Women & Criminal Justice

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1541-0323
Print ISSN: 0897-4454
Publications
An emerging social theme positions a pregnant woman as antagonist to the fetus if she deviates from medically, socially, or legally sanctioned behavior. This is particularly devastating for low income women and women with stigmatized problems. These policies convey a vision of an errant pregnant woman whose antagonism to the fetus must be constrained by outside intervention. Autonomy, bodily integrity, and constitutional status are all at stake. Ironically, these policies may well undermine fetal as well as maternal health by deterring women from involvement with medical care. Moreover, the focus on the individual plays the diversionary role of distracting attention from the societal failure to enable women to be healthy and have healthy babies.
 
The current study seeks to identify significant predictors of pretrial processing for both male and female defendants in an aggregate sample. The data used in this study is taken from the State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS), 1990-2000: Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties (Bureau of Justice Statistics 2004). The original sample included a total of 87,437 felony cases. The relationship between relevant independent variables and five separate dependent variables (denial of bail, non-financial release, amount of bail set, making bail, and pretrial incarceration) were analyzed using both multivariate regression and Z-score comparisons within gender-specific models. Findings suggest that effects of certain independent variables on pretrial release decisions and outcomes are different between the gender-specific models.
 
Female incarcerations in the United States have increased dramatically in the past decade. While many female inmates suffer from comorbid substance abuse and mental health issues, they often lack social supports and resources that can help female inmates successfully reintegrate back into community. However, the characteristics of social support of incarcerated women have not been fully explored. Using the Rasch model, we examined the MOS social support measure in 271 female inmates in a large urban jail. The findings showed that the MOS social support items did not fully capture variability of item response. The Rasch analyses also showed a high ceiling effect, implying that the measure may be less than optimal for detecting upward change in this population. It is important to utilize reliable and valid instruments in order to capture attributes in incarcerated individuals as their life experience and context require an additional adjustment to existing instruments.
 
This study examined occupational barriers in federal law enforcement between 2011 and 2015, replicating research conducted prior to the passage of Executive Order 13583 (2011). Qualitative and quantitative data were generated from surveys collected from 101 sworn female federal law enforcement officers on the challenges they face in the work environment. With little progress to gender equity, findings revealed that male colleagues’ resistance to women in federal policing and the perceived lack of promotions has increased, while work–life balance policies and sexual discrimination continue to be a challenge. Policy implications for improving organizational practices are discussed. 2017
 
This study examined the robustness of the proposed factor structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) in a sample of justice-involved women (N = 406). Efforts to assess accurately and intervene effectively regarding mental health issues (namely, somatization, depression, and anxiety) are critical due to growing proportions of women involved in the criminal justice system and the link between mental health and justice-system outcomes among women. Women on probation or parole provided responses to the BSI-18 as part of a larger study on victimization and substance use. Analyses included calculation of descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor and simulation analyses. Results show strong model–data fit indices reflecting that the BSI-18 is a robust and pragmatic self-report symptom inventory for women with criminal justice system involvement. Limitations related to cross-sectional design and a small, nonrandom sample are noted and implications for mental health assessment and intervention are discussed.
 
Number of women aged more than 50 entering prison for the first time between 1860 and 1920.
Common Offense Types for Older Women (First Registered Offense)WOMEN, OLD AGE, AND IMPRISONMENT IN VICTORIA
Older and elderly women predominantly appear in criminological literature as victims of crime. However, a not insignificant portion of those imprisoned, both past and present, were women aged more than 50 years. Even so, research into older and elderly imprisoned women is lacking, in Australia and around the world. Historical prisoner records offer a possibility for beginning to rectify the lack of knowledge about this cohort. Using the Central Register of Female Prisoners from Victoria across a six-decade period from 1860 to 1920 the historical contextualization of older women as prisoners can begin and this article presents the findings of the analysis of the 652 prison records of older women. As this article argues, feminist historical criminology offers an opportunity to shine light on those women who have been made invisible in historical records.
 
While global attention has been drawn to the reported spike in the rate of gender-based violence (GBV) occasioned by COVID-19 restrictions, there exists a clear gap in knowledge about incidences of GBV perpetrated by police officers in the course of enforcing COVID-19 laws. Drawing from the Nigerian experience, this qualitative study presents the accounts of 83 sexually victimized women. From the thematic analysis, their narratives of how COVID-19 lockdown facilitated their vulnerability to police sexual violence (PSV) were documented. Although the various forms of sexual violence experienced by the women during the lockdown are similar to pre-COVID PSV, in the current study, there appear to be more varieties of sexual violence, diverse tactics used by perpetrators, more factors determining vulnerability, and a greater opportunity structure for PSV. The findings highlight the need for revisiting existing models of PSV and reimagining governments’ policies in uncertain times to ensure public safety.
 
Percentage of women police officers in reality and on television by year, 1971–2007. (Color figure available online.) 
Sex Distribution of All Main Criminal Justice Workers on Crime Shows, 1950-2008
Percentage of Women Police Officers on Television and in Reality for 1993, 1997, and 2000
Percentage of Female Law Enforcement Officers on Primetime Crime Shows and in Local Police Departments, 1993, 1997, and 2000, by Race=Ethnicity
This article utilizes a longitudinal approach to assess the visibility of women as police officers in primetime crime shows from 1950 to 2008 and compares these numbers for television to actual data on women who work as police officers in the United States. We find that as expected, annual labor force data and crime show data both indicate increases in the number of minorities and women working in the criminal justice system over time. Given the robust literature on the general underrepresentation of women on television, however, we did not expect to uncover that both White and minority women are overrepresented as police officers on television every year compared to the occupational reality. Implications of the findings are discussed.
 
It was not too many decades ago that rape was a crime for which the death penalty was a permissible punishment in the United States, particularly in death penalty states in the South. Relatedly, historical and contemporary death penalty research almost always focuses on the role of the race of the defendant and, more recently, the race of the victim and defendant–victim racial dyads as being relevant factors in death penalty decision making. As such, the current study employs data from official court records for the population of capital trials (n = 954) in the state of North Carolina (1977–2009) to evaluate the effect of the rape/sexual assault statutory aggravating factor on jurors’ decision to recommend the death penalty. Results suggest that cases in which rape is an aggravating factor had a significantly greater odds of receiving a death penalty recommendation, and these results are robust after also considering the independent effects of defendant–victim racial dyads, even following the application of propensity score matching to equate cases on a host of defendant and victim characteristics, legal and extralegal confounders, and case characteristics. Study limitations and implications are discussed. 2016
 
We studied the files of 58 female beggars and vagabonds transferred from a penal labor institution to a state mental asylum (1886–1910). These women often suffered cognitive and neurological diseases; many were mentally retarded. Recovery rates were extremely low. It is unlikely that their mental illnesses were a direct causal factor in their offending. We argue that it is more likely that their mental illnesses were caused by their lives on the rough side or that their illnesses had made them less resilient to the hardships they suffered, making them turn to begging and vagabonding.
 
Trends in deaths due to legal intervention, Mexico (1979–2010). Data for 1979 to 1996 were taken from Secretar  ́a de Salud (2010). Information regarding the period 2004–2010 was taken from Instituto Nacional de Estad  ́stica y Geograf  ́a (2011). Ã Data regarding deaths 
Gender and Age of Victims of Deaths Due to Legal Intervention in Mexico (2004-2010)
Geographical distribution of female deaths due to legal intervention, Mexico (2004–2010). Elaborated using data from Instituto Nacional de Estad  ́stica y Geograf  ́a (2011) with the assistance of Gabriel Parada (CIDE’s Banco de Informacio  ́n para la Investiga- cio  ́n Aplicada en Ciencias Sociales [BIIACS-CIDE]). 
Type of Community and Gender of Victims of Deaths Due to Legal Intervention in Mexico (2004-2010)
As a now voluminous literature demonstrates, lethal encounters between the State and society can occur under a variety of conditions and have different meanings according to the victims' characteristics. Nevertheless, only a few scholars have specifically discussed the manner in which females lose their lives at the hand of the State. This study examines 132 female deaths due to legal intervention that took place in Mexico from 2004 to 2010. In particular, we seek to understand and explain the magnitude, location, and frequency with which women lose their lives at the hands of the State. Research findings suggest that although deaths due to legal intervention are unevenly distributed in Mexico, their effects are clearly located within specific populations and communities, particularly affecting women in rural locations.
 
Globally, gender responsive programing has become a concern for researchers and practitioners alike. Such programs address issues that may hinder offenders’ reentry. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs that address the psychological needs of women prisoners in Kenya. The relational theory of women’s psychological development and the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model were used to analyze inmate programs in Kenya’s 17 women’s prisons. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 350 participants within the prisons to ask about the programs offered. We found that there is a lack of gender responsive programming in Kenya’s women’s prison; and, the rehabilitation programs that are offered within the Kenyan prison system are not effectively addressing women offenders’ unique psychological needs which contributed to their criminal behaviors.
 
The State Industrial Home for Women at Muncy in Pennsylvania opened in 1920 just as the reformatory movement began to wane and quickly became the sole correctional institution for women in the state, besides county jails. Despite the broader population that Muncy housed, traditional reformatory ideals were still supported and enforced. Yet the practices and programming of the institution also exemplified the changing economic and social role of women in society. Using recently uncovered primary sources from the institution, this article places Muncy within the broader context of the reformatory movement and argues that its dual emphasis played a significant role in its respect and longevity as an institution.
 
The article explores the impact of criminalization and restricted abortion access in Poland, Italy, and parts of the United Kingdom. We look at the ways in which the partial and extensive criminalization of abortion in the European Union and in the United Kingdom forces women to travel to access abortion care. At the core of our considerations is the interconnection of issues pertaining to criminalization and movement with citizenship, bodily integrity and autonomy, and the nation-state. By tracing these connections through an analysis of existing laws and scholarship, our concern here is to ask what discursive, narrative and theoretical resources feminist scholars might draw on and help co-produce in framing the interstices of criminalization of abortion and enforced mobility.
 
This paper argues for a broader consideration of the issue of abortion—one that stresses the centrality of the denial of reproductive rights in the patriarchal policing of women’s bodies and their sexuality. Globally, the estimates of abortion-related deaths in 2014 ranged from 22,500 to 44,000, and countless women are injured or left infertile by seeking illegal abortions. We briefly review international trends regarding abortion politics and then analyze closely women’s access to abortion in two countries: the United States and Bangladesh. Representing two very different contexts of the developed and the developing world, respectively, we contend that abortion services are being constrained by misogynistic politics that deny women control over their bodies. Finally, the paper reviews recent international efforts to establish abortion rights as part of a broader landscape of human rights. Notably, while there are some efforts in the global north to recriminalize both contraception and abortion, these practices have been characterized by a recent United Nation’s report as the deliberate denial of medically available and necessary services and hence a form of “torture.”
 
Although most women abused by intimate partners experience a patterned behavior of abuse (by either the same or new partners), little is known about their decision making regarding whether to call the police for subsequent abuse. The current study found that 90 percent of women who had encountered the criminal legal system for previous intimate partner abuse victimizations did not contact the police for some or all recurrences. Qualitative analysis was conducted among a sample of 102 women regarding their reasons for not re-engaging the legal system for subsequent victimizations. The results suggested 5 overall reasons as to why women involved with the criminal legal system choose not to engage the system again.
 
Digital technologies are increasingly being used to abuse, harass, and victimize women. Image-based sexual abuse (IBSA)—the nonconsensual taking or sharing (including threats to share) nude or sexual images—is one such form of abuse. Various jurisdictions have enacted laws criminalizing IBSA, but Australia is arguably leading the way, with eight of its nine jurisdictions introducing innovative IBSA laws. This article explores the Australian laws, focusing on their capacity to address the gendered nature of IBSA. While highlighting the importance of these laws, we argue that a multifaceted approach is required to combat IBSA that includes law reform, education, and training.
 
This study is a partial test of Robert Agnew's (20064. Agnew , Robert. 2006 . “Pressured Into Crime: General Strain Theory.” Pp. 201 – 209 in Criminological Theory: Past to Present. , 3rd ed. , edited by F. T. Cullen and R. Agnew . Oxford , England : Oxford University Press . View all references) general strain theory. The sample consists of 39,879 juveniles between the ages of 10 and 17 from a metropolitan area in Texas with more than 5 million people. Logistic regression is used to determine the effect of living situation on drug offenders, drug recidivists, and juvenile court case outcome when race, abuse, sex, and mental health problems are controlled. Gender-specific analysis is used to test L. Broidy and R. Agnew's (19975. Agnew , Robert and Timothy Brezina . 1997 . “Relational Problems With Peers, Gender, and Delinquency.” Youth & Society 84 – 111 . [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) hypothesis that girls and boys react differently to strain. Results show partial support for the influence of a strained living situation on drug offenders, drug recidivists, and case outcome. Support is found for the hypothesis that boys' and girls' experiences with strain differ.
 
This study assesses the relationship between threatened/enacted violence against companion animals, intimate partner violence (IPV), fear of lethal violence, and help-seeking in a community sample of IPV survivors in Canada (n = 630). After controlling for socio-demographic covariates, IPV survivors who report animal maltreatment by their partner were significantly more likely to fear for their lives and to seek help from multiple sources of support than survivors who did not report animal maltreatment, with the relationship between animal abuse and help-seeking mediated by survivors’ fear of lethal IPV. Implications for the provision of effective services and supports to this high-risk population of IPV survivors are discussed.
 
This article investigates incidences of the breach of human rights, constitutional provisions, criminal code, and police regulatory acts by Nigerian police officers in the course of arresting, detaining, and interrogating female suspects. A mixed-method approach was deployed to collect and analyze quantitative data from 186 female inmates, of which 27 inmates were interviewed, at the Female Maximum and Medium Security Prisons, Lagos. Findings indicate low compliance with the Anti-Torture Act and other constitutional provisions. Infractions against the criminal code, like sexual assault, intimidation, and deception, were reported. Education, training, and monitoring of officers, with strategic development of policing that will engender intelligence-based investigation is suggested to address these violations.
 
This research study examined data obtained from the One Voice corrections organization to identify the existence of policy and training regarding sexually abusive/harassing behaviors by inmates directed at corrections staff. The data revealed that when corrections employees were aware of a policy prohibiting sexually abusive/harassing behaviors of inmate’s, corrections employees reported a decreased frequency of exposure to these behaviors. The presence of a training program that addressed specific strategies was not found to reduce exposure to these types of incidents. This study found that while this type of exposure occurs for both male and female corrections employees and both male and female inmates are perpetrators, female employees report increased levels of exposure and female employees were more likely to report exposure to specific comments in their workplace regarding the sexually abusive/harassing behaviors by male inmates.
 
Most incarcerated women suffer from adverse and abusive life histories, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and neglect, and intimate partner violence (IPV). In addition, many have difficulties regulating their anger expression and most participate in illicit drug use. Although many have offered explanations for these relationships, the current study is among the first to utilize an integrated feminist pathways and general strain theory (GST) approach to explain them. Using data from a stratified random sample of all incarcerated women in Oklahoma (N = 441), we explore the linkages between ACEs, IPV, the externalized expression of anger, and heavy illicit drug use. Our findings indicate that childhood physical and sexual abuse are significantly associated with externalized responses to anger. However, the effects of childhood adversities, particularly sexual abuse, on heavy illicit drug use are mediated by externalized responses to anger suggesting that anger plays a significant role in women’s pathways to illicit drug use. In contrast, and somewhat surprisingly, being a victim of IPV was negatively related to externalized responses to anger and not significantly related to illicit drug use. Implications for the importance of utilizing an integrated feminist pathways and GST approach in future research are offered. 2017
 
The tentacles of human trafficking have evolved over time and have emerged in new forms. One such new form is the creation of baby factories. Baby factories involve the abuse of pregnant women for the sale of their new born children on the black market.
 
Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) have received well-founded criticism from multiple fronts for their discriminatory effects and variegated harmful consequences on LGBTQ + people. International human rights institutions had voiced their concern over extreme forms and coercive SOCE, labeling them as torture. However, the legal status of “soft” non-coercive practices (i.e., psychological interventions willingly sought by consumers) is less clear. This article argues that a proper understanding of the prohibition on torture and other forms of ill-treatment, and of the positive obligations attached to the right to equality requires banning SOCE in all its forms, even when pursued by consenting consumers.
 
Correlation Among Variables (N ¼ 414).
To examine the Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) in undergraduate criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) sample, we surveyed 414 CCJ undergraduate students at a large northeastern public university. In this study, CCJ majors, especially those who desire to work in law enforcement, held high levels of patriarchal beliefs and RMA. Although CCJ majors took several classes on sexual assault/rapes and victimology, and they also evaluated the quality of such courses positively, the multivariate analysis found no significant educational effect on RMA while controlling other variables. We then discuss these findings and offer suggestions for CCJ curricula that may assist our prospective CJ professionals in maintaining and upholding a fair and just CJ system.
 
The study examines narrative data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 25 women in a medium security prison with the hope of deepening the knowledge base related to women’s beliefs about their mental health problems, mental health care during incarceration, and especially their experiences with psychotropic medication. The findings highlight the functional role of psychotropic medication in the lives of incarcerated women, while also emphasizing problems with limited access to prescribers, preferred medications, and other forms of mental health treatment. Trauma, substance use, and the impact of medication use on sense of self all emerged as interfacing with quality of life.
 
Women transitioning from incarceration often reenter society with multiple barriers to affordable health care. Many resort to costly emergency department visits, and others turn to online health information to compensate for gaps in their health care. Interviews with 74 previously incarcerated women were conducted in 2019–2020 in three midwestern cities. Qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed that, while most participants used the internet for health information, their perceptions of the reliability varied. Many participants expressed a need for additional reliable sources of health information and ways to verify it. These findings support the importance of high-quality digital health literacy interventions.
 
This study examines Turkey’s Law No. 6284, which was enacted pursuant to the Istanbul Convention’s obligations for signatories to combat and prevent violence against women. The law aims to provide both protection and prevention measures to assist women and their families. However, the nation has struggled with the implementation of consistent responses to family violence. The article argues that, although Turkey has done much to implement the Istanbul Convention, the nation’s male-dominated mentality and the emphasis on family coherence and harmony rather than women as “individuals” hinders effective responses to gender violence.
 
Female correctional staff face multiple challenges when working in a male prison environment. Perceptions of competence and gendered divisions of labor are prevalent in the negotiated order of a prison. Sexuality is a dynamic that is irrelevant to the demands of a correctional officer yet a significant identity to be managed and negotiated in interactions with both colleagues and prisoners. This study adopts an auto ethnographic approach to highlight discrimination in prison officer occupational culture. Drawing upon personal narratives whilst working in an adult male prison in England, lived experiences of homophobia and sexism are presented to identify the challenges faced as a gay female prison officer. Themes of sexual objectification, homophobia and workplace incivility identify failings within the English prison service in supporting workplace diversity and inclusivity.
 
Predicted Value of Logged Length of Incarceration across Gender/Race Subgroups.
Continued
Description of Independent Variables Differentiated by Gender
Distribution of Dependent Variables and Associations among Probation Officer Recommendation, Judicial Sentence, Length of Incarceration, and Gender
Connecting the courtroom workgroup model with attributions and stereotyping based on the focal concerns perspective and gender sentencing literature, the present study investigates the extent to which probation officer recommendations influence judicial sentencing, and whether the gender of the offender further conditions this relationship. Results from logistic and ordinary least squares regression indicate that there is concordance between probation officer recommendations and sentencing by judges. Offender gender has both direct and indirect effects on judicial sentencing through its relationship with probation officer recommendations, and Black males tend to receive lengthier sentences than other race/gender counterparts. These findings provide evidence that probation officer recommendations are an important part of the sentencing process and offer additional insight on how extralegal factors such as gender and race impact criminal justice decision making.
 
Comparison of Female and Male Prison Releasees on Recidivism, Demographics, and Relationship Factors 
Bivariate Comparisons of Males and Females on Offense and Criminal History Measures 
Logistic Regression Results Examining Any Postrelease Rearrest 
Logistic Regression Results Examining Violent Postrelease Rearrest 
This study, using data from a large sample of prison releasees, examined the similarities and differences in men's and women's risk factors for recidivism involving rearrest for any crime and rearrest for a violent crime during an average 3.4-year follow-up period. Logistic regressions revealed several gender differences. Prior incarceration, time served, and specific types of prior arrest histories had differential associations with women's and men's overall and violent recidivism. Age, race, and conviction offense were gender-specific risk factors for overall recidivism, and education level and marital status were gender-specific risk factors for violent recidivism. Implications for risk assessment are discussed. 2015
 
Using qualitative methodology—field observations and in-depth interviews—the study examines the role of Mahila Samakhya (a group advocating women's equality) and Nari Adalats (informal women's courts) in India in combating violence against women. Interviews were conducted with members of a Mahila Samakhya in the southwest state of Karnataka and complainants who appeared before Nari Adalats. Nari Adalats in Karnataka are an innovation of Mahila Samakhya, a Government of India development program. The results indicate that Nari Adalats exercise broad authority to investigate and dispose of a wide range of domestic violence cases in India. The Mahila Samakhya serves as an advocacy group and provides shelter, legal assistance, and social help as well as education for victims of domestic violence.
 
Risk assessment has become a standardized tool that helps juvenile justice practitioners to identify risk factors to delinquent or criminal behaviors among adjudicated juveniles. This study intends to examine the risk assessment instrument in order to identify gender disparities in risk level among Indiana adjudicated juveniles and its contributing factors to the overall risk assessment. The sample of the study is consisted of 3,144 juveniles (501 female juveniles and 2,643 male juveniles) who have been adjudicated to Indiana juvenile correctional facilities. Results of the study indicated that there were gender differences in all but one of the risk assessment domains. This study also found that male juveniles were assessed as higher overall levels of risk than females while controlling of other variables in the OLS multiple regression model.
 
Although the population of imprisoned mothers is increasing, little formal data have been gathered about their dependents. This article draws on data from a study that examined the impact of maternal incarceration on 20 adolescent children in Victoria, Australia, focusing specifically on how and what care arrangements were made for the children and the implications of this care. Findings show a number of supportive and hindering factors that influence the making of care arrangements, including the support of another adult who enabled the woman in her role as mother, mothers' realistic outlook, and subsequent behaviors. Even where there were chronic problems, such as substance use, with a balance of supportive factors, these women were able to make reasonable and stable care arrangements for their children.
 
The integration of psychosocial characteristics that play a critical role in delinquent decision making is crucial to conceptualizing adolescent female offending. This study found that adolescent female offenders (N = 213), despite making a delinquent decision, had high perceived decision-making competence. There was a significant negative association between delinquent decision making and the psychosocial characteristics of anger, substance abuse, and depression. This association was stronger for those with more exposure to trauma. Substance abuse appeared to provide a pathway between psychosocial characteristics and delinquent decision making. The results emphasize the fact that a conceptual framework for adolescent female offending should incorporate the complex interaction of psychosocial characteristics and their impact on delinquent decision making.
 
Early adverse experiences have been identified as a salient risk factor for crime and delinquency. However, past empirical studies predominantly used youth and young adult samples; much less is known about this risk factor’s effect on adult offending. This study examines early adverse experiences and adult pro-social bonds simultaneously using a mixed-gender sample of serious adult offenders with an average age of 35. Findings from survival analysis suggest that early adversities have an enduring detrimental effect on people’s lives well into adulthood yet in an intricate way. They have no direct effect on recidivism among adult offenders. However, they significantly influence recidivism by interacting with gender: Female respondents with early adversities demonstrated a significantly higher risk of recidivism than other female respondents, whereas no such effect was observed among male respondents. Implications for future research and policymaking are discussed.
 
Incarcerated women frequently report initiation of substance use and sexual encounters at an early age, and often engage in high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors as adults. This study examined the timing of first sex, drug use, and arrest, as well as their unique influences on specific risky behaviors in adulthood, among a high-risk population of rural women recruited from jails. Ages of initiation were all positively and significantly correlated, and each independently increased the likelihood of several risky behaviors in adulthood. Implications are discussed for screening, intervention, and treatment targeting high-risk women and girls in rural areas, particularly within criminal justice settings.
 
Past research indicates that extralegal factors (e.g., victim age, race, and relationship to assailant) affect police investigative practices in sexual assault cases, including the decision whether to forward a case to prosecutors for further consideration. However, such studies have not distinguished the reasons why cases did or did not move on to prosecutors for criminal charges to be filed. In some instances, law enforcement officials make the decision not to send a case forward for further consideration, but sometimes cases are not referred because victims have withdrawn their participation. Understanding what factors differentiate these outcomes is important for improving the legal response to sexual assault. In this study, 266 police reports of adult sexual assault cases were collected from 3 midwestern law enforcement agencies (in the same county). Demographic, assault, and evidentiary case characteristics were examined as predictors of case referral outcomes. Results indicated that victims who were unconscious because of alcohol and/or drug use were more likely to withdraw from the investigation process, as were those who did not have a post-assault medical forensic exam. Cases in which law enforcement interviewed a suspect and cases in which police invested moderate to above average investigational effort were significantly more likely to be referred to prosecutors.
 
This article examines the birth, life and death of the criminal law provision on adultery in India through historical, socio-legal, feminist and human rights perspectives. The provision on adultery was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of India in 2018. The article analyses the legal developments culminating in the landmark judgment, as well as its aftermath. It addresses, as a central question, the construction of intimate relationships in criminal law, law’s emphasis on and interest in enforcing a monogamous marriage and consequently the non-recognition of sexual autonomy of women within the same. Through an examination of the judicial reasoning, international jurisprudence, established human rights standards and feminist scholarship, the article argues that adultery has no place in criminal law. Further, it argues that family laws must broaden and take into account newer forms of marriage and relationships that defy traditional, hetero-monogamous notions, based on egalitarian and inclusive principles.
 
Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with incarcerated women, supplemented by mail correspondence with a sub-sample of these women, I explore how the participants interpret their early life-course experiences when reflecting on their transition to adulthood and, subsequently, their views on adult roles and responsibilities. The women’s narratives indicate that early experiences with trauma, along with premature entries into adult roles, result in a disorganized transition to adulthood. The findings also suggest that the women’s accelerated transitions to adulthood shape their views on adult roles, pointing to a need to incorporate discussions of age-normative timetables in efforts to assist at-risk and incarcerated women.
 
Research in juvenile and criminal justice concerning how to assess and target interventions to LGBTQ+ youth and young adults is insufficient. With the proliferation of the Risk-Need-Responsivity Model (RNR), risk/need assessment tools have become evidence-based practice providing guidance to determining risk, identifying need, and the importance of targeting interventions to advance prosocial behavior. Critics have noted that during implementation of the RNR Model, the focus is too often on the risk principle at the expense of the need and responsivity principles. This study provides evidence from an intensive case study, and process evaluation of the Lambert House: LGBTQ+ Youth Community Center, that responsivity needs to be prominent when serving LGBTQ+ youth and young adults. Based on an analysis of 60 semi-structured interviews with program participants, staff, and community advocates, we argue that risk/need assessment tools driven by the RNR model be inclusive and responsive to LGBTQ+ youth and young adults.
 
Adverse childhood experiences and workplace trauma exposure are associated with poor health. However, their differential impacts by gender are difficult to assess in studies of organizations with gender imbalances (e.g., law enforcement officers are more likely men whereas social workers are more likely women). Using a community-based participatory research framework, this study examines trauma exposure, mental and physical health, and substance use in an occupationally diverse sample (n = 391). Trauma exposure was high and associated with poor health. Even though women experienced more adversity, they were often more resilient than men. Implications for trauma-informed workplaces are discussed.
 
The rapidly expanding market in enslaved children bought and sold for sex is one of the most inhumane transnational crimes that appears to have been facilitated by globalization and its many effects, such as a growing disparity in wealth between north and south. Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicized social issues of this time, and, because of its global nature, transnational advocacy networks are well placed and central to leading campaigns against it. Transnational advocacy network anti-trafficking efforts have led to significant progress in the Mekong Subregion by bringing the child trafficking issue onto the global social policy agenda, resulting in new child protection legislation and improved interagency collaboration in the region.
 
Current Living Arrangements of Children as Reported by Women with Dependent Children at the Time of Incarceration
In the United States, incarceration rates are increasing at an alarming rate. In particular, the incarceration of women is increasing. Oklahoma has the highest rate of female incarceration in the nation, and drug offenders comprise a significant proportion of these female inmates. Placing large numbers of women in prison may have serious implications not only for the women but also for their families, particularly their children. We surveyed 144 incarcerated female drug offenders in Oklahoma, 96 of whom reported dependent children living with them prior to incarceration. The data included the women's perceptions of the effect of their incarceration on their families as well as an examination of the potential for serious problems due to placement of the children. The study indicates that many children are placed with families that have a history of abuse, which suggests that failure to consider the implications of incarcerating large numbers of women likely contributes to serious abuse risks for their children.
 
Top-cited authors
Melissa Farley
  • Prostitution Research & Education, San Francisco CA USA
Mary E. Gilfus
  • Simmons College
Merry Morash
  • Michigan State University
Bruce G. Taylor
  • NORC at the University of Chicago
E. Stanko
  • City, University of London