Vaccine

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0264-410X
Publications
Article
The study concerns 291 newborns and infants aged 0 to 1 year placed randomly in two groups which respectively received 0.025 and 0.05 mg Pasteur BCG by intradermal injection, between 1 December 1988 and 28 February 1989. This random test aimed to determine if the administration of one quarter dose (0.025 mg) of intradermal BCG conferred immunity comparable to that of one half (0.05 mg) while diminishing the risk of complications, in particular suppurative adenopathy, in infants of ages 0-1 year. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the 0.025 mg dose of intradermal BCG entails an immunoresponse as satisfactory as that entailed by the 0.05 mg dose, while the rate of suppurative adenitis is significantly higher in the group that received the 0.05 mg dose. It is therefore well justified to recommend a dose of 0.025 mg of intradermal Pasteur BCG for infants aged 1 year and less.
 
Article
Purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered as 0.1 ml intradermally according to the Thai Red Cross (TRC) regimen could reduce the cost of PEP by up to 84% when compared to the traditional five-dose Essen regimen. To confirm the efficacy of 0.1 ml of PCECV using the TRC regimen, a clinical trial was conducted in 113 patients presenting with category III exposures from confirmed rabid animals at two bite referral centres in the Philippines. Patients were monitored monthly for 1 year after exposure. PCECV was well tolerated, no vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred and all patients were alive 1 year after their initial exposure.
 
Article
A randomised placebo controlled double-blind cross-over trial was performed on twenty healthy adults to assess the effect of osmolality (300,600,850 and 1100 mOsm) on local tolerance of an intramuscular injection (0.5 ml) of five suspensions containing the same components as the excipients of a combined Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis-inactivated Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type b paediatric vaccine (DtacP-IPV-Hib, PENTAVAC). The results did not show any dose-effect relationship between burning or pain sensations and the different osmolalities tested. Although mild and not clinically relevant, these sensations seemed to occur more frequently following injection of an isotonic saline solution (P<0.05). Thus, the osmolality of vaccine like suspensions does not appear to be a potential cause of local pain or burning sensation after their administration.
 
Article
This report describes the safety observations following administration of a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine formulated with adjuvant QS21. Local injection site reactions were the most common (65% of subjects), and included type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at prior DNA inoculation sites in 12 of 28 (43%) subjects following protein vaccination. Systemic reactions revealed two cases of vasculitis temporally related to inoculation with recombinant Env protein+QS21 adjuvant. Questions remain regarding the cause of the vasculitis, but the unique DTH observation may have contributed to the high level of immune responses previously reported for this vaccine.
 
Article
The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community and hospital-based investigators, to commence two worldwide clinical observational studies to describe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus activity. The purpose of these two studies was to estimate the percent of adult patients with illness due to laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks.
 
Article
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in developing countries, especially among indigenous children and travelers. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, a live, attenuated CS1/CS3 ETEC strain, PTL-003, was tested as a potential vaccine strain. Thirty-three subjects drank buffered solutions containing either PTL-003 or placebo on Days 0 and 10 and were challenged with virulent CS1/CS3 ETEC strain E24377A on Day 28. The vaccine did not protect against moderate to severe ETEC illness (the primary endpoint), but it did prime subjects for a rapid antibody response to CS1 and CS3 after challenge, suggesting that a dose of vaccine on Day 28 might improve the immune response to the vaccine. Higher serum anti-CS3 IgA titers at the time of challenge correlated with less severe diarrheal illness.
 
Article
IAVI-006 was the first large randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trial to systematically investigate the prime-boost strategy for induction of HIV-1 specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) in a factorial trial design using (i) priming with 0.5 mg or 2 mg of pTHr.HIVA DNA vaccine, followed by (ii) two booster vaccinations with 5 x 10(7) MVA.HIVA at weeks 8 and 12 (early boost) or weeks 20 and 24 (late boost). This study set the basis for later clinical trials and demonstrated the safety of these candidate HIV vaccines. The safety and immunogenicity results are presented and the lessons derived from this clinical trial are discussed.
 
Article
A clinical isolate of Vibrio cholerae 01 was identified which did not possess the heat-labile (CT), the heat-stable (ST) or the zonula occludens (Zot) toxin genes. Rabbit ileal loop assays showed that no other CT-like toxin was produced by this strain. The partly deleted cholera toxin gene which carries the intact gene for the B subunit was cloned and the recombinant plasmid, pURD110, was introduced into this non-toxinogenic natural human isolate. The transformed cells (strain URD2) secreted the B subunit gene product which competed with the holotoxin secreted by the hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of V. cholerae for the GM1 ganglioside binding sites in vivo. This strain can colonize the rabbit intestine as detected by the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhoea (RITARD) model. This construct has an advantage over other live oral attenuated V. cholerae strains used as vaccines in that the latter strains were made non-toxinogenic by only deleting part of the gene coding for the A subunit of cholera toxin while the strain described here is naturally non-toxinogenic.
 
Article
The gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, has been implicated in the etiology of adult periodontal disease. Among the potential virulence factors of this bacterium, the non-fimbrial adhesin hemagglutinin B (HagB) appears to be involved in the initial adherence of the bacteria to host tissue and the induction of anti-HagB antibody responses affords some protection from experimental alveolar bone loss. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of the quillaja saponin derivative GPI-0100 to act as an immunostimulant of responses to HagB following subcutaneous (s.c.) or intranasal (i.n.) immunization of mice. We have also compared the immunopotentiating ability of GPI-0100 with that of five other adjuvants. Evidence is provided that GPI-0100 was more effective than monophosphoryl lipid A and alum in inducing serum anti-HagB responses following s.c. immunization. A comparison of the responses induced following i.n. immunization with HagB and adjuvant revealed that the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli (LT) and the non-enzymatic mutant LT (E112K), followed by GPI-0100 potentiated higher serum and mucosal anti-HagB antibody responses, which in most cases were higher than those seen with the other adjuvants tested (i.e. monophosphoryl lipid A, alum and the B subunit of cholera toxin). Furthermore, a difference was seen in the nature of the serum IgG anti-HagB response based on the adjuvant used and route of immunization. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GPI-0100 as both a systemic and mucosal adjuvant and support its potential use in the development of vaccines against periodontal, as well as other pathogens.
 
Article
These studies were performed to determine the effects of GPI-0100, a semi synthetic Quillaja Saponin analog, formulated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) on immunity to HSV. SKH-1 hairless mice, used as a model of herpes labialis, inoculated with HSV-1 results in facial lesions, virus replication and mortality. Mortality rates, lesion scores and viral titers were significantly reduced in SKH-1 mice immunized with gD/GPI-0100 prior to cutaneous inoculation with HSV-1 and the protective effects were greater than those using the standard alum adjuvant. Genital HSV-2 infections in guinea pigs were also utilized to determine if gD combined with GPI-0100 was protective against infection, disease severity and viral shedding. Guinea pigs immunized with HSV-1 gD with or without GPI-0100 had significantly reduced area under the curve lesion scores, but infection rates and virus shedding was not altered. When Tween 40 was added to gD and GPI-0100, mean peak lesion scores were also significantly reduced. The results obtained in a genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs did not indicate enhanced protection or reduced virus shedding following immunization with GPI-0100 and gD. There was, however, a significant improvement in clinical herpetic genital disease with the combination of gD plus the immune enhancer GPI-0100.
 
Article
With the current global influenza vaccine production capacity the large demand for vaccines in case of a pandemic can only be fulfilled when antigen dose sparing strategies are employed. Here we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the potential of GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic saponin derivative, to serve as a dose-sparing adjuvant for influenza subunit vaccine. Balb/c mice were immunized with different doses of A/PR8 (H1N1) subunit antigen alone or in combination with varying doses of GPI-0100. The addition of GPI-0100 significantly stimulated antibody and cellular immune responses, especially of the Th1 phenotype. Furthermore, virus titers detected in the lungs of mice challenged one week after the second immunization were significantly reduced among the animals that received GPI-0100-adjuvanted vaccines. Remarkably, adjuvantation of subunit vaccine with GPI-0100 allowed a 25-fold reduction in hemagglutinin dose without compromising the protective potential of the vaccine.
 
Article
Unfractionated GPI-0100 (UFGPI-0100) containing semi-synthetic derivatives of deacylated Quillaja saponins (DS saponins) modified at the glucuronic acid residue was resolved by reverse phase low-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) into two fractions, RP18-1 and RP18-2, with different compositions and adjuvanticity. The fraction RP18-1 contained DS saponin adducts of N-dicyclohexylurea, and stimulated Th2 immunity with production of IgG1, while the RP18-2 fraction contained the dodecylamide derivatives of DS saponins and stimulated Th1 immunity with production of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CTL. The strong immune stimulatory properties of RP18-2, relative to RP18-1, and the formation of RP18-1/RP18-2 mixed micelles may account for the effective stimulation of Th1 immunity by UFGPI-0100. UFGPI-0100 was free of acylated quillaja saponin components, including the more stable QS-7.
 
Article
GPI-0100 is a semi-synthetic saponin with modifications designed to augment stability and diminish toxicity. Two batches of GPI-0100 (the second with higher purity) were tested with doses ranging between 100 and 5000 microg in groups of five treated prostate cancer patients who had no evidence of disease except for rising PSA levels. GPI-0100 was mixed with a bivalent vaccine containing the glycolipid Globo H and the glycosylated mucin MUC2 conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). All doses were well tolerated and antibody titers against Globo H and MUC-2 escalated with the increasing dose levels. At the 5000 microg dose level in this patient population, toxicity remained minimal with only occasional grade II local toxicity at vaccination sites and occasional sporadic grade I elevations in ALT. Compared with a subsequent trial with the same bivalent vaccine plus QS-21 at the maximal tolerated dose of 100 microg, the 5000 microg dose of GPI-0100 produced comparable antibody titers.
 
Article
A vaccine comprising human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2, E6 and E7 in a single tandem fusion protein (termed TA-CIN) has the potential advantages of both broad cross-protection against HPV transmission through induction of L2 antibodies able to cross neutralize different HPV types and of therapy by stimulating T cell responses targeting HPV16 early proteins. However, patients vaccinated with TA-CIN alone develop weak HPV neutralizing antibody and E6/E7-specific T cell responses. Here we test TA-CIN formulated along with the adjuvant GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic quillaja saponin analog that was developed to promote both humoral and cellular immune responses. Subcutaneous administration to mice of TA-CIN (20 microg) with 50microg GPI-0100, three times at biweekly intervals, elicited high titer HPV16 neutralizing serum antibody, robust neutralizing titers for other HPV16-related types, including HPV31 and HPV58, and neutralized to a lesser extent other genital mucosatropic papillomaviruses like HPV18, HPV45, HPV6 and HPV11. Notably, vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 protected mice from cutaneous HPV16 challenge as effectively as HPV16 L1 VLP without adjuvant. Formulation of TA-CIN with GPI-0100 enhanced the production of E7-specific, interferon gamma producing CD8(+) T cell precursors by 20-fold. Vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 also completely prevented tumor growth after challenge with 5x10(4) HPV16-transformed TC-1 tumor cells, whereas vaccination with TA-CIN alone delayed tumor growth. Furthermore, three monthly vaccinations with 125 microg of TA-CIN and 1000 microg GPI-0100 were well tolerated by pigtail macaques and induced both HPV16 E6/E7-specific T cell responses and serum antibodies that neutralized all HPV types tested.
 
Article
We previously identified two HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitopes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) and in HBV envelope proteins (preS2). To evaluated their help in the development of CD8+ T-cell responses, mice transgenic for human class I and class II HLA molecules were immunized with HBV-T helper constructs. The preS2 epitope favored a well-balanced response with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha. The response was focused on CD8+ T cells with the HBx epitope. Fine characterization of helper activities may meet clinical needs in terms of enhancing the potency of preventive or therapeutic polyepitope vaccines.
 
Article
Numerous evidences demonstrated that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is due to a loss of immune tolerance to islet antigens, and CD8(+) T cells play an important role in the development of T1D. Zinc Transporter 8 (ZnT8) has emerged in recent years as a target of disease-associated autoreactive T cells in human T1D. However, ZnT8-associated CTL specific-peptides have not been identified. In this study, we predicted and identified HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from ZnT8, and utilized it to immunize HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic (Tg) mice. The results demonstrated that peptides of ZnT8 containing residues 107-115, 115-123 and 145-153 could elicit specific CTLs in vitro, and induce diabetes in mice. The results suggest that these specific peptides are novel HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes, and could have therapeutic potential in preventing of T1D disease.
 
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (SARS-CoV N) is one of the major targets for SARS vaccine due to its high potency in triggering immune responses. In this study, we have identified a novel HLA-A*0201 restricted epitope, N220 (LALLLLDRL), of the SARS-CoV N-protein through bioinformatics analysis. The N-protein peptide N220 shows a high binding affinity towards human MHC class I in T2-cells, and is capable of activating cytotoxic T-cells in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The application of using the N220 peptide sequence with a single-chain-trimer (SCT) approach to produce a potential DNA vaccine candidate was investigated in HLA-A2.1K(b) transgenic mice. Cytotoxicity assay clearly showed that the T-cells obtained from the vaccinated animals were able to kill the N-protein expressing cells with a cytotoxicity level of 86% in an effector cells/target cells ratio of 81:1 one week after the last vaccination, which is significantly higher than other N-protein peptides previously described. The novel immunogenic N-protein peptide revealed in the present study provides valuable information for therapeutic SARS vaccine design.
 
Article
The ideal vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis in humans would include antigens that elicit a protective T helper cell type 1 immune response, and generate long-lived IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells. Herein, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A02 supertype epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii proteins. Thirteen peptides elicited production of IFN-γ from PBMC of HLA-A02 supertype persons seropositive for T. gondii infection but not from seronegative controls. These peptides displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A02 proteins. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with these pooled peptides, with a universal CD4(+) epitope peptide called PADRE, formulated with adjuvant GLA-SE, induced CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ production and protected against parasite challenge. Peptides identified in this study provide candidates for inclusion in immunosense epitope-based vaccines.
 
Surface marker expression following exposure to different chitosan nanoparticles or solution formulations at 37 • C for 48 h. Surface markers on DCs were detected by FACS after incubation with PE-labeled CD86 mab and FITC-labeled CD80 mab (A). CD83 was detected by PE-labeled monoclonal antibodies (B). Results are from one representative experiment out of three performed.
IFN-secretion from splenocyte cultures. Mice were immunized with intramuscular and endotracheal DNA formulations 3 times at 3 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the last vaccination, mice were boosted intramuscular with 20 g of the recombinant polyepitope protein. Ten days later, mice were sacrificed and their splenocytes were pooled and cultured in the presence of M. tuberculosis sonicate. IFN-levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA.
ELISPOT assay describing the number of cells secreting IFN-following in vitro stimulation after immunization with polyepitope DNA different formulations (mean ± S.E., n = 3/6). Cells were stimulated in vitro with 10 g/ml of M. tuberculosis sonicate.
Article
In this study, we used an HLA-A2 transgenic mouse model to investigate the effects of pulmonary delivery of a new DNA plasmid encoding eight HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitopes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis formulated in chitosan nanoparticles. It was shown that the chitosan-DNA formulation was able to induce the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) while chitosan solution alone could not, indicating the DNA was released from the particles and able to stimulate DCs. Pulmonary administration of the DNA plasmid incorporated in chitosan nanoparticles was shown to induce increased levels of IFN-gamma secretion compared to pulmonary delivery of plasmid in solution or the more frequently used intramuscular immunization route. These results indicate that pulmonary delivery of DNA vaccines against tuberculosis may provide an advantageous delivery route compared to intramuscular immunization, and that increased immunogenicity can be achieved by delivery of this DNA encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.
 
Article
We investigated whether the surface-linked liposomal peptide was applicable to a vaccine based on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We first identified four HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes derived from SARS-CoV using HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice and recombinant adenovirus expressing predicted epitopes. These peptides were coupled to the surface of liposomes, and inoculated into mice. Two of the liposomal peptides were effective for peptide-specific CTL induction, and one of them was efficient for the clearance of vaccinia virus expressing epitopes of SARS-CoV, suggesting that the surface-linked liposomal peptide might offer an effective CTL-based vaccine against SARS.
 
Article
Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in antiviral immunity. Several human HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL epitopes of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spike (S) protein have been identified in HLA-A*0201 transgenic (Tg) mice, but the mechanisms and properties of immune responses are still not well understood. In this study, HLA-A*0201 Tg mice were primed intramuscularly with SARS S DNA and boosted subcutaneously with HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides. The lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes, spleens and lungs were stimulated with the cognate peptides. Three different methods (ELISA, ELISPOT and FACS) were used to evaluate the immune responses during short and long periods of time after immunization. Results showed that peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells secreted IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and expressed CD107a/b on cell surface. IFN-γ(+)CD8(+) T cells and CD107a/b(+)CD8(+) T cells distributed throughout the lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, but the frequency of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells was higher in lungs than in spleens and lymph nodes. The phenotype of the CD8(+) T cells was characterized based on the expression of IFN-γ. Most of the HLA-A*0201 restricted peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells represented a memory subset with CD45RB(high) and CD62L(low). Taken together, these data demonstrate that immunization with SARS S DNA and HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides can elicit antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell immune responses which may have a significant implication in the long-term protection. We provide novel information in cellular immune responses of SARS S antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, which are important in the development of vaccine against SARS-CoV infection.
 
Article
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are critical in the clearance of chronic viral infections such as HTLV-1. Peptide-based vaccines may have potential application in invoking antiviral CTL responses. In the development of vaccination strategies, it is becoming increasingly important to elicit a broad immune response against several epitopes simultaneously that may provide large population coverage. In the present study, we addressed this issue, namely the processing and presentation of multiple CTL epitopes simultaneously for the generation of multispecific CTL responses. We designed a novel multivalent peptide consisting of three HLA-A(*)0201 restricted CTL epitopes, with intervening double arginine residues in tandem. These epitopes were derived from the HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax, which is an attractive target for vaccine development against HTLV-1. Arginine residues were included to provide cleavage sites for proteasomes, to generate the intended MHC Class I ligands. Proteasomal digestion studies and mass spectrometry analysis showed cleavage of the multivalent construct to generate the individual epitopes. Immunization of HLA-A(*)0201 transgenic mice with this construct efficiently elicited cellular responses to each intended epitope in vivo, further validating the applicability of this approach. These data may have potential in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of HTLV-1 disease and in the future design of multivalent subunit peptide vaccines.
 
Article
The induction of antigen specific memory CD8(+) T cells in vivo is very important to new vaccines against infectious diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the immune responses of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells induced by HLA-A*0201 restricted severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S epitopes plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN), PolyI:C and R848 as adjuvants. Furthermore, the generation, distribution and phenotype of long-lasting peptide-specific memory CD8(+) T cells were assessed by ELISA, ELISPOT and flow cytometry. Our results showed that antigen specific CD8(+) T cells were elicited by HLA-A*0201 restricted SARS-CoV S epitopes. Furthermore, the frequency of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells was dramatically increased after both prime and boost immunization with peptides plus CpG ODN, whereas slight enhancements were induced following boost vaccination with peptides plus PolyI:C or R848. SARS-CoV S peptide-specific IFN-γ(+)CD8(+) T cells were distributed throughout the lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Results also demonstrated that the HLA-A*0201 restricted peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells induced by peptides plus CpG ODN carried a memory cell phenotype with CD45RB(+) and CD62L(-) and possessed long-term survival ability in vivo. Taken together, our results implied that HLA-A*0201 restricted SARS-CoV S epitopes plus CpG ODN might be the superior candidates for SARS vaccine.
 
Article
A prime-boost immunization regimen allowed the use of low titer, helper-free rAAV-pp65mII and rAAV-IE1 virus to elicit specific humoral and cellular responses to two important cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens: the immediate-early 1 (IE-1) and pp65 proteins. Simultaneous immunization of both CMV proteins, using DNA vaccine priming followed by rAAV boost, induced antibody (Ab) response, CD8 lymphocytes with cytotoxic function, and detectible binding of the cognate peptide epitopes for human HLA A*0201 restriction using tetramer technology.
 
Article
EBA-175 protein is used as ligand in Plasmodium falciparum binding to erythrocytes. Evidence shows that conserved peptide 1815 from this protein having high red blood cell binding ability plays an important role in the invasion process. This peptide is neither immunogenic nor protective. Residues were substituted by amino acids having similar volume or mass but different polarity in 1815 analogues had to make them fit into HLA-DRbeta1*03 molecules; these were synthesised and inoculated into Aotus monkeys, generating different immunogenic and/or protective immune responses. A shortening in alpha-helix structure was found in the immunogenic and protective ones when their secondary structure was analyzed by NMR to correlate their structure with their immunological properties. This data, together with results from previous studies, suggests that this shortening in high-activity binding peptide (HABP) helical configuration may lead to better fitting into immune system molecules as shown by binding to purified HLA-DRbeta1* molecules rendering them immunogenic and protective and therefore, excellent candidates for consideration as components of a subunit based multi-component synthetic vaccine against malaria.
 
Article
Most of the recently circulating H3N2 influenza A strains do not replicate well in embryonated chicken eggs and had to be isolated by cell culture, which presents a great challenge for influenza vaccine production using embryonated chicken eggs. We previously reported that a human H3N2 virus, A/Fujian/411/02, which replicates poorly in eggs, could be improved by changing a minimum of two HA residues (G186V/V226I or H183L/V226A). Here, we extended our work to the A/Singapore/21/04 strain that was also unable to grow in eggs. We showed that a single amino acid substitution of either G186V or A196T in the HA resulted in significantly increased virus replication in eggs without affecting virus antigenicity.
 
Article
Antibodies directed against the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein largely mediate virus neutralization and confer protection against infection. Consequently, many studies and assays of influenza vaccines are focused on HA-specific immune responses. Recombinant HA (rHA) proteins can be produced in a number of protein expression and cell culture systems. These range from baculovirus infection of insect cell cultures, to transient transfection of plants, to stably transfected human cell lines. Furthermore, the rHA proteins may contain genetic modifications, such as histidine tags or trimerization domains, intended to ease purification or enhance protein stability. However, no systematic study of these different forms of the HA protein have been conducted. It is not clear which, if any, of these different protein expression systems or structural modifications improve or diminish the biological behavior of the proteins as immunogens or antigens in immune assays. Therefore we set out to perform systematic evaluation of rHA produced in different proteins expression systems and with varied modifications. Five rHA proteins based on recent strains of seasonal influenza A and five based on influenza B HA were kindly provided by the Biodefense and Emerging Infections Reagent Repository (BEIR). These proteins were evaluated in a combination of biochemical and structural assays, in vitro humoral and cellular immune assays, and in an animal vaccination model. Marked differences in the behavior of the individual proteins was evident suggesting that they are not equal when being used to detect an immune response. They were, nevertheless, similar at eliciting neutralizing antibody responses.
 
Article
Three novel NY-ESO-1 CD4 T cell epitopes were identified using PBMC obtained from patients who were vaccinated with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1). The restriction molecules were determined by antibody blocking and using various EBV-B cells with different HLA alleles as APC to present peptides to CD4 T cells. The minimal epitope peptides were determined using various N- and C-termini truncated peptides deduced from 18-mer overlapping peptides originally identified for recognition. Those epitopes were DRB1*0901-restricted NY-ESO-1 87-100, DQB1*0401-restricted NY-ESO-1 95-107 and DRB1*0803-restricted NY-ESO-1 124-134. CD4 T cells used to determine those epitope peptides recognized EBV-B cells or DC that were treated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein or NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lysate, suggesting that the epitope peptides are naturally processed. These CD4 T cells showed a cytokine profile with Th1 characteristics. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1 87-100 peptide/HLA-DRB1*0901 tetramer staining was observed. Multiple Th1-type CD4 T cell responses are beneficial for inducing effective anti-tumor responses after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.
 
Article
Recently, an outbreak of fatal infection caused by a pantropic variant (strain CB/05) of canine coronavirus (CCoV) has been reported. In this study, evidence is provided that immunity induced by natural exposure to enteric CCoV is not fully protective against strain CB/05. Twenty-two, 10-week-old beagles with a recent natural infection by enteric CCoV were randomly distributed in two experimental groups of eight (groups A and B) and one control group of six (group C) dogs. Dogs in groups A and B were inoculated oronasally with different doses (4 x 10(5) or 4 x 10(3)TCID(50)) of the pantropic strain CB/05, whereas dogs in group C were used as negative controls. Clinical, post-mortem and virological investigations showed that, despite the high serum antibody titres induced by the prior natural infection with enteric CCoV, dogs were susceptible to experimental infection with strain CB/05. This was shown by the occurrence of faecal shedding, and dogs displaying moderate clinical signs, mainly vomiting and diarrhoea. Involvement of the lymphoid tissues was evident as demonstrated by the acute lymphopenia (below 70% of the initial counts), gross lesions in spleen and lymph nodes and detection of CB/05 RNA in thymus, spleen and lymph nodes of some infected dogs. The presence of viral RNA in lymphoid tissues was observed only in dogs euthanised in the early stages of infection and the clinical course of the infection was unrelated to the viral dose administered. The present study demonstrates that strain CB/05 is able to induce infection and disease in dogs seropositive to enteric CCoV, thus highlighting the need for extensive epidemiological investigation and for the possible development of novel antigenically relevant vaccines.
 
Article
A successful vaccine development strategy for areas with clustered H5N1 events requires conduct of vaccine trials in potentially non-naïve subjects and evaluation of post-vaccination responsiveness. An open-label, randomized, phase I/II study therefore assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two different dose levels of an inactivated, non-adjuvanted, whole virus clade 2.1 (A/Indonesia/05/2005) H5N1 Vero cell-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults (21-45 years) from a region where the virus has been circulating (Hong Kong) as well as Singapore. Subjects (N=110) were randomized 1:1 to receive two vaccinations with either 3.75 μg or 7.5 μg H5N1 haemagglutinin antigen 21 days apart. Safety, immunogenicity (microneutralization [MN] and single radial haemolysis [SRH] at baseline and post-vaccination) and cross-reactivity against a heterologous clade 1 strain (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) of the vaccine were assessed. Pre-existing immunity to the vaccine strain was 14% which is higher than previously reported for these regions. Two vaccinations with either vaccine formulation induced high seroprotection rates (MN titre ≥ 1:20) against the vaccine strain A/Indonesia/05/2005: 82.7% and 86.5% in the 3.75 μg and 7.5 μg dose groups. Seroconversion rates and fold increase exceeded the CPMP criterion of >40% and >2.5 for MN and SRH in both dose groups after the second vaccination, while the seroprotection rate in the 7.5 μg dose group determined by SRH was only marginally lower (69.2%) than the CPMP criterion of >70%. Thus, 11 of 12 CHMP criteria were fulfilled. A cross-reactive antibody response against the heterologous A/Vietnam/1203/2004 strain was demonstrated after the second vaccination (>21% by MN and ≥ 25% by SRH). Persistence of antibodies against the vaccine strain was also demonstrated 6 months after the first vaccination, indicating that a booster vaccination would be effective in those who have received two priming doses. No serious adverse events were reported. The H5N1 influenza vaccine against clade 2.1 strain A/Indonesia/05/2005 was well tolerated and immunogenic after two vaccinations, and induced a cross-neutralizing antibody response, with no dose effect.
 
Article
The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1 subtype) has promoted efforts to develop human vaccines against potential pandemic outbreaks. However, current platforms for influenza vaccine production are cumbersome, limited in scalability and often require the handling of live infectious virus. We describe the production of hemagglutinin from the A/Indonesia/05/05 strain of H5N1 influenza virus by transient expression in plants, and demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidate in animal models. Immunization of mice and ferrets with plant-derived hemagglutinin elicited serum hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies and protected the ferrets against challenge infection with a homologous virus. This demonstrates that plant-derived H5 HA is immunogenic in mice and ferrets, and can induce protective immunity against infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Plants could therefore be suitable as a platform for the rapid, large-scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of a pandemic.
 
Article
Expression of recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) in insect cells represents a technology with proven efficacy in seasonal influenza and with the potential for a rapid response to the emergence of new, pandemic strains. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of rHA vaccine (H5/Indonesia/5/05) produced in SF+ insect cells using a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The rHA vaccine was tested with and without the adjuvant glucopyranosyl lipid A/stable emulsion (GLA/SE). Healthy adults 18-49 were randomized to two IM doses on Days 0 and 21 of placebo; unadjuvanted rHA 135μg or 45μg, or rHA 45μg, 15μg, 7.5μg or 3.8μg with GLA/SE. A pioneer group was monitored through Day 42 before randomizing remaining subjects. H5-specific antibody was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) on Days 0, 21 and 42. 392 subjects were randomized, of whom 380 (97%) received two doses and 386 (98%) completed 12 months of follow-up. Injection site pain and tenderness were seen in 50-70% of rHA+GLA/SE recipients and 4-9% of rHA alone and placebo recipients, but most complaints were mild to moderate in intensity. After two doses, the proportions of subjects with HAI titers ≥1:40 were 32% and 15% in the unadjuvanted 135μg and 45μg groups, and 82%, 75%, 66%, and 72% in those receiving 45μg, 15μg, 7.5μg, or 3.8μg with GLA/SE. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of HAI antibody on Day 42 were 128, 95, 69, and 72 in the 45μg, 15μg, 7.5μg, or 3.8μg with GLA/SE groups, respectively. rHA GLA/SE was well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy adults, and GLA/SE substantially improved the serum antibody response. rHA expressed using BEVS recombinant DNA platform technology represents a promising strategy for pandemic control.
 
SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of plant-produced HA antigens. The purified proteins, HAQ1 and HAA1, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie staining (A) and Western blot using anti-H5 HA antibody (B). MWM: Molecular marker, lane 1 and 2: HAQ1 and HAA1, respectively. 
Hemagglutination-inhibiting (A and C) and virus neutralizing (B and D) antibody titers in the sera collected from immunized mice. Mice were immunized with 30, 15 or 5 g/dose of HAQ1 (A and B) or HAA1 (C and D). HI titers are expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum that inhibited the hemagglutination of eight hemagglutinin units of each virus. VN titers are expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum that gave 50% neutralization of 2 × 10 3 TCID50 of each virus. A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1A/05 (A and B) or A/Anhui/1/05 (C and D) was used for each assay. Samples without detectable HI or VN titer were assigned a titer of 5 or 10. Data are shown as mean titer ± standard deviation. 
Article
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been identified as a potential pandemic threat by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 1997, these viruses have been spreading from Asia to Europe and Africa with increasing genetic and antigenic diversities. Vaccination is the preferred strategy for the prevention and control of influenza infections and the availability of a system for the rapid engineering and production of vaccines is required in the event of an influenza pandemic. In this study, we engineered and produced recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1A/05 (clade 2.2) and A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Immunization of mice with these plant-derived HA antigens elicited serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) antibodies. These results suggest the utility of our plant-expression system for recombinant influenza vaccine production.
 
Article
The human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors, which sense the presence of various structural elements of pathogens and damaged or effete components in the host. As they do so, they activate two critical arms of host defense, the rapid innate immune response and an adaptive immune response. The innate immune response is typified by the generation of Th1 cytokines, chemokines and type 1 interferons. As such, agonists for the TLRs have potential as antiviral and anticancer therapeutics. They are also well suited to function as vaccine adjuvants. 3M imidazoquinoline (IRM) molecules were the first synthetic small molecules identified as TLR agonists and can affect their biological activities through TLR7, TLR8, or both. The breadth of therapeutic opportunities for this family of molecules can require formulations tailored to the specific application. One consideration is specific formulations to avoid a systemic distribution of these TLR agonists and resulting cytokine storm-like effects on the host. 3M-052 is an IRM bearing a C18 lipid moiety and designed for slow dissemination from the site of application. In the present study 3M-052 has been evaluated for its in vitro TLR activity and for its efficacy as a vaccine adjuvant using a recombinant hemagglutinin from H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Given subcutaneously, 3M-052 drives a strong Th1 response to hemagglutinin and serum neutralization of viable H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus in the absence of circulating TNFα or the induction of Th1 cytokines.
 
Article
Background: Combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly decreased HIV-1 related morbidity and mortality globally transforming HIV into a controllable condition. HAART has a number of limitations though, including limited access in resource constrained countries, which have driven the search for simpler, affordable HIV-1 treatment modalities. Therapeutic HIV-1 vaccines aim to provide immunological support to slow disease progression and decrease transmission. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and clinical effect of a novel recombinant plasmid DNA therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine, GTU(®)-multi-HIVB, containing 6 different genes derived from an HIV-1 subtype B isolate. Methods: 63 untreated, healthy, HIV-1 infected, adults between 18 and 40 years were enrolled in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase II trial in South Africa. Subjects were HIV-1 subtype C infected, had never received antiretrovirals, with CD4 ≥ 350 cells/mm(3) and pHIV-RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL at screening. Subjects were allocated to vaccine or placebo groups in a 2:1 ratio either administered intradermally (ID) (0.5mg/dose) or intramuscularly (IM) (1mg/dose) at 0, 4 and 12 weeks boosted at 76 and 80 weeks with 1mg/dose (ID) and 2mg/dose (IM), respectively. Safety was assessed by adverse event monitoring and immunogenicity by HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), pHIV-RNA and CD4 counts. Results: Vaccine was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Significant declines in log pHIV-RNA (p=0.012) and increases in CD4+ T cell counts (p=0.066) were observed in the vaccine group compared to placebo, more pronounced after IM administration and in some HLA haplotypes (B*5703) maintained for 17 months after the final immunisation. Conclusions: The GTU(®)-multi-HIVB plasmid recombinant DNA therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine is safe, well tolerated and favourably affects pHIV-RNA and CD4 counts in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals after IM administration in subjects with HLA B*57, B*8101 and B*5801 haplotypes.
 
Article
Over expression of telomerase represents a hallmark of cancer cells and the induction of T cell immunity against this universal tumor antigen have gained promising interest for anticancer immunotherapy. In this study we evaluated a recombinant lentiviral vector expressing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (lv-hTERT) vaccination in the humanized HLA-B*0702 transgenic (HLA-B7 Tg) mice. A single lv-hTERT vector immunization induces potent and broad HLA-B7-restricted CTL responses against hTERT. Unlike conventional hTERT peptide or DNA immunization, the lv-hTERT vector triggers high and sustained IFN-gamma producing CD8(+) T cell responses in HLA-B7 Tg mice. The avidity and in vivo cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells were stronger in lv-hTERT vector-immunized mice than in hTERT peptide or DNA vaccinated groups. The study also showed that the use of prime-boost vaccination drastically improved the magnitude and strength of lentivector-primed CD8(+) T cells. Our data indicated that lentiviral delivery of hTERT is suitable for enhancing cellular immunity against hTERT and offers a promising alternative for telomerase-based cancer vaccine.
 
Article
During the 2007-08 influenza season, we reported an interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimate of 44% for preventing medically attended influenza. In this analysis we report results for the entire season and compare them with the interim estimate. Patients with feverishness, chills, or cough <8 days duration were prospectively recruited over 10 weeks and tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Case-control analyses were performed using data from patients with rRT-PCR confirmed influenza (cases) and ill patients without influenza (test-negative controls). VE was estimated as 100×(1-adjusted odds ratio) in a logistic regression model adjusting for age, week, and high risk medical condition. A sample of influenza isolates was antigenically characterized. Influenza was detected by rRT-PCR in 865 (44%) of 1972 patients; 73% were type A and 27% were type B. VE was 37% (95% CI, 22-49%) overall and 44% (95% CI, 27-58%) among participants tested 0-3 days after illness onset. VE was 39% (95% CI, 2-62%) in children 6-59 months old and 37% (95% CI, -2% to 61%) in adults ≥50 years old. VE was 41% (95% CI, 24-53%) for influenza A and 31% (95% CI, 3-51%) for influenza B. All 24 characterized influenza A viruses were antigenically matched to the H3N2 vaccine strain, although 14 viruses exhibited mild antigenic drift. There was a lineage mismatch with the vaccine strain for all 39 characterized influenza B viruses. The 2007-08 influenza vaccine provided modest protection against medically attended influenza in this population. The interim estimate of VE after 17 days closely approximated the final season VE, supporting the potential use of interim VE estimates while influenza seasons are still in progress.
 
Article
We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of H1N1/09 containing influenza vaccines against hospitalization from influenza in Australia. We performed a test-negative case control study in patients hospitalized in 15 sentinel Australian hospitals between March and November 2010, comparing influenza vaccination (H1N1/09 monovalent or 2010 seasonal trivalent) in hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed influenza compared to PCR-negative controls. Between March and November 2010, 1169 hospitalized patients were tested for suspected influenza, of which influenza vaccine status was ascertained in 165/238 patients with H1N1/09 influenza, 40/64 with seasonal influenza and 558/867 test negative controls; 24% of H1N1/09 cases, 43% of seasonal influenza cases and 54% of controls were vaccinated. VE against hospitalisation with H1N1/09 influenza after adjusting for age, medical comorbidities and pregnancy status was estimated at 49% (95% CI: 13%, 70%). Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation caused by H1N1/09 influenza in the 2010 southern hemisphere winter season.
 
Article
In this study, we compared properties of the neuraminidase (NA) of the H1N1/2009 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm) and N1 NAs of other influenza viruses. The H1N1pdm NA was more active than NAs of seasonal H1N1 viruses, hydrolyzed Neu5Acα2-3Gal linkage as efficiently as did avian viruses and cleaved Neu5Acα2-6Gal linkage as efficiently as classical swine viruses. To assess the functional balance between heterologous NAs and pandemic virus HA, we generated four recombinant viruses that shared seven genes of A/Hamburg/5/09 and contained the NA gene from representative avian, swine and human viruses. The viruses harboring NA from avian, Eurasian avian-like swine and seasonal human viruses eluted more slowly from red blood cells, were more sensitive to neutralization by human airway mucins, and replicated less efficiently in differentiated human tracheo-bronchial epithelial cultures as compared with the viruses containing the NA of H1N1pdm and the NA of the North American classical swine virus lineage. Our data suggest that functional properties of the NA of H1N1pdm could be closer to those of classical swine viruses than to those of avian, avian-like swine and seasonal human viruses.
 
Article
This study reports effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed pandemic influenza infection in England using a retrospective test-negative case-control study. Cases and controls were frequency matched by age, swabbing-week and region. On univariable and multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying clinical risk factors, cases were no more or less likely than controls to be vaccinated with 2008-09 or 2007-08 season TIV. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness for the former was -6% (-43% to 22%). Vaccine effectiveness did not differ significantly by age-group or hospitalisation status. There was no evidence prior vaccination with TIV significantly altered subsequent risk of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection.
 
Article
This open single-arm study evaluated whether the administration of an HIV-recombinant canarypox vaccine (vCP1433) in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients chronically infected with HIV was safe, immunogenic and associated with prolongation of treatment discontinuation: 48 patients received four monthly vCP1433 injections and stopped HAART. Immunization was safe. HIV-p24-specific lymphoproliferative responses (LPR), significantly increased in the whole group after two injections but decreased thereafter, HIV-gag-specific CD8 T cells were boosted in 55% patients tested. Altogether, 11% patients with at least one HIV-specific LPR during immunization remained off therapy after 44 weeks of interruption. Detection of such LPR response at the time of treatment interruption was significantly associated with the probability of remaining off therapy. These results provide rationale for future randomized trials exploring this strategy.
 
Article
Calcitriol, also known as 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3, is a steroid hormone that has been shown to have effects on cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. Coadministration of calcitriol with trivalent influenza vaccine in mice enhanced both mucosal and systemic antibody responses. We studied the effects of calcitriol coadministered with a commercially available influenza vaccine in 175 human volunteers in this double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Subjects that received calcitriol experienced more pain at the injection site compared with placebo recipients. No significant differences in hemagglutination inhibition titers against H1N1, H3N2, or influenza B antigens were detected at 1 or 3 months postvaccination. We conclude that coadministration of 1.0 microg of calcitriol at a site adjacent to influenza vaccination does not enhance humoral immunity in human volunteers.
 
Article
Immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian food products and gelatin-based foods (Commins et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:426; Caponetto et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2013;1:302). We describe a patient with α-Gal allergy who successfully tolerated the live zoster vaccine and we review anaphylactic reactions reported to this vaccine. Our patient, who tolerated a vaccine containing the highest gelatin content, is reassuring but continued safety assessment of gelatin-containing vaccines for this patient cohort is recommended as there are multiple factors for this patient cohort that influence the reaction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
 
Article
Synthesis of the carbohydrate structure Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R (termed the alpha-gal epitope) on viral glycoproteins is of interest because of the large amounts of natural antibody (anti-Gal) produced in humans against this epitope. The presence of alpha-gal epitopes on inactivated virus or subviral vaccines is likely to enhance vaccine immunogenicity through in vivo complexing with anti-Gal and the subsequent targeting of the vaccine to Fcy receptors on antigen presenting cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated the increased in vitro immunogenicity of inactivated influenza virus complexed with the anti-Gal antibody. Here we demonstrate a method for engineering the expression of alpha-gal epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by recombinant alpha 1,3galactosyltransferase (r alpha 1,3GT). We further demonstrate the formation of immune complexes between this de novo synthesized epitope and anti-Gal. HA has multiple N-acetyllactosamine structures which serve as excellent acceptors for r alpha 1,3GT. The luminal portion of marmoset alpha 1,3GT cDNA was produced in large amounts in the baculo virus system and isolated by affinity chromatography on nickel-Sepharose columns. r alpha 1,3GT effectively transferred galactose from UDP-Gal to the N-acetyllactosamine residues of HA on the intact virion or to isolated HA molecules. At least 3000 alpha-gal epitopes were de novo synthesized per virion. The natural anti-Gal antibody bound to these epitopes in ELISA, in western blots and in solution, forming distinct immune complexes. These data suggest that in vivo administration of such vaccines will result in their complexing with anti-Gal, and thus may lead to their increased immunogenicity.
 
Article
The adjuvant properties of a polydispersed beta-(1,4)-linked acetylated mannan, acemannan (ACE-M), were evaluated. Day-old broiler chicks were randomly selected and allocated to four flocks (Vac 1-4). The Vac 1 flock was sham vaccinated with saline. The Vac 2 flock was vaccinated with an oil-based vaccine (Breedervac III; Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and infectious bronchitis virus). The Vac 3 flock was vaccinated with a vaccine-ACE-M mixture, and the Vac 4 flock was vaccinated with vaccine and ACE-M at separate anatomical sites. ELISA titres to NDV and IBDV were determined. The immune response to NDV at 21 days postvaccination (PV) was significantly enhanced (P less than or equal to 0.05) by the addition of ACE-M to the vaccine, compared with vaccination without ACE-M. Subsequently, the vaccine-ACE-M mixture appeared to suppress the immune response to NDV. However, at day 35 PV, 95% of the Vac 3 chicks compared with 90% of the Vac 2 and 89% of the Vac 4 chicks exhibited protective titres. The response to IBDV differed from that to NDV. At day 21 PV the immune response to IBDV was essentially the same for all flocks that received vaccine, i.e. addition of ACE-M to the vaccine did not significantly enhance the immune response; however, it did significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) sustain the immune response at days 28 and 35. In addition to the observed effect on titres to NDV and IBDV, ACE-M also had an effect on flock immunity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Article
Staphylococcus aureus vaccines based on bacterins surrounded by slime, surface polysaccharides coupled to protein carriers and polysaccharides embedded in liposomes administered together with non-biofilm bacterins confer protection against mastitis. However, it remains unknown whether protective antibodies are directed to slime-associated known exopolysaccharides and could be produced in the absence of bacterin immunizations. Here, a sheep mastitis vaccination study was carried out using bacterins, crude bacterial extracts or a purified exopolysaccharide from biofilm bacteria delivered in different vehicles. This polysaccharide reacted specifically with antibodies to poly-N-acetyl-beta-1,6-glucosamine (PNAG) and not with antibodies to other capsular antigens or bacterial components. Following intra-mammary challenge with biofilm-producing bacteria, antibody production against the polysaccharide, milk bacterial counts and mastitis lesions were determined. Bacterins from strong biofilm-producing bacteria triggered the highest production of antibodies to PNAG and conferred the highest protection against infection and mastitis, compared with weak biofilm-producing bacteria and non-cellular inocula. Thus, bacterins from strong biofilm bacteria, rather than purified polysaccharide, are proposed as a cost-efficient vaccination against S. aureus ruminant mastitis.
 
Top-cited authors
Pierre Van Damme
  • University of Antwerp
Nubia Munoz
Gregory Poland
  • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Robert Martin Jacobson
  • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
Luisa Villa
  • University of São Paulo