Urban Studies

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1360-063X
Publications
Article
For domiciled individuals, homeless people provide a disturbing reminder that all is not right with the world. Reactions to seeing homeless people frequently encompass repulsion, discomfort, sympathy and sometimes futility. This paper considers domiciled constructions of homeless people drawn from interviews with 16 participants recruited in the central business district of a New Zealand city. It documents how, when trying to make sense of this complex social problem, domiciled people draw on shared characterizations of homeless people. The concept of "social distance" is used to interrogate the shifting and sometimes incongruous reactions evident in participant accounts. "Social distancing" is conceptualised as a dynamic communal practice existing in interactions between human beings and reflected in the ways that domiciled people talk about their experiences with homeless individuals.
 
Article
There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.
 
Article
In recent years Vauxhall in south London has been transformed and rebranded as an urban leisure zone for gay men. Disused railway arches and warehouses have been converted into nightclubs and a significant night-time economy has developed rivalling Soho's existing gay village. However, with its commodified forms of public sex and high levels of recreational drug use, Vauxhall's club scene looks rather different from the British gay villages of the 1990s. This article examines how the area's nightlife entrepreneurs have capitalised on the recent liberalisation of licensing laws while drawing on the historical associations with the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens (1660-1859) in attempts to market the area as a site of embedded hedonism. Overall, the aesthetic and cultural themes of Vauxhall's club scene seem to contradict earlier assumptions about the desexualisation and sanitisation of contemporary gay culture.
 
Article
GIS methods are used to construct measures of food access for neighbourhoods in the Portland, Oregon, US metropolitan area and the sensitivity of such measures to methodological variation is examined. The level of aggregation of data inputs is varied and the effect of using both Euclidean and street network distances is tested. It is found that, regardless of the level of geographical disaggregation, distance-based measures generate approximately the same conclusions about the distribution of food access in the area. It is also found that, while the relationship between street network and Euclidean distances varies with population density, measures computed with either construct generate the same relative patterns of food access. These findings suggest that results from food access studies employing disparate methodologies can often be compared.
 
Article
The research presented in this paper explores, in the French context, the hypothesis that employment problems experienced by low-skilled jobseekers are partially caused by spatial urban factors. Many low-skilled workers live in poor neighbourhoods where they are exposed to a distressed social environment and/or weak job accessibility. For reasons discussed in this article, living in such neighbourhoods may increase the duration of unemployment for jobseekers. On the basis of an empirical study, this hypothesis is tested in the Paris-Ile-de-France metropolitan area and addresses the question: all other things being equal, are low-skilled workers living in high-poverty neighbourhoods and/or neighbourhoods with low job accessibility exposed to a greater risk of long-term unemployment?
 
Population change in four Dublin hinterland suburbs, 1996-2006 
Article
This paper is based on an empirical case study of four suburbs in the Dublin city hinterland. It is argued that pastoral ideology plays an active role in constituting these new suburbs and helps to inculcate a sense of place. This sense of place in turn helps to cement social embeddedness which acts as a bulwark against isolation and alienation. Pastoral ideology is invoked by suburbanites even when the pastoral dimension of the suburb is under threat or has disappeared. The village or ‘main street’ acts as an important anchor for new suburban residents as does the surrounding ‘rural’ landscape and their own collective memories. However, the study reveals a gap between how some newer suburbs are represented and imagined, and how they are experienced in everyday life. This raises questions about the long-term viability of suburbs that lack a sense of place.
 
Article
Research has identified several factors that affect fear of crime in public space. However, the extent to which gender moderates the effectiveness of fear-reducing measures has received little attention. Using data from the Chicago Transit Authority Customer Satisfaction Survey of 2003, this study aims to understand whether train transit security practices and service attributes affect men and women differently. Findings indicate that, while the presence of video cameras has a lower effect on women's feelings of safety compared with men, frequent and on-time service matters more to male passengers. Additionally, experience with safety-related problems affects women significantly more than men. Conclusions discuss the implications of the study for theory and gender-specific policies to improve perceptions of transit safety.
 
Article
The paper undertakes a detailed examination of growth-pole strategies, an emphasis in regional economic planning during the 1960s which never lived up to its early promise. The initial concern is with the origins of the strategy, particularly the manner in which the work of Perroux (on dominance and economic space) became modified to form a normative concept in regional economic planning. Consideration is given to the various regional-problem settings in which the growth-pole strategy has been advocated. These settings reflected such policy concerns as depressed-area revival, the encouragement of regional deconcentration, the modification of a national urban system, the pursuit of interregional balance, etc. Attention then turns to the fundamental nature and underlying rationale of the strategy. The paper is continued in Part 2 which appears in the next issue of the journal.
 
Article
This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at the start of the analysis period. An intertemporal differences specification of an econometric model is employed to eliminate the potential selection bias arising from unmeasured individual characteristics, utilising data on 1.67 million adults living in Swedish metropolitan areas 1991—99. It is found that there are important differences in the nature and magnitude of neighbourhood income mix effects in several dimensions, but many are statistically and economically significant. Neighbourhood mix effects are consistently stronger for parents and those who do not work full-time, independently of other individual dimensions, although a combination of personal attributes typically governs the vulnerability of the individual to the neighbourhood.
 
Logit model of willingness to move in the case of becoming unemployed in Czech Republic, 2006 
Logit model of willingness to move in the case of becoming unemployed in Czech Republic, 2001 
OLS regression model of year-to-year changes in inter-regional differences in number of immigrants to Prague with a university education, Czech Republic, 2000-07 
Article
This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force.
 
Article
The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.
 
Article
South Africa's housing policy arose from a multi-party negotiating body, the National Housing Forum, made up of representatives of the housing sector and key political constituencies. Negotiations carried out over a two-year period (1992-94) resulted in a housing delivery approach whereby government facilitates a framework in which the private sector carries out the delivery of 'incremental housing'. This paper briefly describes the process through which the policy was formulated and presents the policy framework and the key programme through which the housing options are to be delivered. It offers the first attempt to gauge beneficiaries' feelings about their experience in accessing a subsidy; their views about their levels of satisfaction with their new housing option; and tests whether policy options negotiated by the stakeholders at the NHF matched the preferences of beneficiaries.
 
Article
Jacobs argued that grand planning schemes intending to redevelop large swaths of a city according to a central theoretical framework fail because planners do not understand that healthy cities are organic, spontaneous, messy, complex systems that result from evolutionary processes. She argued that a gradual pace of redevelopment would facilitate maintenance of existing interpersonal ties. This paper operationalizes the concept of pace of development within a cross-sectional framework as the "age diversity of housing." Analysis of a population-based multilevel community survey of Chicago linked with census housing data predicts individual perceptions of neighborhood social relations (cohesion, control, intergenerational closure, and reciprocal exchange). A gradual pace of redevelopment resulting in historical diversity of housing significantly predicts social relations, lending support to Jacobs's claims.
 
Article
With evidence that urbanisation is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, this article compares daily physical activity between rural and urban dwellers. Specifically, it examines habitual daily activity levels, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and energy expenditure in agricultural and urban Jamaicans and urban North Americans. Ambulation was 60 per cent greater in rural Jamaicans than in the urban dwellers (4675 ± 2261 versus 2940 ± 1120 ambulation-attributed arbitrary units (AU)/day; P = 0.001). Levels of ambulation in lean urban Jamaicans were similar to those in lean urban North Americans, whereas obese urban dwellers walked less than their lean urban counterparts (2198 ± 516 versus 2793 ± 774 AU/day; P = 0.01). The data with respect to daily sitting mirrored the walking data; obese Americans sat for almost four hours more each day than rural Jamaicans (562 ± 78 versus 336 ± 68 minutes/day; P < 0.001). Urbanisation is associated with low levels of daily activity and NEAT.
 
Article
The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.
 
Article
This article examines the effect of ethnic diversity on social capital in Amsterdam neighbourhoods by looking at the effects of the ethnic diversity of a neighbourhood on the social networks that underpin civil society. A distinction is made between homogeneous, more individually oriented social networks, on the one hand, and horizontal heterogeneous networks on the other. The density of foundations—i.e. the number of foundations in a neighbourhood—is used as the indicator for the first type of networks and the density of leisure associations for the latter type. In addition, the study looks at the effect of a changing context in Amsterdam in which ethnic diversity has increasingly come to be perceived as problematic by inhabitants and local politicians. The results indeed show that ethnic diversity has a different effect on both forms of civil society: the horizontal heterogeneous networks suffer more from ethnic diversity than the homogeneous networks.
 
Article
This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al. and Marvin and Graham to develop a framework that considers infrastructure organisation alongside household livelihoods in order to analyse the features of governance and vulnerability that affect urban livelihoods by privileging some groups and bypassing others.
 
Article
Economic benefits are sometimes used to justify transport investments. Such was the case with the River Line of southern New Jersey, USA, which broke ground in 2000 and began operating in 2004. Recently, the line has been performing near full capacity and there is evidence that it has spurred development. Disaggregate data on owned-home appreciation are used to investigate the initial economic impacts of the line, looking carefully at non-linearity in the appreciation gradient, differential effects of station ridership and parking, redistribution of property appreciation gains and differences by property and neighbourhood type. At this time, the net impact of the line on the owned housing market is neutral to slightly negative. While lower-income census tracts and smaller houses seem to appreciate near the station, this may be a value transfer from farther-away properties not favoured with access. Few studies have previously looked for such effects.
 
Article
Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus walk-and-ride (WAR) station and overlay zoning interrelate. Hedonic models estimate capitalisation effects of LRT-related accessibility and overlay zoning on single-family houses and condos in different neighbourhoods for the system in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Impacts differ by housing and neighbourhood type. Amenity-dominated mixed-use neighbourhoods-predominantly WAR communities-experience premiums of 6 per cent for single-family houses and over 20 per cent for condos, the latter boosted an additional 37 per cent by overlay zoning. Residential neighbourhoods-predominantly PAR communities-experience no capitalisation benefits for single-family houses and a discount for condos. The results suggest that land use mix is an important variable to select comparable neighbourhoods.
 
Article
In many land-scarce Asian cities, planning agencies have sought to reduce space for the dead to release land for the living, encouraging conversion from burial to cremation over several decades. This has caused secular principles privileging efficient land use to conflict with symbolic values invested in burial spaces. Over time, not only has cremation become more accepted, even columbaria have become overcrowded, and new forms of burials (sea and woodland burials) have emerged. As burial methods change, so too do commemorative rituals, including new on-line and mobile phone rituals. This paper traces the ways in which physical spaces for the dead in several east Asian cities have diminished and changed over time, the growth of virtual space for them, the accompanying discourses that influence these dynamics and the new rituals that emerge concomitantly with the contraction of land space.
 
Article
The London congestion charging scheme was introduced in 2003 alongside a series of other changes to the transport system, most notably improved bus services. Research on the effects of the scheme usually attributes (often implicitly) all the changes that took place in central London since 2003 to the congestion charging, while the effects of other factors, as well as the effects of trends over time, are not usually (explicitly) considered. This paper revisits the results of the London scheme to examine to what degree observed effects (related to congestion and traffic levels, changes in travel behaviour and air pollution) can be fully or partly attributed to congestion charging. Attention is also given to the amount of revenues the scheme generated. While there is no dispute over the theoretical rationale for introducing congestion charging, the London scheme reveals that questions can be raised with regard to its practical effectiveness.
 
Article
Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.
 
Article
This study uses a telephone field experiment to assess the degree of discrimination against female Albanians in Athenian rental housing markets. By examining a large sample represented by 122 urban areas, it was found that Albanians faced lower access to housing than the corresponding probability for Greeks. Moreover, Albanians faced lower access in newer apartments, above-ground apartments and repaired apartments. Meanwhile, Albanian home-seekers have to pay more than Greeks for these housing characteristics. Of further importance is the finding that Albanians have higher access to housing in areas closer to the Athens centre, suggesting the role of landlords in creating residential ethnic segregation. All findings are significant and suggest that Albanians both anticipate and encounter housing discrimination.
 
Article
This paper, which is based on the detailed analysis of the post-war archives of the French Christian union Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC), which became the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT) in 1964, highlights the difficulties, both from a practical and ideological point of view, for a militant organisation to embrace the cause of immigrant workers and to give them a voice. The CFDT had to ‘construct’ immigrant workers as a group they could represent, which means as a group that relates to French workers, despite possible xenophobia. A key moment was the denunciation of their housing conditions that make immigrant workers not competitors in the job market but victims of injustice. The union had to reinvent its engagement frames in order to include the specific problems faced by the immigrant workforce. The study shows that the urban dimension was essential in this process as Paris slums made visible an important plight of migrants and provided the opportunity to change public opinion.
 
Socio economic indicators of Chorlton in comparison with Manchester, the North West and the UK 
Article
Recent years have seen an expansion in the work on the attitudes, beliefs and preferences of those middle-class groups that have accompanied the return of capital to many North American and western European city centres and their surrounding urban suburbs. Yet despite this, it is argued that there is little research linking gentrification to wider processes of social transformation, particularly debates over housing market decision-making, the balancing of work and life, and the gender division of labour within the household. It is to examining the interaction of these aspects of everyday life in a gentrifying area that this paper turns, using the example of Chorlton, a southern urban suburb of Manchester.
 
Article
This paper analyses the continuing crisis of the Brazilian housing finance system in the second half of the 1980s and early 1990s. The paper assesses the impact of the closure of the Brazilian National Housing Bank in 1986 on future developments within the circuit of housing finance and in relation to social housing production. The paper briefly analyses the SEAC scheme, set up during the Sarney government (1985-89) and the MAS/CEF housing programme, set up during the Collor government (1990-92). The paper adds to a previous Urban Studies paper which focuses on developments in the first half of the 1980s.
 
Article
This paper considers the relationships between hospitality, culture and urban regeneration through an examination of rom (ruin) venues, which operate in dilapidated buildings in Budapest, Hungary. The paper reviews previous work on culture and urban regeneration in order to locate the role of hospitality within emerging debates. It subsequently interrogates the evolution of the rom phenomenon and demonstrates how, in this context, hospitality thrives because of social and physical decay in urban locations, how operators and entrepreneurs exploit conflicts among various actors involved in regeneration and how hospitality may be mobilised purposefully in the regeneration process. The paper demonstrates how networked entrepreneurship maintains these operations and how various forms of cultural production are entangled and mobilised in the venues' hospitality propositions.
 
Article
Effective and efficient planning and development of residential environments require clarifying the nature of residential preferences. In reality, residential preferences are heterogeneous, so the standard econometric models that assume only one type of preference are not optimal. In this study, conjoint choice experiment methods are employed with a mixed logit approach. The findings reveal significant heterogeneity with regard to some residential attributes. The determinants of preference heterogeneity were also investigated by conducting regression analyses on the attributes that were valued heterogeneously. Overall, the relationships observed between the explanatory variables and the heterogeneity in the valuations were understandable. However, coefficient of determination values for each model were low, indicating that the bulk of preference heterogeneity results from unobservable factors.
 
Article
As millions of people world-wide now live in residential areas with restricted access to the public, the ascent of gated communities can no longer be attributed to incidental or deviant development. Hence this paper makes an attempt to discover the economic rationale behind the gated community phenomenon; it discusses the mainstream theses and outlines 10 theorems for an alternative proposition based on theories of public choice and fiscal federalism. The core theorem asserts that a centrally featured system of government diminishes the ability of local municipalities properly to reflect citizens' demands for local public goods and services, and that this constitutes a strong incentive for people to move into gated communities. In particular, gated and guarded residential developments represent an exit option when local municipalities fail to deploy vital governmental rules and instruments, such as fiscal equivalence and benefit taxation.
 
Article
The evolving debate on "urban shrinkage" mirrors an increasing interest in demographic phenomena on the part of urban scholars. This paper discusses ambiguous evidence about recent population decline in the large cities of Poland and the Czech Republic, with a particular focus on Łódz and Brno in general and their inner cities more specifically. By applying a mixed-method approach, the paper identifies indications of inner-city repopulation and socio-demographic diversification which are not yet apparent in register or census data. It is argued that there are indications of a silent transformation of traditional residential patterns and neighbourhoods in east central Europe. In the inner cities, this is reflected, amongst other things, by the presence of new households that may be called "transitory urbanites".
 
Article
New urban and economic development are transforming the fundamental nature and structure of China's cities. The distinctive patterns wrought by overlaying socialist ideals on the pre-1949 city are giving way to new forms reflecting the country's dynamic economic, social and political conditions. This article provides an analysis of the patterns and processes of change in urban form in contemporary Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Analysis of these rapidly changing cities highlights both the regional variation in urban development in China and the emergence of common trends in development and form. The article focuses on patterns of land-use specialisation, circulation and building height, and processes of planning, urban renewal and privatisation of the real estate market. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of Urban Studies (Routledge) is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
 
Article
The electoral and political consequences of suburbanisation recently regained interest in the Anglo-Saxon literature, pointing to a growing polarisation between city and suburban fringe. This paper analyses these processes in the Antwerp urban region and shows the development of a similar electoral divide that is supported by the political parties involved. These observations add to the existing evidence that city–suburban polarisation in Belgium cannot be simply equated with the Anglo-Saxon experience, where a complete suburban fencing off from the city is observable. Rather, because of the comparatively limited development of functions in the Belgian suburbs, a suburban discourse emerges that focuses on safe and accessible cities for the suburban user, yet without much reference to its present inhabitants.
 
Demographic and socioeconomic profiles of each ethnic group 
Strength of belonging to London and Britain amongst British citizens by ethnic group in north London compared with England and Wales 
Article
Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.
 
Article
Policy-makers in several countries are turning to income- and tenure-mixing strategies in an attempt to reverse decades of social and economic isolation in impoverished urban areas. In the US city of Chicago, all high-rise public housing developments across the city are being demolished, public housing residents are being dispersed throughout the metropolitan area and 10 new mixed-income developments are being created on the footprint of former public housing complexes. Findings are presented from in-depth interviews with residents across income levels and tenures at two mixed-income developments and the paper explores residents' perceptions of the physical, psychological and social impacts of the mixed-income setting on their lives.
 
Location-specific characteristics for included municipalities 
Means, marginal effects and elasticities for selected policy variables 
Article
This paper aims to account for important factors influencing bicycle use and focuses in particular on differences between 20 selected German municipalities with considerable variation in their bicycle mode share. Using data from the nation-wide survey Mobility in Germany 2002, a mode choice model for bicycling is developed. In an extension to previous research, social network or spillover effects as a measure of the city’s bicycling culture are also taken into account. These effects are modelled using an instrumental variable approach. It is shown that social network effects increase the probability of cycling for shopping and recreational trip purposes, but not for school, work or errands. Furthermore, it is found that cycling infrastructure matters only for shopping and errand trips. Finally, commuting trips by bicycle seem to be largely independent of any policy variables.
 
Article
The relationship between "neighbourhood" and "community" is contentious: while neighbourhoods are spatially based, communities are more amorphous institutions that are connected to local places through far-flung transnational networks. Dominican corner-store owners (bodegueros) in Philadelphia, USA, understand their role in their local neighbourhood community as a form of "temporary permanence" because their economic development model involves building networks between the US and the Dominican Republic. The mobility practices of grocers and interviews with community leaders in Philadelphia are used to make two propositions about constructions of place-based "neighbourhood communities" in the US: the mobility of the grocers highlights the spatial entrapment experienced by other urban residents and thus their embrace of place-based communities; and, in the mobility of the grocers and conversations with some neighbourhood leaders, we see actualised a more fluid and expansive understanding of the concept of a "neighbourhood community" which is embedded in transnational networks.
 
Types A and B of the environment–mobility link. 
Article
Over the past 30 years, urbanisation has been a prominent phenomenon and various drivers have been proposed to explain it. Very few have suggested that the degradation of the rural environment was one of them. This paper explores the human–environment interface by focusing on the portrayal of these concepts within scholarly literature. A systematic literature review was conducted and 147 articles were examined to determine the direction of the link between the environment and human mobility, and if urbanisation was featured. The results demonstrate that equal attention is paid to both directions of the environment–mobility link. Of the articles reviewed, 40 per cent focus on urbanisation, but 93 per cent of those portray urbanisation as a forcing on the environment, rather than an impact of environmental degradation. The lack of support for environmentally influenced urbanisation can be explained by coupled system complexity, disciplinary research and the silence of those most likely to endure environmental change. Understanding these relationships is paramount to the promotion of adaptation without eroding resilience or further degrading environments.
 
Article
The race and ethnicity of neighbours are thought to be critical in shaping household mobility underlying residential segregation. However, studies on this topic have used data at the census-tract level of analysis rather than at the proximate-neighbour level. Using a non-publicly available version of the neighbour-cluster sample within the American Housing Survey, this study incorporates data on the race, ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics of the proximate neighbours of White, Black and Latino households and examines their impact on household residential satisfaction, out- and in-mobility. Results indicate that proximate-neighbour race and ethnicity matter in influencing endpoints of the mobility process and do not necessarily parallel those at the census-tract level. Implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to the study of residential segregation.
 
Article
The last generation of British new towns is being completed with the dissolution of the New Towns Development Corporations. As the final chapter of the new town movement in Britain draws to a close, this paper examines their financial success by focusing on Milton Keynes. Reputedly one of the most successful new towns, Milton Keynes was the last new town to be started and had the largest projected population. The paper examines the financial accounting reports from 1971 to 1993 and computes the economic returns for the new town as a whole and for each of the major property types. We find that Milton Keynes lost more than one-half a billion pounds. The paper explores why this happened and what the lessons are for new town development efforts around the world. The paper concludes that while it is possible to develop financially successful new towns, it is extremely difficult.
 
Characteristics of IZ programs in Bay Area and Suburban Boston San Francisco MSA Suburban Boston 
Variable definitions and sources 
Determinants of affordable housing production under IZ, San Francisco 
Effects of IZ on housing permits and prices, Boston-area suburbs 
Effects of IZ on housing permits and prices, San Francisco 
Article
Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, panel data on IZ in the San Francisco metropolitan area and suburban Boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how IZ affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ has been modest and depends primarily on how long IZ has been in place. Results from suburban Boston suggest that IZ has contributed to increased housing prices and lower rates of production during periods of regional house price appreciation. In the San Francisco area, IZ also appears to increase housing prices in times of regional price appreciation, but to decrease prices during cooler regional markets. There is no evidence of a statistically significant effect of IZ on new housing development in the Bay Area.
 
Article
This research measures the influence of transit-oriented development (TOD) on the San Diego, CA, condominium market. Many view TOD as a key element in creating a less auto dependent and more sustainable transport system. Price premiums indicate a potential for a market-driven expansion of TOD inventory. A hedonic price model is estimated to isolate statistically the effect of TOD. This includes interaction terms between station distance and various measures of pedestrian orientation. The resulting model shows that station proximity has a significantly stronger impact when coupled with a pedestrian-oriented environment. Conversely, station area condominiums in more auto-oriented environments may sell at a discount. This indicates that TOD has a synergistic value greater than the sum of its parts. It also implies a healthy demand for more TOD housing in San Diego.
 
Live/work mixed use in Markham.  
Article
Contemporary planners see mixing residential, retail and other compatible uses as an essential planning principle. This paper explores the challenges that planners, developers and municipal councillors encounter in trying to implement retail uses as part of the mix in suburban areas in three Canadian cities. The study finds that planners employ evolutionary theories of urban development to naturalise their normative visions of walkable and sociable communities. By contrast, developers point to consumer behaviour to explain why planners' ideas on mix do not work. In a society where people shop at big-box outlets, making the local café or pub commercially viable proves increasingly challenging.
 
Article
The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance.
 
Article
Places in which there is a strong spatial connection between violence and drug activity can often evoke particular stereotypes. They are believed to be places marked by high levels of social disorganisation, unemployment, disorder and racial heterogeneity. Yet scholars have argued that the spatial relationship between drug market activity and violence is more complicated and that other factors may explain this geographical connection. In the first article of this two-part series, different types of spatial analysis were employed to describe crime concentrations of drugs and violence. Evidence was found that challenges the notion that places with drug activity are inevitably more violent. This second paper examines what factors predict these variations in drug–violence spatial patterns in Seattle when derived using different spatial methods. The findings indicate that racial composition, disorder and unemployment may not be as salient as once believed in predicting places that are violent drug markets.
 
Article
An increasing proportion of change to the built environments of Western countries consists of adaptations of existing physical forms. Many changes are small-scale and piecemeal, but cumulatively they have a major impact on the physical character of the environment. This paper considers the physical changes that have taken place in one of the most extensive types of area in English cities: the suburbs created by private enterprise between the two world wars. Within each of the two cities studied, Birmingham and London, the form and density of the original development were major factors influencing the distribution of additional dwellings, demolitions and modifications of existing houses, and the types of new dwelling constructed. Between the mid 1950s and the mid 1960s in London, but a few years later in Birmingham, the insertion of additional houses by developers was the main type of change. From the early 1970s, individual householders became major instigators of change to existing houses, especially in London, where incomes rose more rapidly. House extensions were an important element in this change, despite the decline in household size. The large majority of planning applications for changes to existing houses, but only about one-half of those for the construction of additional dwellings, were approved.
 
Article
Critical authors of gentrification point to its deleterious impacts on displaced residents. Research on the nature or actual forms of impacts has not advanced much, however. This paper attempts to specify impacts on low-income racial/ethnic groups (Latinos in particular) in five Chicago neighbourhoods, with a particular focus on neighbourhood-based fabrics of support and advancement. Limited in their mobility and exchange value resources, lower-income groups depend on such fabrics far more than do the higher income. In fact, they have fewer choices and are most vulnerable to place-based shifts. The case seems especially challenging for minorities who, like European immigrants before them, depend largely on place-based platforms/social fabrics but, unlike them, confront the added factors of race and urban restructuring.
 
Article
Choices of urban, suburban or rural residential environments have often been studied from a life-course perspective. In this paper, an examination is made of the influence of childhood experiences and of residential environment choices of family members outside the household. It is argued that socialisation, location-specific capital and the wish to maintain close family ties may result in living in a similar residential environment later in life and in similar environments to siblings and parents. Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses of data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study show that the residential environment during childhood is indeed strongly associated with the current residential environment. Moreover, individuals show a strong similarity to their parents and siblings in their residential environment, even after accounting for residential inertia and return migration.
 
Article
Housing privatisation has been one of key features of reform during the 1980s and the 1990s in many countries. Chinese housing reform has attracted attention because of its distinctive features and there have been a number of commentaries on the general progress of urban housing reform policies. However, there has been no systematic study of the development of commercial housing in Chinese cities. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date account of commercial housing development. It examines the scale of investment during the early 1990s, the development process, quality and design standards, the commercial housing market and the management of residential estates. The conclusions draw attention to several important problems of commercial housing development including the lack of appropriate legislation and control, the mismatch of housing supply and affordability, and the underdeveloped nature of the urban housing market.
 
Article
The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas. The results provide limited support for our hypothesis: Localistic enclaves enable migrant workers to earn higher earnings overall, but the earnings returns to human capital in an enclave are limited.
 
The size of the public rental sector (percentage of stock). Note: 1990, except China, 1997. Sources: Hegedüs and Struyk (2005), except China; China: UN-Habitat (2005); Wang (2007).  
Percentage of public rental housing privatised. Note: the figures for Europe appear to assume that the stock of housing has scarcely changed, which is clearly not the case in China. Sources: Hegedüs and Struyk (2005); UN-Habitat (2005); Wang (2007).  
Private and owner-occupation (percentage of stock). Notes: Owner-occupied, except Armenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, where figures include all private ownership. Years: Hungary, Slovenia (1994); Bulgaria (1995); Albania (1998); Romania (1999); Estonia, Poland (2000); Armenia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Russia (2001). Sources: Stephens 2005(a), except China; China: Wang (2007).  
Article
China’s economic development has often been contrasted with that of other transition economies in Europe, but academics have fought shy of making direct comparisons of urban housing reform in the two systems. This paper fills this gap by making such direct comparisons. Adopting the market - housing model advocated by the World Bank as an analytical framework it finds that extensive housing privatisation in China is supported by a system of urban housing property rights and a growing residential mortgage market. Although China has a distinctive institutional framework, there is also much variety among the European transition countries, and a distinctive Chinese model was not identified; so this micro-level analysis did not support the contention that China represents a form of "contested modernity." Nonetheless, a crucial point arises from China's hybrid status as a developing as well as a transition country. The bulk of the urban migrant population remains excluded from formal housing policy and enabling strategies that form an element of the market - housing model especially in developing countries are not so much replaced by a distinctive Chinese model as by a yawning gap.
 
Top-cited authors
Ian Richard Gordon
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
Philip McCann
  • The University of Sheffield
Meric S. Gertler
  • University of Toronto
David Allan Wolfe
  • University of Toronto
Leo van den Berg
  • Euricur/ Erasmus university rotterdam, netherlands