Iran. The results have shown that Iranian students had very high motivation and positive attitudes towards learning English and hat they were more instrumentally motivated. Finally, based on the findings, some suggestions and recommendations for teachers have been highlighted.
The formation constants of Ni(II)-glycinamide system were determined in buffer solution, pH=4.0 (I=0.5mol L -1 inNaC1O 4 at 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0°C) using UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The optical absorption spectra of Ni(II)-glycinamide system were analyzed in order to obtain formation constants and stoichiometries based on SQUAD software. Determining the formation constants at various temperatures enabled us to calculate some thermodynamic parameters as K, ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° related to the considered complexes.
Amylases (EC 220.127.116.11) hydrolyses the -1,4glycosidic linkages of starch. Microbes are the most preferred sources of enzymes due to their broad biochemical diversity. The present study is focused with the isolation of amylase producers from soil receiving kitchen waste and to optimize the cultural condition for the maximum amylase production. From the 17 isolates one isolates was selected based on amylase activity and identified as Bacillus sp. The various parameters have conducted for maximum enzyme production. Production parameters were optimized as temperature (40°C), incubation period (72 h) and inoculums size (2%). Among different carbon and nitrogen source supplemented starch and yeast extract respectively showed enhanced production. In the case pH neutral pH was suitable for maximum enzyme production by Bacillus sp. The molecular weight of partially purified amylase was 84 Kda.
Cyclization of 4-amino-6-metyl-3-propargyl mercapto-1,2,4-triazin-5-one and 4-amino-5-metyl-3- propargyl mercapto-1,2,4-triazol derivatives 3 and 4 in the presence of Keggin heteropolyacids, H 3PW 12O 40, H 4 SiW 12O 40, H 3PW 12O 40, H 3PW 12O 40/Sio 2 and lacunary Keggin structure (K 7PMo 2W 9O 40) afforded 5 and 7 in high yields and short reaction times. When H 3PW 12O 40catalyzes on Sio 2 made production faster and also 3 12 40 2 resulted more reaction potentially.
A chromogenic Schiff base ligand 1,4-bis(4-dimethylaminobenzyl)-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene (BDABD), has been synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Experimental parameters that effect the ligand-metal ion complexation such as solvent, color stability, metal and ligand concentrations were investigated. Results show that BDABD is preferentially bind to Cu 2+ in acetone. The addition of Cu 2+ to the ligand in acetone gives rise to a large bathochromic shift, resulting in a change of color from yellow to orange. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance for more than 24 hr. From the linear regression analysis, Beer's law was obeyed over 1.0 - 8.0 × 10G 6 M Cu 2+. The stoichiometric study shows that Cu 2+ and BDABD combine in the mole ratio of 1:1 with the formation constant equals to 1.44 × 10 7. The average molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity were found to be 6.97 × 10 4 L molG 1cmG 1 and 0.0009 μg cmG 2,respectively.
Two new arylene diamines compounds have been synthesized via palladium-catalyzed reaction of 4-phenylenediamine with two aromatic dibromides. This one-pot reaction was based on using the catalyzed system resulting from Pd / BINAP, Pd / di-/-butylphosphinobiphenyl, Pd / P(t-Bu)3, Pd / 1,3-bis(2,6- diisopropylphenyl)imidazolium chloride. MS, 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis accomplished characterization of aryl diamines. All arylene diamines were obtained in good to excellent yields. Specially, because of aromatic structure, these diamines may be considered as potential monomers in the synthesis of several types of heat stable polymers, such as polyamides and polyimides.
Three-component reaction between 4-hydroxycoumarin or 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyran-1-one, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic1,3-diketone catalyzed by p-toluene sulfonic acid in solvent-free conditions provided a simple and efficient one-pot route for the synthesis of tetrahydro-chromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8-dione and tetrahydro-pyrano[4,3-b]chromene-1,9-dione derivatives in excellent yields.
Due to ecological problems like Ozone depletion and Global warming certain refrigerants like R-22 have to be replaced. HCFC's (Hydro Chloro fluoro carbon) have been identified as the prime foremost cause of Ozone depletion. Driven by 1992 amendment to the Montreal-Protocol that calls for the phase out of HCFC's. HFC's (Hydro fluoro carbon) are substantially less damaging to the Ozone layer than HCFC's. Several refrigerants have emerged as substitutes to replace R-22, the most widely used Fluoro carbon refrigerant in the world. These include the environmentally friendly hydro carbon refrigerants such as R134a, R410A, R407A and R407C. In this present work problem of R-22 phase out in air conditioning application is addressed. The main objective of the project is Performance analysis of an window air conditioning system by using three refrigerants like R-22, R407C and R410A with different capillary pitches. In view of this it is proposed to carry out a number of experiments on window air conditioner of capacity 1.5 TR using R22, R407C and R410A by varying the capillary pitch. Further it is proposed to make a detailed analysis and comparison of the performance of these refrigerants at various pitches for an window air conditioner. From the results it is evident that the refrigerant with R410A with a capillary pitch of 18mm gave the best Coefficient of performance to retrofit an window air conditioner working on R22.
Batch cultures of Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava DSMZ 1034, Cupriavidus necator DSMZ 545 and Azotobacter beijinckii DSMZ 1041 were investigated for producing the intracellular bioplastic poly-•-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The effects of temperature, seed age, type of carbon sources and the agitation rate on the production rate of PHB were investigated using four mentioned spices. The optimized shaking rate, temperature and seed age were obtained 250 rpm, 30°C and 15 hrs for H. pseudoflava DSMZ 1034 and A. beijerinckii DSMZ 1041 and 18 hrs and 24 hrs for A. lata DSMZ 1123 and C. necator DSM 545, respectively.The effect of carbon sources including glucose, fructose, whey and molasses on biopolymer production rate were studied in this investigation. The maximum productivity of PHB production using fructose as a carbon source was obtained after 72 hrs by C. necator DSMZ 545. In this case, the maximum cell dry weight (CDW) and produced polyhydroxybutyrate were 10.2 g.LG• 1 and 5.8 g.LG• 1, respectively.
Azotobacter beijerinckii DSMZ 1041 strain was used for production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the optimum glucose concentration, as the carbon source and ammonium chloride, as the nitrogen source were obtained 60gr/lit and 0.5gr/lit respectively. The resulting optimum PHB production was investigated 2.95gr/lit. The obtained yield of PHB with respect to glucose (Yp/s) and PHB productivity (Qp) were 0.202 g/g and 0.123 g/lit.hr, respectively. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to verify the accuracy of the designed experiments. azotobacter beijerinckii microorganism from Deutsch sammlung von microorganismen und zellkulturen(DSMZ) bank is used for production of Poly Hydroxy Butyrate (PHB) with consider optimum condition relative to carbon and nitrogen source at this study. Chloride ammonium as nitrogen source with 0/5, 1 and 2gr/lit concentration and glucose as carbon source with 30, 40, 50 and 60gr/lit concentration is examined until earning best condition of experimental test. increasing of glucose concentration and decreasing of chloride ammonium concentration will be affected as inhibitor culture, therefore boundary limit concentration is determined. The optimized shaking rate, temperature and seed age were obtained 180 rpm, 30°C and 15 hrs, respectively. FT-RI and NMR is revealed biopolymer corrected at solution. The maximum biopolymer P (3HB) concentration was obtained 2.95g/lit corresponding to 6.5g/lit biomass concentration and 14.6 gr/lit carbon consumption using 60gr/lit glucose and 0.5gr/lit chloride ammonium as media after 24 hours. In this media Yp/s and Qp were 0.202g/g and 0.123g/lit.h respectively.
The paper is based on the tree-ring chronology of the Yamal Peninsula (Russia) which has one of the longest chronologies of this kind in the world (7319 years). This is the first presentation of an analysis of the climate impact on the historical processes in Central Asia in the early Middle Ages. Climate extremes are sharp, strong and sometimes long-lasting falls of temperature with a negative impact on the economy of a nomadic society, often caused by great volcanic eruptions. As a result of the research undertaken by us, a certain connection has been established between significant historical events and climate extremes on the territory of Central Asia during the period under observation, which makes it possible to state that the climatic factor was of primary importance in its impact on historical processes in the east of Central Asia, especially on those territories that had a nomadic economy.
The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviours and various physical fitness components of three different physical activity levels in 7-to-11year-old Ardabilian boys. 766 healthy boys underwent standard anthropometry and twelve fitness tests. Child's TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behavior evaluation. Physical activity (PA) for children was measured using the PA Questionnaire. Considering the mean of PA scores children were categorized in three no active, some active and active groups. Except Hand grip strength and Balance test, the active boys attained better results in all fitness tests than the no active boys (P• 0.01). Also except cardio respiratory fitness, Hand grip strength and Balance test the active boys attained better results in all fitness tests than the some active boys (P•0.01). The some active and the no active boys had significantly higher TVVPT than the active boys (P• 0.01). The mean values of Weight, BMI, Fat mass were significantly higher in the no active boys than both the some active and the active boys (P• 0.01). Regarding the active boy's higher fitness level, high PA is recommended, although it should be stated that any PA in children is better than none at all.
The objective of the present research has been determining the effect of social skills training (assertiveness) o n assertiveness and self-esteem increase of 9 to 11 year old female students in Tehran. 20 students from third to five grades of primary school, who had the least assertiveness, were chosen by semi-experimental research method and they were randomly placed in two experiment and control groups. The design of the research was pre test-post test kind with control group. Gambrel and rich's inventory was used to measure the student's self-expression amount and cooper smith's inventory was applied to measure this student's self-esteem amount. After pre test performance, assertiveness training program me was performed for ten weeks, one session a week and each session for one and a half hour and post test was performed at the end and both groups were tested once more after 25 days. The results were analysed by spss software and descriptive statistic and two factorial variance analysis methods with repeated measurements on one factor were used. The results demonstrated that the tester's assertiveness and self-esteem amount increased at the end of treatment program me. The results were also confirmed in exploration period. Social skills training (assertiveness), in creased the amount of assertiveness and self-esteem in the students who were less assertive.
In this paper the effect of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding condition on the mechanical properties of GTD-111 nickel base superalloy investigated. Shear strength and hardness profile of the joints were discussed with respect to the bond microstructure. In the bonding condition, in which isothermal solidification has not been completely accomplished, eutectic constituent which has the highest hardness in the bond region is the preferential failure source. At the bonding time of 45 min at 1150°C, when the eutectic products are completely removed, bonds with shear strength of about 70% of that of the base metal are achieved. After post bond heat treatment at 1150°C for 240 min, significant phase, formed within the bond region, increased the bond shear strength. The shear strength of the homogenized bond was about 90% of that of the base metal.
Scintillation properties of 14-phenyl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes (called material A) is studied. Cyclohexan is used as a solvent, whilst Anthracene and Naphthalene are used as secondary solutes. The response of the scintillator to low energy Gamma-rays is detectable. Our study shows that the addition of material A (0.01 mol L·1) to the solution of Anthracene-Naphthalene-Cyclohexan, improves the detection efficiency of the solution by 35%.
Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous disorder with variable maternal and fetal manifestations. Several studies have been performed to assess the validity of uterine artery. Doppler examination screening tool for pre-eclampsia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of Doppler investigations of the uterine circulations during 14-16 weeks of gestation with regard to the development of preeclampsia and/or IUGR in study population. This prospective observational study was carried out at university hospital. All 456 pregnant women referred to hospital from October 2011 to october2012, ultrasound sonography was done at 14-16 weeks of gestation. In all Doppler measurements, the mean peak systolic (S) to end-diastolic (D) ratio of 3-5 cardiac cycle was computed by electronic capilers and the RI calculated as (S-D/S). A total of 456 pregnant women with mean age of 26.8±5.3 years were recruited during the study. The uterine artery RI at 14-16 weeks was significantly higher in 27 women subsequently developed preeclampsia (mean RI=0.7526±0.039) than in 429 pregnancy with a normal outcomes (mean RI=0.6440±0.059, P=0.001).The uterine artery RI also was significantly higher in 36 women developed IUGR (RI=0.7244±0.04730) compared with 420 women withnormal pregnancies (RI=0.6505±0.06043, P=0.001). Conclusion: RI=0.69 to predict preeclampsia and RI=o.7 to predict IUGR as mentioned are optional cut-off value for RI of the uterine artery in our study which are congruent with other studies.
The formation of solid dispersions is one of the methods of drug hydrophilization. The method of low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry showed the possibility to obtain phenacetin solid dispersions with polyethylene glycol and Pluronic F127. The method of low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry proved that when the polymer/phenacetin ratio is 10:1, the crystalline phase of the drug is not fixed, while when the ratio is 1:1 the pharmacological component exhibits the properties of a separate phase and does not form a solid dispersion. Phenacetin does not exhibit plastifying action and does not change the thermophysical properties of polymer phase that can facilitate an easy release of the drug from the composite.
Degradation of agrochemicals in the soil plays an important role in the fate and transport of the contaminants in the environment. A study on the degradation of 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 14C-labeled paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridylium) in Malaysian clay and clay loam soils was carried out under laboratory conditions. The individual half4ifes were derived from the slope of the line of best fit, calculated by linear regression analysis of the logarithm of the concentration remaining against the time of incubation. The degradation rate of both herbicides at different temperature levels and moisture content was investigated. The degradation rate of 2,4-D compounds was strongly influenced by temperature and soil moisture content. In contrast, the half life of 14C-paraquat in both types of soils did not change significantly when temperature and soil moisture content increased.
Schiff bases derived by condensation reaction from cinnamaldehyde and/or -bromocinnamaldehyde and 4-(4-aminophenylsulfonyl)benzenamine are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1.H NMR, 13C NMR and thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
The microflora within the oral biofilm is quiet complex. Determination of the microbial populations responsible for oral infections is even more difficult. Dental plaque is said to be a complex microbial biofilm consisting of different bacterial species in the human oral cavity. But unfortunately no single species has been identified as a primary pathogen. Microbiological diagnosis is important in the rationale for treatment planning in patients with oral diseases. The methods commonly used for the identification of periodontopathogens of dental plaque include direct microscopy, immunological techniques, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe technology, DNA probes have also been offered as a commercial service and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Culturing technique or DNA approaches when used for studying bacterial etiology of periodontitis, will target only the known species. PCR techniques records only the presence of the bacteria in the sample but not qualitative. PCR amplification of the bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene using universal bacterial primers would help to identify the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity of the patients. Advances in molecular biology have permitted us to perform the study of microbial communities and obtain improved information of bacterial diversity from the oral cavity. This technology has evolved beyond the research and developed into clinical applications. Further research and studies should be performed using 16S rRNA gene analyses to examine the bacterial profile of oral micro flora responsible for oral diseases.
The effect of estrogen on gonadal sex differentiation in Astatotilapia latifasciata was examined by daily oral administration of 17"-estradiol at a dosage of 750 mg/kg diet, artemia enrichment and submerges of larvae at a dosage of 200 mg/l. When estrogen were applied to larvae for 30 days from 7 days after hatching a complete sex reversal from male to female was obtained. In the affected ovaries, oocytes developed quite similarly to those in controls. From the results, it was concluded that 17"-estradiol is capable to induce a complete masculinization of genetic females at a low dosage level (750 mg/kg) and all the three techniques are proper in sex reversal inducing in Astatotilapia latifasciata.
Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection and metal data from this region is needed. The levels of mercury in tissues of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus and sediments in the Boushehr coasts, south Iran were investigated. Mercury analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The distribution pattern of mercury in the tissues of crab and sediments was as follows: sediments> hepatopancreasn > muscle > exoskeleton. Total mercury levels in the tissues of P.palagicus from the other five sampling stations ranged between (5.32 ± 0.33 μg/g) and (0.17±0.18 μg/g). In present study recorded that there was negligible differences in Hg levels between sexes. We found that mercury levels were larger in tissues of female of the species than the males. There were no significant differences in mercury levels between sexes of P.pelagicus. In present study maximum concentration of total mercury in sediments and all tissues of P.pelagicus absorbed in Airforce station (p<0.05). Differences in Hg among could have resulted from diverse pollution source, ecological particularity, industries and human activities.
Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection and metal data from this region is needed. The levels of mercury (Hg) in tissues of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus and sediments in the Persian Gulf coasts, south Iran were investigated. Hg analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The distribution pattern of Hg in the tissues of P. palagicus and sediments was as follows: sediment > hepatopancreasn > muscle > exoskeleton. Total mercury levels in the tissues of P. palagicus from the other six sampling stations ranged between (4.70±0.80 μg/g) and (0.11±0.34 μg/g). In present study recorded that there was negligible differences in Hg levels between P. pelagicus sexes. Maximum concentration of the total Hg in sediments and all tissues of P. pelagicus observes in Bahrekan station (p<0.05) during different seasons. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the level of Hg in the tissues of the crab P. pelagicus. Differences in Hg levels could have resulted from diverse pollution source, ecological particularity, industries and human activities.
Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection and metal data from this region is needed. The levels of heavy metals (Fe, Hg, Ni and Pb) in tissues (hepatopancreas, muscle and exoskeleton) of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus and sediments in the Persian Gulf coasts, south Iran were investigated. Heavy metals analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentration of heavy metals in sediments at all sampling stations occurs in descending order of Fe > Ni > Hg > Pb during both seasons. The distribution pattern of heavy metals in the tissues of crab and sediments was as follows: sediment > hepatopancreasn > muscle > exoskeleton. Maximum concentration of the total heavy metals in sediments and all tissues of P. pelagicus observes in Bahrekan station (P<0.05) during different seasons. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the level of heavy metals in the tissues of the crab P. pelagicus. In present study recorded that there was negligible differences in heavy metals levels between different seasons. Differences in heavy metals concentrations among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, hydrodynamics of the environment, changes in tissue composition, stations of collection and sources of pollution within Persian Gulf.
The frequency and distribution of barnacle (Chelonibia patula) on blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus off Persian Gulf Coasts were studied. A total of 545 crabs were examined and were of the same size range. The carapace width rangof crab werefrom 6.5cm to 16.5cm, carapace length from 4 to 8cm and weighed 80.5g to 220.4g. The barnacles were attached to the carapace, abdomen and walking legs. The distribution, size and abundance of barnacles on the crabs were dependent of the size and sex of the crabs. The large sized crabs had as many barnacles attached to them as small crabs. Female crabs had as many barnacles attached to them as male crabs. There were more barnacles on the dorsal surface of the crabs than on the ventral. The number of barnacles on each crab varied from one to twenty-one. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the occurrence of barnacles on crab P. pelagicus. The condition factor was quite low in crab species with range of 1.01 to 8.39 (mean 5.48).
Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection and metal data from this region is needed. The levels of mercury in tissues of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus and sediments from the Persian Gulf coasts, south Iran were investigated. Mercury analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The distribution pattern of mercury in the tissues of crab and sediments was as follows: sediment > hepatopancreas > muscle > exoskeleton. Total mercury levels in the tissues of P. pelagicus from the other six sampling stations ranged between (4.70±0.80 µg/g) and (0.29±0.22 µg/g). Results showed that there were negligible differences in Hg levels between sexes. There were no significant differences in mercury levels between sexes of P. pelagicus. Maximum concentration of the total mercury in sediments and all tissues of P. pelagicus observes in Bahrekan station (P<0.05). There was no significant differences (P<0.05) between the level of mercury in the tissues of the crab P. pelagicus. Differences in Hg levels could have resulted from diverse pollution source, ecological particularity, industries and human activities.
The sex ratio, size distribution and seasonal abundance of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus was studied for one year along the Persian Gulf coasts, Iran. Sex ratio during a year of study was M: F = 1: 0.88 which should be the relative frequency of males. The crab's carapace widths ranged were from 60 to150_mm for males and 50 to145_mm for females. The crab's carapace lengths were from 35 to 80_mm for male and 30 to 70_mm for female. The total weight ranged from 48.0-275.50_g for males and 39.50-255.20_g for females. The highest abundance and largest size for the male crabs was record in Summer season and for females were observed in Autumn season. The results of this study show that at the same size, weight and the parameters of carapace length and carapace width male Portunus pelagicus are higher than females in Persian Gulf coasts.
Survival of larvae of mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forsskal, 1775) is a persistent issue in the field of induced breeding of the species. A preliminary study was conducted on feeding regimes of laboratory reared larvae and juveniles of S. serrata. The results showed that the survival of the larvae fed with green water alone or green water with plankton and feed was not significantly different from the control where no feeding was given. All the larvae died at Zoea after 4 days of culture without metamorphose to Zoea stage. Larvae fed with 1 2 green water, rotifer and Artemia nauplii or fed with green water and fed with rotifer, artificial plankton, prepared diet and Artemia nauplii showed similar results with growth and metamorphosis of the larvae reared in green water and fed with Artemia nauplii. The larvae reared in green water, rotifer and Artemia nauplii showed better survival rate of Zoea compared to larvae reared in green water and Artemia nauplii but the latter only metamorphosed to Crab Stage. Further researches are proposed to evaluate differential nutritional composition 1 of the live feeds to support the life of mud crab larvae.
Handling can compromise the quality of life of wild animals in captivityWelfareincaptlve animals canbe assessed through recording of abnormal behaviors. The relatiomhp betweentwomanagement strategies and animal welfare (measured as frequency of abnormal behaviors) for5 Cebus monkeys of three species (4 males and 1 female) captive at a biological station inElisioMedrado, Bahia, Brazil is analyzed. This is relevant because capuchm monkeys arevelyabundant in captivity worldwide and dfferent species are often housed togetherdue to taxonomic uncertainties. Also, many zoos lack an animal welfare program and simple management practices might help welfare improvementStereotyped behaviors werequantified undertwo management strategies: a) daily-movement and b) social-housing. Furthermore, an environmental enrichment was added under the social-housing strategy to test its effect on abnormal behaviorsFrequencies were compared through a Wilcoxon test, which d ~ dno t show statistical differences intotalabnormal behaviors between dfferent management strategies. However, there was a tendency towards improvement in social behaviors following the social-housingstrategyFood enrichmentwas useful to diminish stereotyped behaviors, but represented a source of stress for the most subordmate animals. Betterenclosure quality is not enough to promote animal well being, but environmental enrichments are good alternatives for reducing stress in non subordmates.
Specimen of Galene bispinosa (Decapoda; Brachyura; Galenidae) was collected from subtidal area of the northern Oman Sea in 2009. A literature review on the distribution of this species revealed that this is the first record of this species from the Oman Sea. The morphological structures of this species is given in this article.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on weight and height growth of non-zinc-deficient healthy children. A parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted on 9-18 year old healthy referred children to Pediatric Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran from April to October 2011.Children were randomly assigned into two groups to receive daily supplementation of single dose of 5 mg zinc sulfate supplementation for 4 months or placebo. The primary variables were weight gain velocity, height gain velocity and serum zinc level that were evaluated before and four months after intervention. Secondary variable was clinical side effects. Results revealed that 48 girls and 47 boys with mean age of 12.2 ± 2.39 years were evaluated. Weight gain velocity (0.52 ±0.41 kg/month vs. 0.27 ±0.11 kg/month, p= 0.01) and height gain velocity (0.89±0.23 centimeter/month vs. 0.40 ±0.28 centimeter/month, p= 0.001) were higher in zinc group. Serum zinc level was not significantly different in both groups. Transient mild gastrointestinal side effects were seen in four children (8.3%) in zinc group. In conclusions, Zinc supplementation can improve weight and height gain velocity of healthy adolescents.
Investigation on scour and determination of hole of scoring are among the most important issues in spur dike designation with model spur dike was measured in a laboratory flume with 180 degree bend under clear-water. Experiments were conducted for different locations with various Froude number. In this study, the time development of the scour hole around the spur dike plates was studied. The results of the model study indicated that the maximum depth of scour is highly dependent on the experimental duration. It was observed that, with increasing time development the greatest hole of the scour was associated with 75 degree spur dike. With increasing Froude number the maximum scour length, width and depth increases.
Groin is used as one of the most common methods of organizing and controlling erosion in the side wall at the river bends. Groin is designed to direct flow towards the axis of the river and by so doing protecting the coast and the infrastructures in that vicinity. The new flow pattern in turn could lead to scouring around the groin. Variation in the groin length can cause degradation on the groin nose. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of groin length on the scouring pattern using an experimental flume having a 180 degree bend, R/B= 4.7 and made from Plaxy glass. For the purpose of this paper a groin with 90 degree position having lengths of 8, 10 and 12 cm, flow discharge of 28 liters/second and a depth fixed at 13 cm with pore water was modeled in the laboratory. For the materials of the flume bed, aggregation of natural sand with a uniform coefficient of 1.7 and D 50= 2 mm was used. Results showed that the increase in the groin length will result in a corresponding increase in the depth degradation around the flume. Results further indicated that an increase in the length of groin causes a corresponding increase in the scouring hole around it. There was also an observed increase in the length of Sediment Island as well as an increase in the dimensions of scouring hole downstream of the groin by increasing in flow discharge.