VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences

Published by VFAST
Online ISSN: 2309-3951
Publications
Article
The present research aimed at investigating the relationship amongparenting styles, parenting practices, attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant behaviour (ODB) among school going boys. The study hypothesizes a) a positive relationship among authoritarian, permissive parenting styles, relevant practices and ODB while negative relationship between authoritative parenting styles and ODB in school as well as home settings, b) positive relationship between ADHD and ODB in school as well as home settings and c) ODB will be predicted from parenting styles, parenting practices and ADHD. The reporting participants about boys (N=200) included teachers (N=40) and parents (N=400).The ODB & ADHD was measured by Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behaviour inventory (Burns, 2010) and parenting styles by Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandelco, Olsen, & Hart, 2001). Authoritarian/ permissive styles were significantly correlated with ODB and fathers’ permissiveness, authoritative style and ADHD came out to be significant predictors, differentially across two settings.
 
Article
Current research was an effort to investigate emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents associated with both mother and father parenting styles. A sample of 300 adolescents from public and private schools of Lahore, (13 to 17 years old, Mean=14.8) were selected to participate in the study. Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, & permissive) were assessed through parental authority questionnaire (PAQ, Buri, 1991 ) and emotional behavioral problems were screened with the Youth Self-Report (YSR: Achenbach, & Rescorla, 2001). It was hypothesized that i) there will be relationship between parenting styles and emotional, behavioral problems and ii) parenting styles will predict problem behaviors. Findings revealed that authoritative upbringing of both mother and father was established as most optimum style with significant negative relationship with problem behaviors while authoritarian and permissive parenting for mother and father separately as well as together was associated with different problem behaviors. Regression analysis showed that authoritative parenting predicted lower level of problems and authoritarian and permissive styles are significant predictors of emotional and behavioral problems. This research might contribute to create awareness among parents about the effects of their parenting styles on adolescents’ behaviors.
 
TECHNIQUES FOR COMMUNICATING WITH THE COMMUNITY 
Article
Attaining sustainable development is one of the greatest challenges facing Pakistan today. A challenge that can only be met by developing and deploying confidence among the people. Transparency in project activities at all stages and other measures will also enhance its social and economic growth. By adopting sustainable practices and sensible policies, we mean that project activity should be economically viable, socially acceptable and environment friendly. In order to achieve this objective, there must be a continued commitment to encourage and ensure the community participation. Since Pakistan is an energy deficient country, it has to initiate power projects on a large scale in the near future. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to tackle these projects in a sustainable way, so that it can be benefited to the maximum possible level and have the least adverse effects on community and the environment. Thus, careful planning, efficient implementation, standardized operational practices and community participation are the key parameters which ensure the positive impacts on economy, prosperity and the well being of our people. This paper pinpoints the potential environmental hazards due to project activity and emphasizes to adopt sustainable approaches in power projects with community participation.
 
Article
Media institutions have a great impact on the day to day life of the public. Information conveyed by these institutions can improve the relationship of the people or, on the contrary, create misfortunes among them. Due to this reason, in the development of media institutions, proper incentives are supposed to be put into consideration in order to make them worth to the target audience. On the other hand, media play an important role in conveying political, economic and also social news that is required by the public. To avoid distortion of information, proper management of what is conveyed by these institutions need to be put in place.
 
Article
“Culture” has a featured place among a large number of factors which are effective on the formation of house architecture. From time to time, it is observed that very different houses are formed in the same physical environment. Sometimes analogous houses can be seen under highly different environmental conditions. It is possible to mention the effects of different cultures and lifestyles on this.The study aims to reveal how the effect of privacy is reflected in spatial formation and architectural elements in Muslim-Turkish houses. The relationship of the Turkish House with the concepts of Ottoman, Anatolia, Muslim and tradition as well as coincidence and variations are addressed. The analytical and comparative method is employed in the study. The common elements in the architectural formation which are caused by the vital and cultural interactions in the Turkish houses in Anatolia and the Balkans are reflected in the form of analogies in the building façade character and in architectural elements. It is possible to gather the analogies in the Turkish houses not only in the context of Anatolia and the Balkans but also at different corners of Anatolia under the common ground of “culture”. The effects of culture are reflected in the house architecture in a wide range from the use of lattice in various spaces and elements to kapı şakşaks besides the openings which vary on the building façades depending on location and story.In this study, the concept of Turkish House and the thorough investigations into this issue are considered and the effect of the factor of “privacy” on the formation of Muslim-Turkish houses in Anatolia is examined from different perspectives. The subject is presented via the examples of Turkish houses selected from various localities of Anatolia. How the inward character of the Turkish house and its understanding of privacy are reflected in the details of an architectural building besides its façade and spatial construct is conveyed via examples.The thorough investigation concerned is of importance to see how culture and lifestyle are reflected on architecture – in other words, to read culture from the formation of a house.
 
Article
This study is an attempt to analyze and compare the financial performance of MCB Bank Ltd and National Bank of Pakistan by applying common size analysis and ratio analysis of financial statement of banks. The secondary data was utilized in analysis of balance sheet, profit and loss statements and other accounting information for the financial year 2005-09. Both banks are very important financial institution and are providing different facilities to the customers. The banks also give advances to the other industries, companies and other deficit economic units. The results obtained shows considerable improvement in financial performance by banks in both public and private sectors. The financial strengths of banks depend on the liquidity, profitability and the ability of banks to pay its debt. All these three have showed improvements but there are some of the financial indicators in both which still needs improvement like current ratio, return on equity and operating profit of both banks. The findings of the analysis of financial statements of both banks show that MCB had utilized their assets more efficiently and effectively as compared to NBP. The return on equity ratio of MCB Bank is much better then National bank of Pakistan for the FY-2005-09 which banks ability to produce earning & therefore is an excellent indicator both of viability & capability of banks management. Both banks must invest more in liquid assets like marketable security and market treasury bills to boost the trust of the depositors on banks. Both banks should also decrease their debt level in order to utilize the funds at the right time and at the right level to enhance their net profits.
 
Evaluation of Bank Service Quality
Level of satisfaction of the respondents
Cros-tabulation results between service quality and customer satisfaction
Loyalty of the customers towards their bank
Article
Service quality is one of the most important factors behind customer satisfaction in commercial banks. Various studies revealed that service quality plays a decisive role in satisfaction of customers and satisfaction of customers to a great extent lead to the customer loyalty vis-a-vis profitability of banks. Against such a backdrop, an attempt has been made to examine the impact of service quality of the bank on customer satisfaction and impact of customer satisfaction on the customer loyalty. This study points out that satisfaction and service quality relationship is critical for commercial banks. The broad objective of the study is to identify the determinants of customer satisfaction in the context of public sector and private sector banks in India and to examine the relationship between customer satisfactions, service quality and customer loyalty of banks. An attempt has also been made to study the impact of satisfaction on the loyalty of the customers. For this purpose responses have been elicited through a pre-tested structured questionnaire from 568 customers of public sector and private sector banks located in NCR.
 
Article
This research looks into the different effects of firms’ network structural positions in an upstream supply network upon the firms’ level of relational capital outcomes. Previous research has largely focus on the context of decentralized network structure. However, the supply network is a centralized network because of the existence of the focal firm. The existence of the focal firm may influence the impact of relational capital outcomes Objective: To determine the type of network structural postions required to obtain reasonable relational capital outcome in upstream supply network Results: Network structural positions i.e. degree centrality contributed to firms level of relational capital trust. Conclusion: Firms, embedded in upstream supply network benefits differently in terms of relational capital through different degree of embeddedness. Firms’ resources should be re-aligned to match the benefits with the different network structural positions.
 
Article
Universities face a competitive environment all around the world. In Turkey, the number of universities has been increasing in the last decade which means attracting qualified students is ever more critical. There are many studies concerning the students’ perception of their host universities. In addition to universities, host city itself also plays a crucial role in term of students’ overall satisfaction of their university life. Therefore, this study aims to identify the attributes of the host university city, assess students’ satisfaction with the key attributes of the city, and get students’ ideas how to make the city more attractive to university students. This study is done in Rize which is considered to be a small city in Turkey. A focus study was conducted with 53 sophomore students who study Business Administration or Economics at Recep Tayyip Erdogan University. The findings indicate that the students perceive accommodation, socializing, cost of living and safety as the most important attributes of their host university city.
 
Article
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of total compensation on pay satisfaction of employees in Telenor Pakistan. Data was collected through questionnaire and interview. It is revealed that fixed pay components such as merit increments are prominent unlike seniority bonuses in Telenor because of the fact that the company has a flexible pay structure of broadband. Broadband offer flexibility and easy salary progression as employees is not promoted to another grade but moved within band (in-grade promotion). Among the variable pay dimensions, goal based pay, accurate information use related to salary decisions, employee rights concern and information sharing regarding employee related decisions are much satisfactory at Telenor compared to other components of variable pay. In case of benefits, employees were highly satisfied with allowances, welfare programs and consider it reason for their motivation and stay in Telenor. Overall, equity in Telenor is nearly in balance and pay satisfaction over various components of total compensation has an nutshell positive effect in creating strong sense of belonging of employee with their organization.
 
Article
This study estimated the real private consumption model for Pakistan by using the annual data from 1971 to 2013. The Autoregressive distributed lag model is used to investigate the short run and long run relationship between private consumption, labor income, wealth, interest rate and unemployment rate. In the short run, current income, wealth, real interest rate and unemployment rate affected the real private consumption growth while in the long run labor income and wealth are significant. The numerical value of the coefficient of error correction model (ECM) is -0.58, which propose that Pakistan’s real private consumption converge from disequilibrium in period (t-1) to equilibrium (t) on a high speed.
 
Article
Quality assurance and accreditation have become an essential part of higher education quality management all over the world. To ensure sustainable high quality education, it is essential to develop an internal quality culture in Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). The main objective of this study is to establish existence/non-existence of quality culture by using Internal Quality Culture (IQC) framework. The study will also identify the main impediments in the prevailing organizational culture of a HEI. The framework highlights four dimensions of IQC; Planning, Support, Execution and Assessment. Different indicators for these quality culture dimensions are analyzed by comparing the perspectives of three main stakeholders i.e. faculty, students and management. The results indicate that successful development of quality culture requires commitment and active collaboration of all the stakeholders. Moreover, the changing and conflicting requirements of the stakeholders influence the quality improvements efforts.
 
Article
Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy is the degree to which people perceive themselves as having the ability to perform the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship successfully. This paper aims to develop and validate the scale to measure commerce and management graduates student’s Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy. We have used various validation techniques like face validity, logical validity, construct validity, criterion and discriminate validity to make our questioner standard. The factor analysis is used to handle the factors in the constructed scale. With the use of reliability of scale and factors analysis, the six factors present in the scale are finalized. The six factors are developed here are as a Product (13 Questions), Build innovative environment (5 Questions), Investor relationship (13 Questions), Define core purpose (07 Questions), Handle unexpected challenges (21 Questions), and Develop HR (15 Questions). We have made the Questionnaire of 74 questions and then validate it to test the Student’s Entrepreneur Self-Efficacy among commerce and management graduates.
 
Article
Rawls Theory of Justice (RTJ) sheds light on the importance of fairness, justice and equity in society however application of RTJ in human resource management for better organizational performance and output presents some challenges which are harder than when applied to the society, e.g. fulfillment of “blind position” prerequisite. By applying Rawls theory of justice one can infer essential roles of fairness in human resource management of an organization and the modus operandi used for its implementation to increase its productivity or output. This paper discusses the primary issues seen in application of Rawls theory of justice (RTJ) in human resource management. It discusses essential ingredients of RTJ and prerequisites of applying this theory such as well-ordered society, acceptance of laws and regulation by majority. It further discusses what happens if these prerequisites are not fulfilled such as lack of wide ranging institutional support on basic rules of fairness and justice, lack of basic liberties and lack of fair equality of opportunities. These problems are examined in the light of RTJ and solutions are suggested for optimized human resource management .
 
Article
One of the teaching learning purposes of schooling is the social and psychological development of a child. Every field of today’s life is a slave of technology, which is in the state of flux. The role of physics is dominated of all other subjects in the school. Motivation of “doing” is important than simply acquiring knowledge. Physics suite is a set of strategies which enables the students ‘to learn to do’ in real life and enables them to be a socially active member of a society as well as psychologically sound personality. Main objective of the study was to examine the understanding of the learners taught by physics suite at secondary level in Pakistan. A null hypothesis “there is no significant difference between the mean scores of pupils taught with physics suite and those with traditional method”. Post-test only equivalent group design was used for the collection of data. A group of 40 students was observed, as experimental and control group comprising 20 students each. After six weeks data was collected through post test and analyzed using t test. Significant difference was found between the mean scores of experimental and control groups and the null hypothesis was rejected.
 
Article
VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY'S NEW LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) : STUDENT EXPERIENCES
 
Article
INTRODUCTION Since the incident of 9/11, the atrocities of war and cultural trauma have emerged as the most pressing theme in Post 9/11 fiction. Cultural trauma is usually considered as a socially mediated power structure. In the construction of cultural trauma, the social agents determine which events are to be forgotten, which are to be remembered for a long time. Events are not tragic in their happening but they are assigned the meaning to be painful from the social agents of meaning making. A sense of painful injury is associated with some catastrophic social event while some tragedies are not labeled as tragic and painful. The meanings of tragic incident are more dependent on the social agents of meaning making (Alexander, 2004).In the construction of this process-cultural trauma, the social agents act as catalyst and carrier groups. Alexander takes the construction of cultural trauma as a process. The end of this process is to move from conflicted situation to recovery and routinization. In post 9/11 times, there were two different approaches which were emphasized by the fiction writers as a response to the codification of the incident of 9/11.Such fiction writers were more true to the political will of America who demanded war against the perpetrators of the tragedy. But later on, another category of the Post 9/11 fiction developed with a tendency of negotiating this enigma by an attempt of unburdening the situation of cultural trauma. This category of Post 9/11 fiction called for the construction of a "third space" where America and the perpetrators might see the cross cultural suffering. The fiction writers proposed a demand of inclusive identities by developing the tendency that the world can move on from a conflicted situation of cultural trauma. This category of fiction showed alternative image of the Muslim character. In these works, the Muslim characters have been represented as the victim of cultural trauma as well. There are also a lot of novels which have dealt with the psychic and domestic trauma of the victims. Here, we have to keep in mind this tendency was not apparent soon after the incident of 9/11. We see in the fiction selected for the present study, the authors have created a drive to look the sufferings of people beyond the American perceived sense of humanity by the politicians and media. The Post 9/11 fiction raised the massive consciousness to rebuilt loss which the world has to bear in consequences of cultural trauma. Both American and Non-American writers have responded to the complexities and many ramifications of 9/11 in a variety of ways, ranging from poems and plays to non-fiction. Yet, the most remarkable literary explorations are encountered in novelistic form, as approaches range. By form and approach of novel as a genre as the most suitable medium, we means novel has wide range of characters and a capacity to see the things and themes on the wider canvas. Unfortunately, the researchers have not provided such a study which is fully dedicated to closely analyze the way the post 9/11 fiction portrays cultural trauma in Post 9/11 fiction. The researchers approach is differentiated on account of healing and renegotiating
 
Correlations among the variables 
Article
This paper is about the growing use of Snapchat among the youngsters, the content they share on Snapchat and its effect on interpersonal relationships of consumers. The study is taken out on the sample of 300 selected randomly from the universities of Lahore, Pakistan. The survey method was used as the research tool. The virtual identities at social media application are helpful for real life relations. Youngsters use this social media application often to connect with their friends and close relations and it is significant for strengthening interpersonal relationships. Young people use Snapchat for sharing funny stuff and personal feelings through snap.
 
Shows the ACE2 Human protein Once the virus gain entry into a cell it uses the cell resources to replicate itself making the cell sick and leading to its eventual death. The RNA structure of the virus is replicated by the RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein through its genome transcription. The tertiary structure of the RdRp protein is illustrated in figure 4.
Binding of RdRp Protein with compounds
Article
The study spans over identification of phytochemicals suited for treatment of COVID19. The study focuses on chemical that have tendency to bind with Human ACE2 protein and two of the main Sars-Cov-2 proteins which are the Spike protein and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein. After screening of a large list of phytochemicals two of the compound i.e. Kansuinine B and Digitoxin were found to have promising traits for treatment of COVID-19. Both the compounds have been in use for centuries. Digitoxin was extracted from Foxglove seeds in 18th century for heart related illnesses. Kansuinine B originates from a Chinese herb Euphorbia Kansui (E. Kansui) E. Kansui has been widely used in herbal medicine for a multitude of illnesses including lungs related diseases. Studies also show that it has ability to suppress cytokine response through expression of SOCS3 gene. In-silico simulations show that both these compound have better affinity and binding properties with these three proteins as compared to many other drugs under trial for COVID-19 like Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Famotidine, Camostat Mesylate and Hesperidin. A treatment based on combination of both compounds can be very effective. Any self-medication of both the compounds is highly discouraged as misuse of both the compounds can be very harmful.
 
OF THE NATIONALPOLITICS (BY EDITORIALS)
OF THE INTERNATIONAL (POLITICS IN THE EDITORIALS)
Article
Mass media can be defined as venues for messages that are created for consumption by large numbers of people. Content analysis was used to explore editorial treatment. Editorials of the selected papers were taken as the Unit of Analysis. The Researchers selected all the papers published during the study's stipulated period for analysis. The reason behind the selection of all the newspapers is that during the selected period so many important incidents occurred. Overall, 90 newspapers were analyzed. Coding sheet was used to gather data. Findings show that daily " The Nation " published more National political issues than others in select time period. It is also observed that daily " DAWN " published more international political issues than national. It is further observed that English dailies gave less space in favor of internal political issues. Results also show that the English dailies " DAWN " , " The New " and " The Nation " in term of treatment of national /international politics in the editorial gave more space to the Neutral sentences than favorable and unfavorable sentences.
 
2.2
Article
The constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, after 18 th amendment, under Article 25(A) provides free and compulsory secondary education as fundamental right for Pakistanis and responsibility of the state. On April 19 th , 2010 the president of Pakistan signed this document. The government of Pakistan has therefore made constitutional efforts to synthesize the importance and need of free and compulsory secondary education. The implementation of this provision is on the part of provincial government after 18th amendment. The main objectives of this study were: 1. to understand the constitutional provisions about right to education as fundamental right and actual situation of schools for its implications. 2. to make recommendations to the government of the Punjab for the effective implication of article 25th A. The research was descriptive in its nature. The data was collected by using Survey method, from the 20 District education officers (EDOs) who were randomly selected from 36 districts of the Punjab. The tool for collection of data was self developed questionnaire on three-point scale. Major finding was: Lack of basic infrastructure, shortage of teacher, less physical and material facilities, burden on parents in the form of allied expensive for study, transportation expenditures, opportunity cost in case of earning hand of family are the major issues needed to be addressed on emergencies bases for implication of free and compulsory secondary education. The study recommended that local community and non-government organizations may be involved to make education for all at secondary level.
 
Article
During the Pandemic of COVID-19, the whole world had to go under national lockdown/s time and again. Along other challenges, the academic activities suffered a lot. Academic institutions had to adopt technology for running of the academic process (online teaching). The adoption of technology in advance countries to some extent was easier, but for the third world countries like Pakistan, it proved a challenge due to certain technological issue which resulted in academic degrowth. The present study is designed to measure “Digital Space to New Academic Normalcy in Universities of South Punjab, Pakistan and the challenges the academic institutes and students faced during this new mode of teaching. A survey was conducted to access the challenges students had to face during online teaching in Covid 19. The responses were measured from 470 students of BS, Master and M. Phil studying at the public and private sector universities of the South Punjab of Pakistan through questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that during the Pandemic of COVID-19, universities adopted online teaching with limited digital resources. Even after the lapse of more than one year universities could not significantly prepare themselves for incorporating digital resources for academic process and assessment. The academic process of 67% universities is still continued without Learning Management System. The academic activities are being conducted via Whatsapp which is an informal medium. In the light of collected data, it is concluded that there is a dire need for up gradation of digital devices in the academic institutions to move towards new academic normalcy in the wake of Pandemic of COVID-19. KEYWORDS Digital Space, COVID-19, Academic degrowth and Pakistan
 
Article
This paper examines the acceptance of SMS marketing on the basis of the role of users' consent which plays a vital role in its success. This study is of qualitative nature, and is conducted in the context of Pakistan. Data for the study was gathered using twenty semi-structured interviews from two groups each of ten members. The first group (G1) comprised of University level students, while the other group comprised of members from general public. Convenient sampling as a non-probability sampling was used. This study is cross-sectional because the interviews were conducted at one point of time. For analysis purpose, NVivo 10 was used with the help of which the transcribed interviews were assessed. The results of the study show that the marketers should not bombard the subscribers with SMS ads without their consent and permission. Other than consent, the frequency and the timing at which these advertising messages are sent to the users should not be random, and be controlled. The content which is sent by the Mobile Network Operator (MNO) should also be evaluated and controlled, and the SMS advertisements should be checked for the spam.
 
Demographic Characteristics of Sample (N=300)
Correlation between Mother and Father Parenting Styles (Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive), and
Correlation between joint parenting styles and emotional behavioral problems in adolescents (N=300).
Article
Current research was an effort to investigate emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents associated with both mother and father parenting styles. A sample of 300 adolescents from public and private schools of Lahore, (13 to 17 years old, Mean=14.8) were selected to participate in the study. Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, & permissive) were assessed through parental authority questionnaire (PAQ, Buri, 1991) and emotional behavioral problems were screened with the Youth Self-Report (YSR: Achenbach, & Rescorla, 2001). It was hypothesized that i) there will be relationship between parenting styles and emotional, behavioral problems and ii) parenting styles will predict problem behaviors. Findings revealed that authoritative upbringing of both mother and father was established as most optimum style with significant negative relationship with problem behaviors while authoritarian and permissive parenting for mother and father separately as well as together was associated with different problem behaviors. Regression analysis showed that authoritative parenting predicted lower level of problems and authoritarian and permissive styles are significant predictors of emotional and behavioral problems. This research might contribute to create awareness among parents about the effects of their parenting styles on adolescents' behaviors.
 
Article
The main purpose of the study was to investigate into the effects of aesthetics on the behavior of university students. Objectives of the study were to impart the knowledge of aesthetics, to create awareness about aesthetics, about Quranic aesthetics and to bring into light Greek, Roman and English's philosophers' views about aesthetics and to highlight the positive changes in students' behavior after studying aesthetics. Population of the study was all students of Abdul Wali Khan University which were delimited to the students of English department. Through sample random sampling eighty four students were selected as sample of the study. Data was collected through a self-developed questionnaire and was analyzed through Mean. Findings showed a constant study of aesthetics bring great transformation in the behavior, manners and etiquettes of university students. It was recommended that the study of aesthetics in the light of Quran brings behavioral maturity and positive changes. Key words: Aesthetics, The Holy Book, Greek and Roman literature, English literature 1. Introduction. Aesthetics mean things perceptible to the sense. It is the philosophical study of the nature of beauty, concerns the definition, appreciation and criticism of the beautiful. It is the theory of taste. It brings purgation of soul and purification of mind. It is the very study of beauty which is pure, unimaginable thing of look and pleasure [6]. It is the study of art and its nature. It has close co-relation to the philosophy of art and is wider than it. It is the result of perceiving something not as a means but as an end in itself, not as useful but as ornamental, not as instrumental but as an achievement. It is a pure appreciation of beauty. Saw beauty, heard and felt, secret opened that originally life is beauty and temperamentally beauty liking. The demand of life is beauty and the outcome of elegant efforts for the satisfaction of this demand is culture [10] Aesthetics is a cultural phenomenon, so culture is the mirror of humanity 0 [5][7]. The beauty and development of culture is the beauty and development of humanity. It depicts man as gregarious and sociable in a purposeful world. It is in fact worship, which describes aesthetic values and creates awareness about equality, cooperation, devotion, respectfulness, friendliness and care for the decorum of the institution. The secret of the development of man's personality is concealed in Aesthetics, so he has to beautify his inner and outer world for gaining satisfaction. An individual can beautify his inner and outer worlds by aesthetic wish. This is possible only when he has a strong attachment with the Absolute Beauty [4][12][11]. The aesthetics of the Holy Book is the fountain of all knowledge including English literature. The aesthetics of Keats, Wordsworth and Shakespeare etc are the small springs of the Great Fountain. Attributes of beauty are variegation (diversity of colors), symmetry, certainty and purity. There is unity in diversity which brings proportion and harmony in the behavior and thought. Symmetry in beauty brings sublimity and grandeur. The judicious combination of beauty and sublimity beautifies cultural behavior of individuals. Certainty in beauty creates maturity which is beyond any defect. It creates stability in thought, strength in feelings, power of confidence and truth and reformation in discipline. Purity of beauty creates chastity, innocence and purification of beauty. The behavior, attitude and culture of us, must be mirror of these qualities, culture-like must be clear inwardly and outwardly. The
 
Stakeholders Thematic Coded Cluster from Macrosystem 5. Discussions. Children of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa witnessed exploitation of brutality by the terrorists; they bomb schools and murdered their family members. In such incidents, depressiveness along with other psychological symptoms of mental health disorders have developed [39]. Numerous psychological repercussions of such attacks are affecting children's health and the ability to hinder their educational rights in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa/FATA [40]. In last one-decade, severe trauma cases developed in children by seventeen percent only in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Children feared to go school and other outside healthy activities aftermath of Army Public School. The military operation against terrorists has a direct psychosocial impact on people of FATA & Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. They are extremely disturbed in that society, where the atmosphere remains tense with the detrimental socio-psychological conditions. The horrific shelling on terrorist shelters by army prevail stark in people minds, particularly children, whose suffering of continuing emotional dilemma and trauma. Due to current militancy and terrorism scenario in the region, the rate of children depression has increased at a high level and we lack specialized psychiatrist to cope up with trauma. Unicef launched a project Khpal Kor foundation to provide the psychosocial support for terrorism affected children. Psychologist in Khpal Kor foundation argued that the war affected children inclined to fear from 
Summary of Study Informants (Stakeholders)
Integrated Socio-Ecological Model for War-Affected Children in Pakistan 6. Conclusion. It has been evident that all the progress made on the emergency plan based on safety and re-integration in post-conflict settings, but we don't have a long-term integrated preventive plan on micro and macrosystem level. It's an ultimate challenge for the government to eradicate militancy in FATA and KP but we need a strong efficacious intervention for children and youth affected by the conflict. The integrated socio-ecological model should be organized collectively on preventive services i.e., de-radicalization, education, cultural norms and emotional resilience to cope with the vulnerabilities of affected families. Psychosocial consequences of political violence and war are well recognized on young population physical & mental health. 
Article
Pakistan facing the horrific chapter of a decade-long war against terrorism. The series of consistent violence drawn disparity in social infrastructure to this war-torn country. Lack of research on psychosocial and cultural issues of war-affected children in Pakistan demanded this study to deal with the interpretation of the participant's narrations. As very little attention has seen on the transitional justice for war-affected children by stakeholders. Their experiences directly concerned with the issues of war and its effects on children. Study samples were the residential caregivers, child protection officers and NGOs officials narrated their experience on the psychosocial and cultural issues of children. Results of their narrative revealed that war-affected children experienced education withdrawal, abandoned with unhappy life, and breakup from social cohesion in a cultural domain with profound coping challenges. War-affected children should be rebounded and intact with families make them resilience and can be healed with fewer efforts. The target interventions of government and non-government institutions should be organized and framed on the re-integration and de-radicalization plan for war-affected children within the socio-ecological framework (microsystem and macrosystem). The policies and practices of all stakeholders should be tailored and intervened on children rehabilitation and prevention services from further exploitations.
 
Article
ABSTRACT. Teaching learning process has many things to make it more effective, fruitful and result oriented. Audio visual aids are one of those ingredients. Sufficient Availability and effective usability of AV aids makes teaching learning more effective and objective oriented.The need of the study was to identify the availability and usability of AV aids in the Afghan refugees’ schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The responses of the female school teachers and male school teachers were used to determine the availability and usability of AV aids in the afghan refugees’ schools.Total 22 afghan refugees’ schools 4 girls and 18 boy’s schools constituted the population of study. The study was delimited to 8 schools from total 22 schools i.e. 4 from boys and 4 from girl’s schools. Thus, 30 afghan school teachers were taken as sample of the study (15 female school teachers from 4 girl’s schools and 15 male school teachers from 4 boy’s schools).One questionnaire was constructed for collection of the information. The data obtained by using the appropriate research tool, questionnaire, was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using statistical tools i.e. percentile. It was concluded that AV aids are available in the afghan refugees’ primary schools but modern AV aids are required and teachers of the schools need training and course to the utility of Av aids to the fullest benefit. Keywords: Availability, Usability, Questionnaire, Refugees, Percentile.
 
Article
The current study looks at the narrative mode magical realism of Sherman Alexie’s novel Flight. It is a mix of realistic narrative and naturalistic techniques with surreal elements of dream and fantasy. The study has focused on the character of Zits (Michael) who is also the protagonist of the novel. Zits. His original name is Michael but he is nicknamed as Zits because of his skin disease. The present study used qualitative content analysis as a tool of research. The study used Postmodernism as a theoretical framework focusing on the significance of using magical realism as a narrative technique in the novel. The technique of magical realism was needed for portrayal of Zits’ psychological transformational journeys. He was always involved in gruesome retaliations against the society. He even hated his father, who was an American-Indian, until he embarked on the psychological transformational journeys which made him realize that forgiveness is preferable than vengeance since it is the only option for him to find peace of mind and not via revenge or by retaliations. This finally leads him to accept his foster parents who physically and morally mistreated him in his childhood. The technique of magical realism helped the novelist build a world-view he wanted the readers to experience. The study revealed that the technique of magical realism was helpful to the novelist to portray the transformation of the character of Zits. It revealed how the transformed identities of an emotionally wounded male Indian orphan assisted him in considering the evilness of colonialism, racism and violence. It aided him in seeing the need of mending those wounds after realizing empathy, forgiveness, compassion and exploring reconciliation with others as realistic paths out of grieves and sufferings. It's easy to express hopes after all the hardships in the form of shames and destructive ideas.
 
Article
The research paper gives the importance of innovative and technology-oriented teachin9 among IX standard school students. The main objectives of the study are to find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the Pre-test of the control group with respect to the male and female in learning algebra at ninth standard school students. To find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the post-test of the control group with respect to the male and female in learning algebra at ninth standard school students. To find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the Pre-test of the control group with respect to the rural and urban students in learning algebra at ninth standard. To find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the post-test of the control group with respect to the rural and urban students in learning algebra at ninth standard. To.find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the Pre-test of the experimental group with respect to the male and female in learning algebra at ninth standard school students. To find out whether there is a significant difference between the achievement mean score in the post-test of the experimental group with respect to the male and female in learning algebra at ninth standard school students. Methodology: Equated experimental research design. Samples: sixty pupils studying in standard IX. Thirty students were considered as control group and another thirty students were considered as experimental group by adopting the purposive random sampling technique. Reliability of the tool: The Reliability of the tool was calculated by split-half method and the calculated reliability value was 0.81. Tool: (1) Multimedia package were developed and validated for the topic-algebra of standard 9th mathematics. (2) Pre-test and post-test materials were prepared and validated. Procedure of the study: The investigator split the sample from each school into equal groups based on their Vil standard third trimester mark. (1) Administrating pre-test for controlled group and experimental group. (2) Control group had imparted conventional method while experimental group was provid with inultimedia package. (3)The post-test score was used for testing hypothesis Statistical analysis: test used for testing hypothesis. "We must give our students the skills with which they find a way through the see of knowledge that we have created and continue with lifelong learning. Today, we have the ability. through technology, to really and truly teach ourselves to become the lifelong learners. This is required for sustained economic developments"
 
Independent sample t-test comparing problems faced by pre-service teachers during their practicum on the basis of gender
ANOVA test comparing problems faced by pre-service teachers during their practicum on the basis of programs
LSD multiple comparisons of teaching skills on the basis of programs
ANOVA test comparing problem faced by pre-service teachers during their practicum on the basis of class level
Article
The study aimed at exploring the challenges and difficulties faced by pre-service teachers during their teaching practicum. The current study espoused Quantitative Research Methods and adopted a self-constructed questionnaire as the research instrument. 860 students were selected through convenient sampling as participants of the study and had recently completed their practicum tenure. The findings from the four areas of inquiry demonstrated that pre-service teachers only experienced a moderate or slight level of challenges which include the availability of instructional material from cooperating school, number of students in a class, teaching subject which is not related to the major area, availability of furniture, using methods for different abilities students, identifying, dealing with individual differences, demands from the cooperating school, teaching extra classes other than assigned ones, doing non-teaching duties in the cooperating school, paying transportation charges during teaching practice. The rest of the problems were identified as slight problems and are consistent with the level of classes being taught. Also, students enrolled in B.Ed. programs faced more problems in comparison to the students enrolled in other programs. The findings will be beneficial for pre-service, teachers’ training institutes, cooperating schools, and policymakers.
 
Article
This paper examines the relationship and the impact of interest rate and CPI difference from one year to another on the exchange rate of the home country. This particular study has been conducted in the context of Pakistan which serves to be the home country, and the empirical findings are made in relation to China, Japan, UK and USA. The study uses the panel data concerning the exchange rate, interest rate and CPI difference for all the five countries ranging from the first quarter of 1991(Q1) to the last quarter of 2011(Q4). The results of the study validate the conjecture of the literature that in the long-run, inflation affects the exchange rate in a positive way, while interest rate prevailing in a country has a negative impact on the exchange rate. The results of the panel data regression on the cumulative data of all the countries, with fixed-effect and random-effect shows that the relationship prevails but both the CPI difference and interest rate affects the exchange rate to a very insignificant level. Comparatively, the results of LSDV, which involved evaluating the coefficients on the country-specific level, shows that interest rate and CPI change has significant impact on the exchange rate.
 
Comparison of the Favorable Coverage on Malala issue in Jang and Nawa-e-Waqt.
Comparison of the (Neutrals) Coverage on Malala issue in Jang and Nawa-e-Waqt.
Article
Analysis of the media coverage on the attack incidence on Malala (Nobel peace prize winner) benefits to comprehend the notions that how media outline the opinions and viewpoints. Media outlets play a dynamic role on how the people perceives several issues highlighted in the news. The media organizes the varied framing of realism of issues of the public interest and vice versa. The study objectives to find out that how the leading print media in Pakistan have covered Malala issue and classify the variances amongst the two leading newspapers based on several categories. Two Urdu newspapers (Jang and Nawa-e-Waqt) of Pakistan were selected for this study based on their high circulation and trustworthiness amongst the readers. The print newspapers published in the months of October and November 2012 were examined to find the framing of Malala issue. The study reveals that the favorable (56%), unfavorable (16%) and neutral (27%) frames found in the newspaper Jang and favorable (46%), unfavorable (47%) and neutral (7%) found in Nawa-e-Waqt. It is also observed that favorable Malala issue related news stories were disseminated more in Jang.
 
Conference Paper
The present study examined the attitudes of students in Pakistani schools towards family role in school violence. For this purpose, a case study of selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa” was carried out in districts Peshawar and Mardan with the sole purpose of eliciting the students’ perception on violence. To understand gender based respondent’s perceptions the variable of students attitude towards family role in school violence was restricted to three relevant sub-variables i.e. Students Consult Family in Matters of School Violence, Family Shows Interest in Issues of School Violence, and Friends/Peers are More Important than Family for Consultation in School Violence. Results of the study showed that family interest in school violence was non-significant with physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence. The role of peers/friends had a non-significant relationship with physical, sexual and economic violence.
 
Article
The study is based on analyzing Pakistan's individual investor by contrasting their behavior in bull market (2007 & 2010) and bear market (2008-2009).The major objective of study is to examine whether the attitude, perception and preferences towards risk, book to market valuations are different between varying market conditions. Empirical investigation is done by using data of 100 companies of different sectors for four years. Price earnings ratio, Book to market value, systematic risk, volatility and abnormal returns are used as measure of risk in six different regression models along with intercept and interactive dummies. Individual level of ownership is used as attitude towards risk. Due to some behavioral biases, Overall Individual investor attitude towards risk is similar in both market condition except a significant behavioral difference is identified between bull and bear market and such behavior is associated with Book to Market Valuation only.
 
Article
The study aims to investigate the association between HR system and employee engagement through HR positive attributions. Data collection is done through a survey-based questionnaire from 230 employees of telecom firms of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The data is analyzed through PROCESS Macros along with other statistical tests. The results of the study show full mediation of employee HR employee attributions between HR system and employee engagement. These findings highlight that not only the investments and efforts made by management on the HR system but communication and clear signals regarding those efforts play an important part in the development of attributions and resultant positive outcomes. It insisted on the importance of communicating policies, intentions, and motivations clearly to the employees. This study has added into the literature by identifying the HR system as one of the most important antecedents of employee HR attributions. Along with this, it explores the HR attribution’s role as a mediator in the relationship of HR and employee outcomes. It has been added into the literature by using information processing theory as a theoretical lens to study the phenomenon of HR attributions. Therefore, the present study opens new endeavors for researchers by allowing them to explain the phenomenon of HR attributions from the lens of information processing theory and in a local context, culture, and in different organizational settings and to explore more factors that may have a role in discussed model to achieve organizational outcomes.
 
Article
Awareness of mainstream elementary level teacher regarding learning difficulty (LD) is very crucial to identify and deal with students having LD at an early stage. Subsequently, there are insufficient studies that investigate the mainstream teacher’s awareness of LD in Pakistan. Therefore, the focus of the current study is to measure the level of awareness of mainstream elementary school teachers about learning difficulty, and the influence of variables i.e. gender, age, educational qualification, working experience of teachers, private and public sector schools on the awareness of LD. The design of the study was descriptive in nature. The population comprised of two hundred mainstream teachers of public and private elementary level schools (6th grade, 7th grade, and 8th grade) of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Selection of sample for the study was based on the stratified random sampling technique and data was collected by self-developed questionnaires. After statistical analysis, it was established that majority of respondents (73.5%) have a low level of awareness about LD. Appropriate professional training, at different levels and durations, can be provided to teachers in the direction of building capacity of teachers’ instructional practices to deal with and facilitate students having a learning difficulty. KEYWORDS Awareness, Teacher Training, Learning difficulty, Elementary level
 
Article
Postwar era significantly irreversibly changed the concept of the US nation and identity at all. The Great Depression in the 1930s had seriously affected the American Economy; however, the Second World War resuscitated the US economy. The USA became the world power; and in the postwar era, the Americans enjoyed an unprecedented personal prosperity and individual freedom. The widespread theories of Freudian psychology highlighted the individual's origin of mind and the seriousness of importance of the individual, which was also the social impact of World War Two. Secondly, gender issues were significant social matter of the American Society in the postwar America. Contributing much to changing concept of identity, the Beat Generation is one of the most significant results of the history of literature and literary movements during the postwar era. Thirdly, against the traditional methods of composition, together with the publication of Kerouac's On the Road in 1957, this period would be a newly bred movement in American Literature. The members of Beat Generation Literary Movement made an all-out effort to open up new possibilities of modern composition. The phrase 'to be on your own' is at the heart of our understanding of the aspect of the language that the Beat Generation Literary Movement had formed.
 
Article
The paper investigates the impact of Instagram beauty influencers’ content on the purchase decisions and impulse purchasing of female university students of Pakistan. The study has also explored the mediating role of source credibility in order to observe how the influencer’s credibility affects the purchase decisions of the followers. Theoretical basis of Elaboration Likelihood Model and Two Step Flow theory are used for this research. The study has been conducted using quantitative research approach. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select a sample of 400 females aged 18 to 35 from four universities of Lahore which included Kinnaird College, Lahore School of Economics, Lahore College for Women University and University of Central Punjab. After collecting data through online questionnaire, SPSS and Smart PLS were used to analyze the data. The results showed a significant positive relationship between Instagram beauty influencer’s content and purchase decisions. It was also observed that usage of Instagram beauty influencers’ content also has a significant positive relationship with impulse purchasing. The results also showed that source credibility mediated the relationships. The study will help in expanding the knowledge regarding the increasing role of social media influencers in the advertising sector of Pakistan.
 
Article
Social media has changed the dynamics of marketing communication from monologue to interactive dialogue. This interaction has enabled the marketers to engage the consumers for favourable brand outcomes, dominantly the brand loyalty. The study examines the mediating effects of customer-brand relationship and customer-company relationship between the social media consumer engagement and brand loyalty; linked through the social -identity theory. This empirical research is based on the analysis of responses from the consumers of the banking sector. A total of 243 respondents were selected through the snowball sampling technique to gather data on structured questionnaire. Analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling technique in Smart PLS 3 software. Results indicate the stronger impact of social media cognitive and affective engagement on the customer-company relationship, while customer-brand relationship is largely impacted by social media behavioural engagement. Moreover, effect of cognitive engagement is lesser than the effective engagement towards the brand related outcomes. Building the customer-brand and customer-company relationship is important along with investing on the customer engagement initiatives. Engagement should be emphasized from three perspectives of cognition, affect and behaviour rather than merely from the behavioural perspective. Customer-brand relationship is more effective for favourable outcomes than the customer-company relationship. Based on empirical evidence, this study adds to the literature by studying the mediating role of customer-brand and customer-company relationship between the relationship of social media consumer engagement and the brand loyalty.
 
Article
This research study investigates the relationship and the effects of budget deficit and money growth on inflation in the case of Pakistan's economy. The data was gathered from different sectors in Pakistan. The data was collected from yahoo finance, ADB, KSE and State Bank of Pakistan. The period covered by this study is twenty six years starting from 1986-2011. The regression analysis test was used to examine/determine the results that were found/experienced during the research work. In regression analysis ANOVA, correlation of coefficients, and regression model test was used to analyze the results that were applied on the information gathered through secondary sources. The results show that there is a positive association of budget deficit and money growth on inflation. In general the key outcomes indicate that financing and government expenditures could have different effects. Therefore, it is very difficult to differentiate between current and capital expenditures. Budget deficit increase inflation in country and due to this there is decrease in money growth of a country. 1. Introduction. The concerns about budget deficit and money growth on inflation have become global concern. Different studies have identified the causal relationships of different variables, either individually or collectively, which has its implications on the inflation in an economy. Although majority of the studies have indicated that budget deficit has been one of the major concerns regarding inflation, others have identified no empirical evidence to assure this fact. The coordinative relationship amongst money, budget deficit, and inflation has been at the core of monetary economics. It is argued that monetization of budget deficit has been the major initiator of inflation in developing countries. Considering the monetary phenomenon, it is argued that when growth rate of money tends to be more than growth of money than inflation takes place. In a given period, when the revenue tends to be lower than the total expenditures then budget deficit arises. The popular view is that high interest rates are yielded by large deficits which have chronic effects on both the economic growth and productivity. Monetization of certain parts of the deficits is done by the monetary authorities in order to lower the money growth and inflation, which are caused by the high interest rate as a result of high deficits forces (Darrat & Suliman, 1991). In prior research, Sargent and Wallace (1984) have argued that higher inflation rates are negatively generated as a result of tight monetary policy due to large deficit. This has led the economists, practitioners and other government official to devise mechanisms through which they can control and lower the increasing budget deficit.
 
Article
INTRODUCTION The phenomenon of displacement and dispersion is as old as is the history of man. Such displacement both in voluntarily and non-voluntarily context had a great link with the identity of the people. Anthropologists suggest that the human race is subject to migration as a matter of social necessity. The migration and displacement on one hand create opportunities of exploration for such displaced people. While on the other hand, it is considered as the most undesirable. The people who left their long established homes never seem happy at their new places of settlement. The responses of such people reveal that they were not willing to leave their social and cultural world. Our understanding is that humans heavily relay on the sense of settlement. Even the dispersed people also keep on forming their sense of settlement within their new socio geographical situations. Forming and settling of new identities in included in diaspora studies. Diaspora is a term that describes the expulsion of Jews from the Holy Land and their dispersion over the world. Diaspora is derived from the Greek term diaspora, which means "to disperse" (Ashcraft, 2004). Diaspora is also one of the key challenges of colonization. According to Ashcraft (2004) local people were banished from their long-established homes to various geographical places during the colonization period. The transfer of African slaves by the United Kingdom to other countries around the world during the colonial period is a clear example of diaspora and exile. Many people from the subcontinent were deployed to other countries of the world to fight as soldiers in World War II. Abdullah Hussain's Urdu novel Udas Naslain (Degenerated Nations) paints a realistic image of the movement of the Indian people to the war's borders. Following the fall of the colonial empire, many new politically sovereign states emerged on the globe of the world. After the British Empire ended, India and Pakistan became sovereign states in South Asia. Pakistan and India became independent countries as a result of "religious nationalism" (Nijhawan, 2004). With the birth of these new independent states, people from across the border freely or unintentionally crossed the Indian and Pakistani frontiers in the name of religious nationalism. With the independence of India and Pakistan, the phenomenon of diaspora emerged in South Asia fiction. Jalal (1995) considers that at the moment of the partition of India there were following two obvious causes for this migration across borders. • Religious Nationalism • Cultural Configuration Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah's aim for Pakistan at the time of its inception was to "have one nation, one culture, and one language" (Jaffrelot, 2002). As a result, people across Pakistan-India border flocked to their respective countries for cultural unification as well as religious nationalism. However, this "Uni Dimensional Nationalism" (Nijhawan, 2004), later proved insufficient in forming a unified nation with a single national culture. Being a realist and rationalist some critics claimed that Pakistan failed to cater its national and unified ideology on account of failure in its process of acculturation. In post partition times, Pakistan failed to provide a safe sociological situation to her ethnic minorities. Instead of developing a coherent national culture, Pakistani culture has given rise to regional identities and subcultures. We are not denouncing regional and subcultures here; rather, these regional and subcultures have eroded Pakistan's cohesive national integrity.
 
Article
Relationship of Energy Projects in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) with Public Health: A Mediating Role of Climatic Change
 
Article
The purpose of the present study is to discover the hidden agendas or ideologies of the newspapers, The News and Dawn, by critically analyzing their choice of lexical items and syntactic structures while drafting their editorials. For this analysis, the researchers choose thirty editorials, in total, from both of the newspapers, i.e., fifteen from each, on the same issues or subject matters. This strategy of choosing editorials on similar issues or subject matters helps the researchers to discover the choice of language by both editors on the basis of their organizational agendas. For the analysis of the language used in the editorials, the researchers use the qualitative method and van Dijk’s media discourse as the guiding framework. The researchers found that The News used vague and unspecific forms of language making the news misleading and ambiguous for the readers, however, on the other hand, Dawn used a quite simple form of language to communicate its stance on the subjects in question as far as the editorials under study were concerned. The objective approach in drafting the news items especially the editorials helps the common readers to have a better understanding of the news under consideration, moreover, objectivity on the part of the editors shows their unbiased organizational ideology in mass media.
 
Article
Researchers get fulfillment in an innovation if the results find practical application. Where dissemination lacks, the findings are a waste of resources and becomes useless pursuit with no positive outcome. Extension functionaries are a link between scientist and farmers having an obligation of bringing the desired change among the farming community. This paper aims to study challenges faced by the functionaries while disseminating new agricultural technologies and enlist suitable suggestions to overcome the constraints. Purposive sampling method was used to select 80 respondents in ten blocks of Coimbatore District Tamil Nadu State. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Among the five categories of constraints, the technical constraint was highly ranked by the respondents, and its overall rank was first. Lack of proper training on programme implementation and the programme not being as per the local need were factors that were strongly agreed upon by the respondents. The administrative constraint was ranked second. The constraint score ranged from 66.00 per cent to 90.00 per cent. Lack of participatory planning and lean staff at the field level were the highly scored challenges in the category. The operational constraint ranked third by the respondents with a range of 51.00 per cent to86.00 per cent. The fourth on the list was the general constraint as ranked by the respondents with a range of 66.00 per cent to 75.00 per cent.
 
Article
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Social trends of communication are changing day by day either through technology or lifestyles. Frequent use of mobile phones opened up new doors for innovations in communication process. Many messaging applications like; Whatsapp, Line, Instagram, WeChat, Facebook Messenger etc. are in vogue and has made communication more effective and easy. Current research will address only whatapp users. New generation is very keen and efficient to use whatsapp to communicate their peers, friends, family and others. They use verbal and non-verbal communication tools; one of those is use of Emojis. Guibon et al. (2016) has reported that 92% of online population uses emojis in their messages. Emojis were created by Shigetaka Kurita in the late 90s. Unlike emoticons, they were not only meant to represent faces but concepts and objects too. Their popularity and frequent use among users has made them a part and parcel in digital communication. Digital conversation operates through verbal signs whereas non-verbal signs are lost in digital communication as asserted by Tayebenik and Puteh (2012). Emojis, an English adaptation of Japanese word is used to add an affective tone to the text message and help to express emotional sentiments through pictures in lieu of non-verbal signs, as quoted by Lo (2008). Emojis act like affective filters for expressing messages on social applications. Tigwell and Flatla (2016) pointed out that Emojis can be misinterpreted due to users' interpretation and variable designs of Emojis.
 
The reliability coefficient for the study variables (Cronbach's
Test the normal distribution of data using the Kolmogorov-
The mean and standard deviation for each of the different fields of workers cultures
Article
This study aims to analyze the phenomenon of cultural difference in human resources and its impact on the quality of performance provided Depending on the problem of the study that wanted to explain the extent of organizations' awareness of the importance of cultural difference for workers and its reflection on achieving the quality of the services provided, Where the study followed the descriptive analytical approach The study population consisted of workers in the General Company for Iraqi Textile and Leather Industries (Baghdad). The study sample amounted to (60) samples. The study reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which was the existence of a correlation between the cultural difference of the workers and its quality of performance in general, In addition to the existence of a significant influence relationship between the two variables, Based on the conclusions reached by the study, recommendations were made, the most important of which is granting a certain freedom and independence to human resources to accomplish the tasks assigned to them without referring to the higher management by adopting the principle of decentralization in work and delegating authority.
 
Article
Women crime stories have become top stories; it has taken a lot ofimportance not only because of the women issues but crime stories as well. Thepresent study explores the image of women in context to gender issues of crimes inthe news of two dailies: daily Jang and Nawa-i-Waqt. The study also finds out thecomparison of two dailies regarding women image. Findings of the study show thatdaily Jang is less prone to describe women as helpless and as powerless, helplesscreature whereas daily. Whereas in the Nawa-i-Waqt paints a picture of women in amore regardless way, in their news, women are shown victimized by men and maledominating society aspect is also shown. The study also highlights that dailyNawa-i-Waqt frequently publishes news on crime issues related to the women ascompared to daily Jang. The study suggests further research be done on the sametopic in electronic media.
 
Article
This study was an effort to analyze the comparison of language, of sister publications of two publications groups; Jang Group of Publications and Liberty Papers (Pvt) Ltd., during the months of November and December 2013. Four Urdu newspapers Daily Jang, Daily Inqakab, Daily Khabrain and Daily Naya Akhbar are the Universe of the present study. The researcher has selected all the newspapers. Comparison of the Jang group of Publications and Liberty Papers (Pvt) Ltd in relation to the Slang and English words. The findings show that the sister publications of the Liberty Papers (Pvt) Ltd used more English words as compared to the sister publications of the Jang group of Publications. It also illustrates that the usage of Slang words is more in the newspapers of Jang group of Publications as compared to Liberty Papers.
 
Top-cited authors
Syed Hassan Raza
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University
Mehmona Liaqat
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University
Muhammad Yasir
  • Comsats University Islamabad Attock Pakistan
Suhaib Aamir
  • Air University of Islamabad
Manzoor H Memon
  • Manzil Pakistan