Vestnik Kostroma State University Series Pedagogy Psychology Sociokinetics

Published by Kostroma State University
Print ISSN: 2073-1426
Publications
The publication provides a response to the recently published book –“In front of my comrades...”. A collection of documents and materials from the history of the children's movement, Young Pioneer organisation, supplemented by the memories of former Young Pioneers and counselors, reflections, assessments, proposals of scientists and modern researchers of the children's movement, as well as topical articles from the experience of coordinators, consultants, and counselors of the participants in the children's movement of the 21st century. The author isolates the conceptual idea of the collection, examines the content, analyses individual ideas of the authors, makes proposals on the purpose and use of the collection's materials. The publication is recommended for youth workers, teachers, teachers of higher and secondary educational institutions, training organisers of the children's movement.
 
The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of materials about public schools in pedagogic journalism of the mid-19th – the early 20th centuries. The pedagogic experience is generalised through the analysis of journal publications and a catalogue of articles about public schools, created a thematic periodisation of the educational press is developed. The idea substantiated is that the task of the pedagogic journalism (1860–1917) is to study the work of public schools, to form the theoretical and practical foundations of pedagogy, and to determine the prospects for the development of education. In connection with the emergence of competitive pedagogic publications between the participants in the pedagogic process, the quickest implement communicative communication, which made possible to modernise education, became possible. Pedagogic journalism of 1860–1917 revealed the problems of the formation and development of public schools, thanks to its materials, the further course of public education was determined.
 
The article presents an analysis of the actual Soviet practice of out-of-school chemistry education in the early years of the Soviet power and the changes that took place in out-of-school education in the new educational environment under the influence of socio-political factors. A description of the main modernisation processes in the education system as a whole, which influenced the development and improvement of Soviet out-of-school chemistry education in the 1920s, is presented. The main legislative acts and decrees of the Soviet government in the field of out-of-school education in the 1920s, which led to the renewal of the goals and content of additional chemistry education in accordance with the tasks of global polytechnic national education of the people, are considered. At the legislative level, the Soviet power had returned the management of out-of-school education to the People's Commissariat for Education, which contributed to its development and the variety of its directions and forms. The article focuses on the need to carefully study the positive historical experience of organising out-of-school chemistry education in the 1920s in order to identify the directions of its modernisation at the present stage of development of the system of additional education for schoolchildren.
 
The article reviews the program-methodical materials and theoretical cotribution of Russian scholars of the 1920s which consider the idea of the arts interplay in the scope and methods of school education. The idea is extremely topical nowadays if viewed as realisation of metadisciplinary results and cross-disciplinary programmes in the process of education. The research is focused on the psychological aspects of the arts interplay in the general labour school, the scheme of the programmes for the primary and secondary levels of the general labour school of 1921 including the arts interplay arrangements. Special attention is paid to the role of rhythmics and dramatics serving as the integrative ware and contrubuting to the arts interplay. The article considers the ideas of Nadezhda Bryusova and other tutors fo the 20th century relating to the purposes of the arts classes at school.
 
The article presents the results of the document analysis since the late 1940s to early 1970s devoted to the development of students’ research activities in pedagogic institutes. The author studied documents of three levels – the level of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the level of relevant ministries and state organisations of a pedagogic orientation, the level of an institute. The documents were analysed in terms of the use of words in describing the process of formation and development of students’ research activities in pedagogic institutes, the frequency of these terms use at different time stages, their meaning and context of use. The author identifies several main categories of lexical units used: "person," "student activity/result", "form of presentation of the student activity result," "activity aimed at the student," "association," "characteristic of scientific work," "abstract concepts used to describe science." Analysis of each selected term category has been carried out. Based on the analysis, conclusions were drawn on the reflection of the peculiarities of each stage, allocated within the framework of internal periodisation, in the use of lexical units. In terms of words, a parallel is drawn with the modern meaning of the lexical unit, the features of the development of the object or the course of the process in the studied chronological period and nowadays are compared.
 
This article defi nes the key problems of women’s education in the system of specialised education in Russian school of the second half of the 19th – the early 20th centuries from the point of view of the issue of training of teachers. The authors analysed approaches to the problems of women’s education profi le, taking into account the class character of education and the demands of the society of the considered historical period. The publication systematises the works of outstanding Russian theoretical pedagogues of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. in the context of the ideological and organisational and methodological aspects of women’s education, as well as the search for its educational ideal that corresponds to the social roles of women of that time. The programme of the course of pedagogy for women’s educational institutions of the second half of the 19th century is analysed from that point of view, and the conclusion is made about its practical orientation in solving the problem of isolation of women’s education from the realities of life. The considered ideas and principles of the leading theoretical pedagogues of this period on the problems of women’s education within the framework of the profi le of training are not only of historical signifi cance, but also show continuity in solving a number of modern educational problems.
 
The variable assessments of the problem called «school and society» in Russia of the second half of the 19th – the early 20th centuries are defi ned in the publication, the basic ideas of formation of the educational ideal of general secondary education, topical for both pre-revolutionary period and the present, are considered. Analysis and generalisation of variable approaches to problems of formation of ideal of general secondary education, discussions about upbringing – priority of a person or a specialist – are carried out by the authors. The content of the article refl ects the results of theoretical and practical research, related to the analysis of the works of the leading pedagogues of the period under study (Pavel Blonsky, Vasiliy Vakhterov, Pyotr Kapterev, Nikolay Kareyev, Dmitry Pisarev, Nikolay Pirogov, Vladimir Stoyunin, Leo Tolstoy, Nikolay Chernyshevsky) on singling out the ideas which infl uences the ideal of the period of study. We will list among them: the opportunity to rebuild society through the restructuring of the school; the school lag from the demands of society, i.e., from life; contradictions that arise between public and individual (personal) educational requests; identifi cation of priorities for the interests of the individual. The presented ideas allow to trace continuity with modern education and with their refl ection in modern interpretation of «educational ideal.» The content of the publication may primarily be of interest to teachers of general education organisations, as well as to pedagogues-researchers who work on problems of the history of pedagogy in the system of general secondary education of the period under study.
 
The book of essays and interviews was published in September 2021; the unique 20-year experience of training pedagogues, psychologists-practitioners, children's movement organisers, specialists in upbringing, social work, as well as defectologists, tutors in the unique educational environment of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology at Kostroma State University is revealed in it. The book tells about the history and traditions of the Institute, its legendary teachers and alumni; the areas of training implemented at the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology as well as the main vectors of scientific research work and international cooperation are mentioned. The publication is recommended to youth workers, teachers at schools, higher and vocational educational institutions, to post- and undergraduates and, in fact, to a wide range of readers.
 
The author of the article turns to the socio-pedagogic and psychological analysis of the process of formation and development of historical and pedagogic faculties in the system of higher professional pedagogic education in the USSR in the second half of the 20th century. In terms of the creation and life of the Faculty of History and Pedagogy at Kursk State Pedagogic Institute, the author shows the most characteristic tendencies repeated in the fate of such faculties in Kostroma, Voronezh, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk. The author shows the role of Lev Umanskiy and Anatoliy Lutoshkin, who formed a unique experience of professional education, laid the tradition of combining advanced science and professional psychological and pedagogic education, focused on training specialists for working with children's and youth public organisations. The author characterises the life activity of the faculties of history and education in the 1960s-90s, shows the complex and contradictory processes of the growing ideological crisis, as a result of which adolescent and youth organisations ceased their activities and announced their dissolution. The author believes that the need for training specialists in working with youth has not disappeared today; many of the ideas and experience on which the training of such specialists in the USSR was built are quite appropriate for reproduction today. The author draws attention to the traditions of the formation of a collectivist climate in the life of student communities, the need to combine the entire process of personal and professional development of specialists with the practical work of students with adolescents and youth. In this regard, the author focuses on the role of large scientific and methodological centres in replicating the advanced experience of social upbringing of children and youth, referring to such centres as ‟Artek”, ‟Orlyonok” (Eaglet), ‟Komsorg”. In the article, the author emphasises the uniqueness of the interface between history and pedagogy in training specialists for working with teenagers and youth public organisations and associations.
 
The article presents the results of an analysis of studies of the responsibility category, performed in the 21st century by Russian andforeign psychologists. To search for Russian works, we used the databases of the Electronic Library of the Russian State Library and the Russian Scientific Electronic Library eLIBRARY.ru To identify the works of foreign authors, we analysed 2910 journals from the Web of Science database (Social and Behavioural Sciences – Journal List). It was established that in Russian psychology, responsibility is understood as a form of self-regulation, realised in the consciousness of oneself as a subject of behaviour and its consequences. Russian researchers in the 21st century conduct clarifying studies of the formation and evolution of responsibility, studying the features of this mental phenomenon in representatives of various social groups and professions, and exploring the relationship between responsibility and success. In modern foreign psychology of the 21st century, responsibility has still been viewed from the angle of solving the practical problems of social psychology. We have revealed that most of the studies are clarifying in nature and are devoted to the characteristics of collective responsibility, morality and guilt. It seems important that both Russian and foreign researchers widely use the attributive approach.
 
The International Scientific Conference "Psychology of Stress and Coping Behaviour – Challenges, Resources, Well-being" was held at Kostroma State University from September 25th to 28th, 2019 with the support of the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Investigations. This is the 5th conference on stress and coping behaviour in Russia, at Kostroma State University, where this direction has been under development for more than 20 years and where 4 previous conferences – in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 – were successful. This were the Russian Psychological Society, St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with Kostroma State University, which were the conference's organisers. About 300 specialists from higher educational institutions, educational, scientific and other organisations of Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Greece, Germany, India took part in the conference. 16 and 92 reports were submitted at plenary and sectional meetings, respectively. 296 articles were published in the conference's compendium.
 
The authors propose an original classifi cation of the enlightenment phenomenon on the basis of the results of a largescale all-Russia study, which was carried out by the asset of the All-Russia Public and State Enlightenment Organisation he Russian «Knowledge» Society» (in 2017), as well as on the basis of the data of investigations of the Russian Public Opinion Research Centre (2016-2018), in terms of the concept of marketing and the prevalent 7P (marketing mix model) marketing instruments in the present article. The identifi cation of the nature and level of awareness of nlightenment projects among different target audiences, the identifi cation of interest in the subject matter and format of enlightenment activities, the motivation for periodic training, and the determination of the capacity of the population to pay for enlightenment products were among the tasks of the above-mentioned investigations. In addition, the most successful management practices in the fi eld of promotion of cultural, mass and socially signifi cant projects in both towns and megacities were summarised on the basis of expert interviews, carried out within the framework of the study. The reduced classifi cation of the enlightenment product, the simplifi cation of which is related to the factors of digitalisation of modern society and information space, taking into account the factors of complication of the social communication process and the permanently increasing requirements for personal and professional qualities of the person (especially with regard to skills and competences of the future), is given. Diverse social technologies for promoting enlightenment activities are proposed on the basis of the formulated provisions of the mix-marketing enlightenment complex, and also the conditions for their successful implementation are revealed. According to the authors of the article, many means and techniques of forming the internal and the external environment of enlightenment organisations, which have long been widely used in practice, are not actually described in both pedagogic and marketing scientifi c literature. The more complete scientifi c detailed and systemic analysis, comparison with traditional marketing concepts will make their practical application more focused and effective.
 
The article presents the results of the empirical study devoted to the analysis of the relations between the variables of thinking abilities and personality-cognitive styles. The study involved 292 students of sociohumanitarian and economic faculties of the cities of Moscow and Kaluga aged 17 to 25 (19.44 ± 1.48), among which 62% were girls. Statistical data processing was carried out on the basis of the IBM SPSS software package. The obtained results indicate relationships among the ability to classify objects, categorical and generative abilities with variables of personality-cognitive styles. However, thinking abilities relate in different ways to personality-cognitive styles. The strongest conjugation of personality-cognitive styles is revealed with generative abilities. This fact manifests the organic involvement of personality-cognitive styles in the construction of a new reality – the creation of fundamentally new mental spaces and patterns of behaviour.
 
This article highlights the problems of formation of the state of the audio speech, phonemic skills in preschool children, which include voice hearing, phonemic hearing and phonemic perception; it provides guidance for the development of professional readiness of the pedagogue for professional work. Professional readiness of the pedagogue is seen as an active state of the person providing the preventive setting to work on the formation of phonemic abilities of children of preschool age. The structure and content of the readiness of the pedagogue is a system of four components – motivational, cognitive, personality and activity-centration. Motivation component provides future pedagogues with value orientations, interests, needs, desire to acquire knowledge and skills necessary for the development of phonemic skills in preschoolers.
 
The problem of development of creative abilities at children of the senior preschoolage by means of theatrical activity is considered in this article. The first part presents a theoretical analysis of psychological-pedagogic research: the role of theatre as a means of development of creative abilities; the content of the concepts "creativity", "theatre", "theatrical activities", "theatrical game", etc.; classification of theatrical games. The authors focus on the importance of theatrical activities in the creative development of preschool children and the classification of theatrical games used in preschool educational institutions. Levels of development of creative abilities in children of the senior preschool age are defined on the basis of the developed criteria and indicators. As a result of the training phase of the experiment, there is a significant increase in the interest of children of preschool age in theatrical activities, reading works of art, making attributes for games-dramatisations. In conclusion, it is concluded that theatrical activity not only affects the formation of creative abilities, but also is a universal means of personal development.
 
The article discusses the problem of the high conflict nature of the educational environment, changes in the attitude in society towards the pedagogue, who is becoming increasingly limited in the implementation of educational functions and the use of legitimate disciplinary methods in school conflicts. The pedagogue's ability to act constructively in conflict situations allows it to successfully solve functional problems and ensure productive interaction with pupils. Mediation as a new tool for resolving conflicts at school requires the pedagogue-mediator to be in the position of an “understanding subject”. The article analyses the possibilities and limitations of two positions of mediation – “expert” and “understanding” – the author points out that the successful implementation of the fundamental principles of mediation is possible only in the paradigm of the “understanding” approach. The article notes that the basic competences of the pedagogue, developed by Vladimir Shadrikov in accordance with the educational standard, include interest in the inner world of the person, openness to accepting other’s positions, emotional stability, and reflection are closely related to the spiritual abilities of the person, aimed at knowing the other person, attainment of truth, penetration, understanding. The development of spiritual abilities and personal competences of the pedagogue will become the basis for the successful implementation of the possibilities of mediation when resolving interpersonal conflicts in the educational environment.
 
The article presents the results of an empirical study the consequences of psychotraumatic effects of emotional abuse in a group of women of early adult age from 17 to 33 years. Differences in the experience of emotional and physical abuse are shown. The psychotraumatic effects of emotional abuse, as opposed to physical abuse, have a higher intensity, which does not decrease over time. There are no differences in the degree of trauma between sexual and emotional abuse. The data on lack of correlation between the duration and intensity of experiences of emotional abuse. The specificity of the picture of signs of post-traumatic stress, including hostility as a form of manifestation of physiological excitability in girls who have experienced emotional and physical abuse.
 
The aim of the presented study was to analyse emotional abuse as a stressor of high intensity in a group (n = 52) of girls aged 17 to 25. The level of post-traumatic stress, satisfaction with social support, including emotional and instrumental support, and a sense of psychological well-being and its components in particular, were considered. It has been shown that a high level of post-traumatic stress is characterised by low indicators for the components of psychological well-being and dissatisfaction with social support. Differences in positive relationships with others, in environmental management, self-acceptance and psychological well-being in general were obtained between girls, who had experienced emotional violence, and those, who had had no such a life experience; among other things, the former are not satisfied with social support and they note lack of its instrumental component. Abused girls experience difficulties in managing everyday affairs, in choosing social conditions that would satisfy their life needs and values; they are characterised by rejection of themselves, self-doubt, sense of loneliness, isolation and frustration. In addition, they feel dissatisfied with the attention and understanding of others, and at the same time, they feel distrust of others and are somewhat closed to accepting support.
 
This article describes a study of academic motivation of students of different groups, as well as the factors of their social-psychological adaptation. As the main hypothesis, it was suggested that between the social-psychological characteristics of students at different levels and the structural elements of their motivation for educational and professional activities there are stable and unique relationships for each group that are non-random in nature. The contingent of subjects consisted of 395 students of Russian universities, studying in humanitarian specialties on the levels of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate studies. The questionnaire were used in this study to identify features of the academic motivation, as well as methods to determine the social-psychological parameters. The results of the study showed the presence of stable relationships between the social-psychological characteristics of students and the structural components of their academic motivation.
 
The article is made in the framework of the study of psychological and pedagogic factors of adaptation of students who have started to attend a higher education institution. These include ceremony of initiation in the student life, that is still little considered in pedagogic theory and practice. In our research we realised identification implicitly of the academic traditions presented in activity of higher education institution.. On an experimental basis, it is proved that the organised introduction of students into academic traditions leads to an improvement, compared with students with whom such work is not carried out, adaptation to environment of a higher education institution, situational anxiety, subjective satisfaction with learning at a higher education institution, and academic success.
 
The article focuses on frequent errors in the choice of lexical means when drafting a coherent text in English drawing the example of academic essays on linguistics, as well as ways of their propedeutics and correction. Lexical skills are critical in essay writing as this process presupposes possessing such skills as formulating, developing argumentation, generalising, specifying, rephrasing, providing for coherence. When essays are written in English by Russian-speaking learners, the probability of errors is higher due to such factors as interference and underdeveloped lexical skills. The author analyses students` errors at the lexical level, their causes, as well as factors determining the choice of vocabulary. Such choice may be affected by a syntactic pattern, word order in a sentence, government, collocation, other grammatical and lexico-grammatical peculiarities of word use, limitations imposed by style and so on. Further, it provides ways to work on the corresponding errors and formulates recommendations to foreign language teachers.
 
The article deals with the issues of professional adaptation of university students through the activities of an academic tutor as an important innovative component of the modernisation of the education system and vocational training in the Russian Federation. The study was based on the unique experience of academic tutors of the Higher School of Foreign Languages and Translation of the Institute of International Relations, Kazan Federal University. This experience allows identifying the key activities of the tutor in terms of professional adaptation of undergraduates majoring in Linguistics. The article defines the concept of "professional adaptation", determines its goals and importance in the professional culture of future linguists in the context of the modernisation of the global educational medium. The authors conclude that the increased requirements for the personality of a graduate give a priority toself-improvement and self-development within professional adaptation where the main role is played by the academic supervisor. The authors formulate pedagogic conditions that contribute to the successful work of the tutor on the professional adaptation of university students, as well as recommendations for improving the tutor’s activities, aimed at involving future specialists in the profession through the formation of their creative, interpersonal, and culturological competences.
 
The article provides a brief theoretical overview of studies of self-application by Russian psychologists, it discusses the problem of the phenomenon of self-acceptance as a subject characteristic. The author formulates paradoxes in the study of this phenomenon – destructive popular understanding of the phenomenon of self-acceptance, with the phrase "I am what I am and I will not be different" narrowing the range of activity of a particular person and reflecting the understanding of self-application as the opposite of development. The following paradox of the phenomenon of self-acceptance the author defines a predominantly positive understanding of self-acceptance while avoiding the negative experience of the personality, its features having a negative emotional colour. The problem is the differentiation of conditional and unconditional self-acceptance in the practical activity of the psychologist, when the demonstrated high level of self-acceptance can indicate both the presence of positive attitude of the individual towards himself and the presence of certain protective mechanisms that distort the results of research. Differentiation of conditional and unconditional self-acceptance is possible with indirect investigation of other personality features. Thus, the phenomenon of self-acceptance is presented not only as an integral personality characteristic, contributing to internal comfort, positive assessment of itself, but also as a subject characteristic, activating processes of self-awareness, contributing to further self-improvement of personality. The author defines unconditional self-acceptance in terms of a subject-matter approach.
 
This article presents the results of a study of the relationship between the type of parent-child relationship and the characteristics of interpersonal relationships of adolescents with peers. The main aspects of the formation of the system of interpersonal relations in adolescence are described. In the study, the respondents included students of the Faculty of Secondary Vocational Education of the Autonomous non-profit organisation of higher education Belgorod University of Cooperation, Economics and Law, 50 people in total. The evaluation of the characteristics of interpersonal relationships of adolescents was carried out according to the results of the following methods – Timothy Leary's Interpersonal Behaviour Circle and the “Comprehensive methodology for assessing social behaviour (competence)ˮ developed at the Centre for Sociology of Education of the Russian Academy of Education by Daniil Khlomov, Sergey Baklushinskiy, Ol’ga Kaz’mina, thereby identifying a group of adolescents with extremely distinct results of the qualitative assessment of interpersonal relations. This group of adolescents have interpersonal relationship difficulties, there are signs of ill adaptivity of interpersonal (social) behaviour. The features of educational strategies in adolescent families were studied using the questionnaire on parental attitude towards children – “mirrorˮ for Analysis of family relationships (Edmond Eydemiller, Viktoras Justickis) and the Parent-Child Interaction Questionnaire (Irina Markovskaya). Data processing statistical methods used include Student's t-test, Kruskal–Wallis H test, cluster analysis using SPSS. In the course of the work, four types of family upbringing were identified and described, with possibility to detect in each type the disfunction signs’ characteristic in the interpersonal relations system. The results indicate partial confirmation of the hypothesis about a correlation between various aspects of interpersonal relationships of adolescents and types of family upbringing.
 
The theoretical and experimental (empirical) studies of the motive and motivation for achieving success, which began in the second half of the twentieth century, have so far practically not dealt with school educational activities and were mainly related to different types of professional activities of people. Successful learning in school is at the heart of all other activities that a person enters into after graduation from high school. In this regard, it becomes necessary to form and develop motivation for achieving success in children during that period of life when they are still studying at school. For this, it is necessary to solve a number of theoretical and methodological issues related to the formation and development of such motivation in schoolchildren. These questions relate to the creation of a theoretical model of motivation for achieving success in educational activities, determining its main components, developing methods for their diagnosis, methods of organising and conducting training aimed at developing the motivation and motivation for achieving success in schoolchildren. All these questions are posed and solved in this study.
 
The article actualises the problem of the development of cognitive resources of the personality of a child of a senior preschool age as a factor in constructive overcoming variative communicative difficulties; psychological and acmeological conditions necessary for the development of cognitive resources of preschool children are considered. Using a set of diagnostic methods, the levels of communicative development of preschoolers were identified, communicative difficulties typical of situations of communication with peers and adults were determined. It is concluded that in older preschool age, contentive and reflective communicative difficulties most often arise due to a lack of knowledge, inability to plan, structure, rebuild and analyse their own communicative actions. In addition, often the child alone cannot overcome the difficulties arising in communication due to the limited supply of cognitive resources that allow it to analyse and constructively solve the difficult task of interpersonal interaction. The authors’ programme aimed at implementing the psychological and acmeological conditions for the development of cognitive resources and the communicative competency of preschool children is presented. The effectiveness of the implementation of this programme is confirmed statistically. In conclusion, the authors conclude that it is necessary to purposefully develop the prerequisites for universal learning actions in older preschool children; the organisation of systematic psychological work with parents aimed at teaching them methods and methods for developing children’s cognitive abilities and facilitating overcoming communicative difficulties; the development of subjective qualities of preschoolers and subject-subject relations with peers and adults.
 
The article is devoted to the problem of introducing a tutor support model for students in the higher education system. The article raises the issue of readiness of pedagogues of school subject in higher education to master the position of a tutor. What underlies the research problem, is the contradiction between the lack of trained personnel – tutors, higher school pedagogues who would not be willing to formally fulfill this role, but to approach it consciously and being truly included into it, on the one hand, and the growing demand for them in higher education, on the other. The article describes an experimental event on teaching tutoring in the short-term project activities of student groups participating in the educational leap "Jump to the Future". In this experiment, the area of responsibility of the tutors was to create conditions for the emergence of an educational result among the participants of the project intensive and to build the trajectory of their individual and group development. The article describes both objective and subjective (semantic) criteria for assessing the success of tutors. The authors focus on the main indicator of the formation of competences of tutors – an effective solution to problem situations. The article summarises and analyses the results of a survey of the team of tutors of the project "Jump to the Future 2019", conducted at the end of the experiment.
 
The article discusses the problem of specifics of professional activities of heads of state power in modern conditions and the role of subjective psychological factors in the success of its implementation. It is noted that along with the function of "normative control", the head of power must take independent management decisions in conditions of increased social responsibility. This can give rise to intrapersonal conflict, moral and intellectual overload of the politician, which affect the effectiveness of its activities. When the hierarchical status of the manager increases, its power, freedom to exercise power, and therefore personal responsibility for making managerial decisions increase too. In this regard, the importance of subjective factors when exercising power functions of the head is increasing. The concepts “power” and “management” are analysed in the article, the characterisation of the subject exercising power is given in comparison with the “manager”, the psychological concepts of power and the compensatory nature of the need for power are highlighted. The author draws attention to the variety of studies of power motivation, the presence of various approaches to the analysis of power motives, the possibility of highlighting the instrumental and value, personality-oriented and socio-oriented components of power motivation. The importance of the existence of socially-oriented motives in the structure of motivation of heads of government bodies is emphasised, as well as the need to form a system of prosocial value orientations, which can determine the qualitative specificity and effectiveness of heads' activities. The importance of improving the personnel selection system for positions of heads of state power, taking into account value-motivating factors, is discussed.
 
The article discusses current issues of inclusion of project activities in the educational process of a higher education institution, the need to form competencies of innovative project activities among students as a mechanism for the formation of social creativity of a future professional. The essence of the concept of «social creativity» is revealed, a model of the relationship of its components with the stages of project activity is proposed. The paper presents a study among students aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the formation of social creativity of a person through the inclusion of students in project activities. Methodological tools of the ascertaining stage of the experimental work are presented, designed to determine the level of students’ communicative and social creativity. The study established the relationship between the level of social creativity of students and the communicative difficulties that arise in their interaction – the higher the level of social creativity, the less communicative difficulties a student experiences. As part of the formative part of the experimental work, two ways to include students in project activities in the educational environment of the university are described: as the implementation of one of the disciplines of the educational programme and as part of extracurricular activities.
 
The article analyses and summarises the experience of private tutoring with a child with autism spectrum disorder. The experience of group tutoring sessions with schoolchildren with impaired mental function is analysed. The purpose of the article is to highlight the main features of tutoring with children with limited health opportunities. The article analyses the main problems arising in the education of children with limited health opportunities. The difficulties of inclusive education of children with limited health opportunities in general education class are described. On the basis of the described positive experience of individual and group tutoring sessions with children with limited health opportunities, we highlighted the main features of such classes. The conclusion is made about the need for constant self-development of a private pedagogue and improvement of their professional level. Keywords: private tutoring, tutoring classes, children with disabilities, children with limited health opportunities, children with autism spectrum disorder, children with impaired mental function, tutor, private pedagogue.
 
The personal characteristics (components) of students studying in the direction of «Bachelor» in the dynamics from the first to the fourth year, revealing their motivational and semantic sphere, are given. It is shown that in the fourth year of training, the structural organisation of components of the motivational and semantic sphere of students (motivationalorganisational, emotional-volitional, intellectual-volitional, communicative) is the most optimal for a favourable transition to professional activity. Knowledge of the dynamic features of the motivational and semantic sphere of students in the process of studying at a university will increase the effectiveness of educational activities, create «internal conditions» for the qualitative assimilation of educational material and prepare students for professional activities. Personal characteristics of a professional are given. It is shown that effective results in professional activity are achieved by people whose content characteristics of the motivational and semantic sphere are developed at a fairly high level (on a 10-point rating scale at the level of 7-9 points): the problem of the subject of life activity is discussed. The subject of life activity is an integral individualpersonal-social structural formation that characterises the attitude to oneself, activities, and other people, determining the vector and quality of human development, the level of self-regulation and achievements in life.
 
The cardinal change of the technological and socio-economic paradigm all around the world makes investigations related to the problems of professional self-determination of the younger generation extremely topical. In the conditions of economic and cultural globalisation, an important component of the professional competence of university graduates is the ability to realise their professional skills and present developed projects in the English-language media space. The article reveals methodological possibilities of the project activity in the ESP course as a pedagogic support for the socio-professional self-determination of students in a non-linguistic university. It determines principles and methods of using specialised Internet resources for developing educational projects in English that contribute to students’ professional self-determination and their social adaptation in the international professional community. The authors suggest a typological classification of practice-oriented projects that can be implemented in the ESP course – informational (abstract-review), analytical (historical, socio-cultural, cross-cultural and other research projects) and creative (creation of an original content – design, models, technological solutions, etc.). It is concluded that the project activity in the ESP course, the results of which can be included in the professional portfolio, is a significant element of socio-professional self-determination of students of a non-linguistic university.
 
The definition is given, upbringing possibilities of theatre activities are identified; their main form is children's association. Theatre association is seen as an upbringing environment where pedagogues and children solve a set of tasks of children’s upbringing and socialising in the process of theatrical activity. Particular attention is paid to the fact that, when organising theatrical activities, one should take into account the peculiarities of the region, the societas and the specifics of rural school. Rural school often assumes the functions of additional education for children and adults; it is the centre of cultural and leisure activities for the whole population. Problems when organising theatre activities for rural children are considered; it is also noted that setting up a theatre group in a school helps to overcome the socialisation difficulties of rural children. A number of favourable factors, positively influencing the organisation and development of children’s theatrical activity, their socialisation, include close ties of school and societas, closeness of children to nature, development of interaction of children with parents, with fellow villagers, rural spiritual and moral environment, development of integrative connections. It is noted that theatrical activity in a number of rural schools is a system-forming one, i.e. it unites the activities of all actors, it contributes to the integration of general education and additional education of rural schoolchildren. Peculiarities of the content, forms, methods and technologies that can be used when organising theatrical activity of rural schoolchildren are considered.
 
The article discusses the motivation of the educational activities of bachelor students in the direction of «Social Work». The factors and stages of the motivation process, the dynamic characteristics of the motivation system are revealed. The role of the motivational block in the structure of educational activities of students is revealed. A comparative analysis of the motivational profi le of students is carried out on the basis of studies of learning motivation conducted by the author in 2015 and 2019. Diagnostic tools have become the methodology «Studying the motivation of learning at a university» T.I. Il’ina and «Studying the motives of students’ teaching activities» by Artur Rean and Valeriy Yakunin. An additional research method was the analysis of essays in which students argue for the presence or absence of a desire to continue their education in a chosen direction and to continue to work in the social sphere. The results obtained made it possible to single out the most signifi cant learning motives and their dynamics among students of the Social Work direction. An analysis of the essay showed that in general, about 80% of students spoke more positively about the prospect of working in their acquired specialty. In conclusion, a conclusion is drawn about the growth of motivation indicators on the scale of «mastering a profession», maintaining the signifi cance of the «motives acquiring knowledge» and «obtaining a diploma», as well as the inclusion of the motive «receive intellectual satisfaction» as the priority motive instead of «gaining the approval of parents and others».
 
The article is devoted to the description of the pedagogic potentials of the discipline Basics of project activities. The discipline is the first component of the general system of preparing university students for project activities. The discipline allows informing students about the theoretical basis of design and creates the conditions for the acquisition of the first skills of the project activity. The article describes the structure and content of the discipline, technology and methods of its implementation. The author presents the results of a survey of students on the basis of the development of the discipline. The students appreciate the content, technology, teaching skills of the lecturer and pedagogues, leading practical classes. The author presents a vision of the development of discipline teaching methods.
 
Today, in the Russian system of comprehensive education, extracurricular activities are widely involved along with traditional training sessions in order to achieve qualitatively new learning outcomes. In the proposed work, the authors consider how after-hours pupils learn to organise their activities, independently acquire knowledge, master the forms of productive learning, that is, they accumulate their experience of "learning skills" – cognitive, regulatory, and communicative universal learning activities necessary to continue their studies. The novelty of the article consists in the fact that the described experience preserves the unity of the educational systems "lesson" – "extracurricular activities". Using theexample of an optimisation model, the authors show the development of the cognitive activity of younger schoolchildren. What is the most intelligent, is the general intellectual direction of extracurricular activities, in which this quality of personality is formed quite fully and systematically.
 
The article examines the experience of organising educational activities of students in the field of pedagogic education, we analyse the interpretation of the concept of software skills and determines the significant role of the discipline in the formation of competences significant for the pedagogue. The author gives a description of the technology of discipline implementation, methods and techniques of organising students' interaction in the educational process. The article also presents the results of the introduction of technological methods of work in practical classes and a survey of students based on the results of its development.
 
The article highlights and reveals the features of the technology of pedagogic support of individual educational activities of pupils in different age groups, the main of which is that the object of support is not only the individual educational activity of the pupil, but also the development of educational interaction of children of different ages, which causes the simultaneous use of two groups of principles: the principles of support of individual educational activities of pupils and the principles of development of educational interaction of children of different ages. The article reveals the tasks of pedagogic support of individual educational activities of children of different age groups studying in different age groups (7-11 years – primary school age; 12-16 years – adolescence; 17-18 years – early youth). Pedagogic support of individual educational activities of pupils in different age groups is considered as a subject-oriented technology of individualisation of the educational process and includes the following stages: diagnostic, design, practical and reflexive-analytical. In conclusion, the article draws conclusions about the state of the problem and the ways of its development.
 
The dynamic development of digital technologies leads to a continuously increasing use of information products and services in all areas of modern society, incl. and in education. Technologies, platforms and services appear here that provide unlimited opportunities for obtaining information, mastering various training courses and programmes in a distance format, online and offline learning. Young teachers are at the centre of these changes. They are required not only to be ready to accept the ongoing transformations, quickly master new opportunities, adapt them to teaching of disciplines, but also continuously improve the educational process, taking into account the experience gained and its problematic aspects that are identified. The article presents the results of a study of the readiness of young university teachers to work in a dynamically developing information educational environment, to develop and create electronic educational courses and enhance the use of ICT in the educational process. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the results of surveys conducted in 2020 and 2021 аt Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University. The authors conclude the necessity of creating a system of work at the university to support young teachers, in terms of both professional and personal development.
 
In the article here is considered the problem of formation of students’ professional abilities in pedagogic higher education institutions when studying the course of a way of training and education in the field of informatics. Need is reasoned to use basic provisions of the theory of stage-by-stage formation of intellectual activities when developing practical tasks of the course. The model of the teacher’s and students’ activity, developed by authors, allows them to allocate types of tasks of the course of a way of training and education in the field of informatics, their use in the educational process promotes formation of the orientational basis of future Informatics teacher’s professional activities. In addition, the algorithm for development of tasks is described in the article, examples of tasks of each type are given.
 
Governing the education was initially a simple management of the educational process, but with the emergence of new functions and tasks in the education system, the meaning of this term did not fit into this definition. In pedagogic science, a new term – "management" – has appeared characterised by personnel management, educational results, and finance. Currently, pedagogic management is an integral set of pedagogic principles, methods, organisational norms and technological management techniques, aimed at increasing its effectiveness. In accordance with these changes, the author traces what transformations occurred with educational results of a non-subject nature: at first it was intersubject communications; then, key competencies; nowadays, meta-subject results.
 
The article presents the results of studies of psychological readiness of psychologists of official activity of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia (hereinafter – the FSIN). The content of psychological readiness at the level of general and special is analysed. The main attention is paid to the results of empirical studies, the main methods of which included questioning, interviewing and compassionate observation. Psychological readiness of the FSIN psychologists of service activities is predetermined by the effect of a number of important factors: a high level of instrumental readiness, high level of development of personal and professional qualities, the ability to mobilise their resource, attitude to success. Methods for forming mental attitude are analysed. Development of psychological readiness of the FSIN psychologists of service activities should be carried out mainly with the help of development experience, psychological training, self-development, etc.
 
Modern geographical education is undergoing a stage of updating its content. In the context of globalisation and constantly emerging problems and contradictions that have a universal character of manifestation, the key theme of school geographical education at the high school level can include global problems of humanity, the study of which will not only form a set of educational results, fixed by normative documents, but also help pupils to form a global type of thinking and behaviour, ensure the formation of a value attitude to the surrounding reality and understanding the significance of their own activities, aimed at ensuring the sustainability and balance of the development of all mankind. This article defines the content bases for studying global problems of humanity in six contexts that have a personal aspect for pupils. The article presents a methodological system for studying global problems of humanity in the process of both regular and extracurricular activities and represents a set of target (goal ideal and goal-means, correlated with the components of learning: cognitive, praxiological and axiological), content (contexts of studying global problems and levels of their consideration), procedural (forms, techniques, methods and technologies of learning that ensure the complex nature of the study of global problems of our time), performance-evaluation criteria, indicators and levels of mastering content about global problems of humanity) blocks.
 
This article is devoted to the consideration of the problem of professional readiness of the head of an educational organisation for management activities. The analysis of the works of Russian researchers devoted to the analysis of management features in the education system, the definition of the concept of "professional readiness" on the basis of which, the composition of requirements for manager's professional readiness is revealed, defines the semantic and substantive characteristics of the professional readiness of an educational organisation leader for management activities in terms ofdeontological and regulatory aspects. According to the results of the study, it was established that in the conditions of modern realities, professional readiness for managerial activity is the leading personal property of a manager, allowing him to respond to changes occurring both inside the educational system and outside its functional space, ensuring the quality of professional and educational actuals.
 
The essence of organizational activity is determined, the relevance of training teachers for organizational activity is justified on the basis of the requirements of professional standards “Teacher (pedagogical activity in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary general education)ˮ, “Specialist involved in organizing the activities of a children's and youth team (counselor)ˮ, “Teacher of additional education for children and adultsˮ. The purpose, tasks, approaches (reflexive-activity, subject-oriented, practice-oriented), binary principles of preparation are considered. The content of the module “Educational activityˮ is revealed, consisting of three interrelated disciplines and practices, the content of which provides for the study of theoretical aspects of organizational activity, the use of modern technologies for the development of organizational abilities of future teachers, the formation of the need for self-organization and self-development. The possibilities of educational classes, extracurricular activities for preparing students for organizational activities are shown. A subject-oriented technology is proposed, including self-diagnosis, self-analysis, self-determination, self-realization, self-esteem and self-affirmation, which can be the basis for the development of students' self-organization and the formation of their subjective position. The relevance of students' involvement in the design of individual and collective activities is emphasized, and the importance of organizing collective creative activities, project activities, and the development of student self-government is also noted. In conclusion, conclusions are drawn about the conditions for preparing students for organizational activities.
 
The article deals with autonomous learning conception which is of high priority in pedagogic science. This theory has passed a rather long evolution, however at present interest in autonomous learning is sweepingly growing and that is stipulated by several reasons – transition to European educational standards, class hours’ reduction, graduates’ competitiveness in job market, life-long learning conception. Special attention is paid to different methods of foreign language autonomous learning that proved to be effective in technical university – making use of electronic information-educational environment "Boomerang", debates, defence of Master thesis in two languages, taking part of technical students’ reports at linguistic conferences. The importance of academic achievement monitoring in autonomous learning is also mentioned. In conclusion it is underlined that autonomous learning does not depreciate the teacher’s role in educational process but the pedagogue’s functions themselves definitely change.
 
This article presents the results of a theoretical study of self-realisation, self-actualisation and self-efficacy phenomena. The main aspects of understanding and correlating these phenomena in classical and modern Russian and foreign psychology are described. The highlighted concepts related to the phenomenon of self-realisation, both in the field of psychology and pedagogy. The similarities and differences of the self-realisation, self-actualisation, self-efficacy phenomena, as well as their correlation and comparison are presented. A comparative analysis of the studied concepts is given. According to the results of the theoretical analysis, the processes of self-realisation and self-actualisation are based on the inner motivation of a person to grow, develop personality, realise its potential. Both of these processes, due to their subjectivity, are difficult to observe and measure from the outside. We have highlighted the main differences, consisting in a greater awareness and orderliness of the process of self-realisation, as well as its predominantly "social" orientation, while self-actualisation is often associated with the struggle with external forces, the desire for self-realisation is rather approved and supported by the society. The concepts of self-realisation and self-efficacy are united by their inherent representation in the external plane of the life of the individual, as well as awareness, activity, goal-setting, and an orientation towards achieving success. In contrast to self-efficacy, self-release is a process rather than a sustainable phenomenon, and can be expressed both externally and internally through a connection with the value-semantic, motivational spheres of the individual.
 
Topicality of this work is associated with the lack of practical interaction of the studied disciplines of higher mathematics and computer science. The authors argue that in order to increase interest, it is necessary to actively use information technologies right inside the classes in higher mathematics. At the same time, the authors believe that a student must understand the theory of certain types of calculations, must be able to perform them manually and only then, must apply automated calculation methods. Examples of the implementation of game theory in the mathematical application Mathcad are given, while students themselves develop the programme according to the proposed algorithm, which undoubtedly develops logical thinking and shows students the visual use of interdisciplinary connections between two subjects studied – mathematics and computer science. The text contains examples of author's texts of mathematical problems aimed at training students of a military higher education institution. According to the authors, when studying the topic under consideration, it is possible to form the competences necessary for a modern specialist.
 
The paper analyses the value-intentional mechanisms and strategies of psychological adaptation to the conditions of the professional environment of a military higher education institution. The results allowed the authors to identify two strategies, including non-specific (universal) and specific (unique) mechanisms. Nonspecific mechanisms are inherent in both strategies, arise in all respondents and have manifestations by neutralisation of fears, actualisation of social success and value-intentional destabilisation. Specific mechanisms are different in individuals with low and high efficiency of adaptation: the first there is a weakening of group-centric intentions and enhanced hedonistic-egocentric distancing; the second noted group-centric cohesion and activation of cognitive activity.
 
Methodological approach to allocation of constitutional characteristics of children which subdivided in terms of mental activity orientation type as well as to their mental organisation features' identification and to adaptation opportunities' comparative characteristics is offered in this article. Distinctions of systemic portraits of children who are either introverts, or centroverts, or extroverts, reflect "the constitutional norms" distinctions revealing advantages and disadvantages of each type: thus, introverts are disciplined, logical, assidious when being exposed to long simple monotonous loadings; they show endowments in motor function of the hand, and they are industrious, but inert, disturbing, adynamic; extroverts, on the contrary, are resolute, vigorous and initiative; they have high reactive potential; but what is their disadvantage, is deficiency of attention and randomness, tendency to manifestation of explosive temper; the greatest optimality is peculiar to the centroverts who represent "the constitutional balance". The described differences in social and psychological properties are the basis for creation of the differentiated approaches to upbringing children when optimising adaptation in introvert children by means of decreasing uneasiness, improving mental activity and self-assessment; and in extroverts, by means of decreasing excess activity, aggression, impulsiveness; and in centroverts, by means of increasing randomness and independence. The offered approach will be of interest of experts in the field of pedagogy and psychology, allowing individualising as much as possible upbringing programmes in the conditions of educational institution and family.
 
Top-cited authors
Eduard Patrakov
  • Ural Federal University
Tatiana Nikolaevna Lobanova
  • National Research University Higher School of Economics
Aleksandr Zobkov
  • Vladimir State University
Chekalina Mariya
  • Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University
Svetlana Khazova
  • Kostroma State University