Urban Geography

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 0272-3638
Publications
Spatial Variability in Child Mortality, Accra, 2000. 
Article
As cities of developing nations absorb an increasing fraction of the world's population increase, questions have arisen about the potential for emerging inequalities in health within places that are already suffering from inadequate infrastructure. In this paper we explore the pattern of child mortality inequalities (as a proxy for overall health levels) within a large sub-Saharan African city-Accra, Ghana-and then we examine the extent to which existing residential patterns by ethnicity may be predictive of any observed intra-urban inequalities in child mortality. We find that the spatial variability in child mortality in Accra is especially associated with the pattern of residential separation of the Ga from other ethnic groups, with the Ga having higher levels of mortality than other ethnic groups. Being of Ga ethnicity exposes a woman and her children to characteristics of the places in Accra where the Ga live, in which one-room dwellings and poor infrastructure predominate. At the individual level, we find that regardless of where a woman lives, if she is of Ga ethnicity and/or is non-Christian, and if she is not married, her risks of having lost a child are elevated.
 
Article
This study presents three novel approaches to the question of how best to identify ethnic neighborhoods (or more generally, neighborhoods defined any aspect of their population composition) and to define their boundaries. It takes advantage of unusual data on the residential locations of all residents of Newark, NJ, in 1880 to avoid having to accept arbitrary administrative units (like census tracts) as the building blocks of neighborhoods. For theoretical reasons the street segment is chosen as the basic unit of analysis. All three methods use information on the ethnic composition of buildings or street segments and the ethnicity of their neighbors. One approach is a variation of k-functions calculated for each adult resident, which are then subjected to a cluster analysis to detect discrete patterns. The second is an application of an energy minimization algorithm commonly used to enhance digital images. The third is a Bayesian approach previously used to study county-level disability data. Results of all three methods depend on decisions about technical procedures and criteria that are made by the investigator. Resulting maps are roughly similar, but there is no one best solution. We conclude that researchers should continue to seek alternative methods, and that the preferred method depends on how one's conceptualization of neighborhoods matches the empirical approach.
 
Article
Because of their intensive need for face-to-face contacts, producer services have, historically, been found at the core of the central business district (CBD). However, it has been suggested that advances in information technologies could lead to the erosion of the CBD's economic base, rendering face-to-face contacts obsolete and enabling producer services to suburbanize. Although a considerable amount of empirical work has been done on the suburbanization of these activities in North America, the same is not true of France. In this paper, we adopt an original methodology to study the role played by face-to-face contacts in the spatial distribution of producer services in the Île-de-France region between 1978 and 1997. Our findings confirm that producer services did indeed suburbanize during the study period. Nonetheless, this suburbanization was multicentric, rather than scattered, suggesting that face-to-face contacts remain an important factor in the location of such services.
 
Article
This study presents a quantitative assessment of the environmental consequences of urbanization in general and city bigness in particular in the context of the process of economic development. We focus attention on the relationship between ambient air quality and city size, and how it might differ between urban areas of developed and developing countries. First, the air pollution-city size relationship is characterized theoretically and explored empirically using ambient air quality data for various urban zones across an international sample of cities. While we find statistically significant relationships between pollution and city size, interesting developed-developing country differences emerge. Next, the relationship is re-estimated using contextual development covariates. Results show that the positive association between poor air quality and city size is not inevitable and tends to diminish with economic growth and the capacity for undertaking pollution abatement measures. It follows that restricting urban growth in developing countries may be neither necessary nor sufficient for achieving environmental gains.
 
Article
The major thesis of this paper is that the lower socioeconomic status of Blacks compared to Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans is due primarily to greater racial' discrimination against Blacks in housing. A critical result of this housing discrimination is reduced employment opportunities. Discrimination by Whites against the four racial/ethnic minority groups occurs along a continuum. Asians experience the least housing discrimination and as a consequence have greater employment opportunities. The level of discrimination increases from Asian to Hispanic[1] to Native American to Black. The effect of such discrimination in housing is manifest in the varying degrees of minority group residential segregation and suburbanization. The differential patterns of residential segregation and suburbanization are related to the educational and employment opportunities available. These differential opportunities result in differential levels of income, education, and occupation.
 
Article
This paper is concerned with the regional firm-size structure of housebuilding in Canada based on a case study of the province of Ontario. Using an innovative database of builders in Ontario and geographic information systems, measures of regional firm-size structure are developed and are modeled with data from the Canadian census. The results corroborate established models in the city systems and industrial organization literatures in that industrial concentration is negatively associated with regional population size, economic diversity, and economic performance. Small housebuilding firms abound in large, diverse and economically vibrant regions, especially large urban regions, and thereby maintain industrial deconcentration.
 
Article
Primary attention to cities in the Global South tends to focus on how fast they are changing in terms of spectacular new projects, the remaking of city centers, the pushing out of large numbers of urban residents of all social classes, and the extent to which cities are becoming more alike through these major development projects. Alternately, the focus is placed on the poor, on massive slums, insalubrious environmental and social conditions, and the potential threats posed by impoverished and unsettled urban populations. What lags behind is attention to the continued small and medium-level developments of residential and commercial districts that have occupied specific territories within cities for a long time. The article examines scales and domains through which it is possible for residents to provisionally configure ways in which they can recognize collective action and its impact on the making of space and time that raises unforeseen implications for present efforts to govern the city. Additionally, it looks at how urban districts provisionally consolidate unanticipated articulations among different territories and economies across the city.
 
Article
The ways employed parents negotiate and combine employment and caring responsibilities has recently attracted increased attention in the social sciences. Nonetheless, many studies provide only limited insight into the opportunities that specific physical, institutional, and cultural contexts offer to parents for "juggling" responsibilities. Space-time accessibility modeling might be used to fill this gap, although its conceptualizations of human subjects, space, and time need to be rethought in light of feminist geographic concerns. We propose ethnographic or narrative space-time accessibility analysis as a partial and situated way of alerting readers/spectators to the ways constraints coalesce into opportunities for juggling responsibilities. The approach is illustrated through a case study of a highly educated mother who has to reconcile fixed employment times, chauffeuring her son to childcare, and a lengthy commute via the congested highways around Utrecht in the Netherlands.
 
Article
In recent years, there has been increasing awareness about the impact of urban time policies on the quality of people's everyday lives. However, within the urban planning field, evaluations of public service delivery have primarily focused on the spatial rather than the temporal organization of public service facilities. This study tries to fill this gap by using space-time accessibility analysis to explore the extent to which changes in open hours affect the social equity of service provision. To this end an accessibility model is implemented and employed in a case study of public service provision in the urban area of Ghent, Belgium. Our analysis not only demonstrates that access to public services exhibits substantial hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations, but it also shows that individuals with certain personal and household attributes are affected differently by changes to the temporal regime of public service facilities.
 
Article
Although much has been written about the abstract spaces of homelessness, relatively less has been documented on how the architecture of homeless shelters intersects with the homeless experience. Emergency shelters are the first places where homeless families begin their journey toward becoming "homed." Studies suggest that there is a middle-class bias in the design of emergency homeless shelters, but how do its spaces contribute to the route out of homelessness? Through narratives of homeless families, and observations of the places they occupy in an emergency shelter in Arizona, this article illustrates how they engage with the shelter's architecture to construct notions of home and homelessness. This study suggests that while homeless families try to achieve the psychological qualities of a "home" in the shelter, the materiality of the places in the shelter, where these qualities are acquired or negotiated, become important symbolic markers to becoming "homed."
 
Summary statistics on Hong Kong and Singapore (2005)
General layout of Hong Kong and Singapore  
Port industry entropy in Hong Kong and Singapore, 1993-2004
Entropy degree and change by district, 1993-2004  
Article
Business environment in which a port carries out its operation is increasingly reflected by intra- and inter-port competition on regional and global scales, resulting in port concentration and deconcentration. While a number of recent studies interpret those phenomena as impacts from global forces such as containerisation, little has been done about local forces such as the evolving relationships between urban policy and port growth. This paper proposes to compare how the two global hub port cities of Hong Kong and Singapore have sustained their port activities while transforming into major economic centres. Entropy indexes are calculated by district, based on service industries related to port activities between 1993 and 2004. Results show the spatial shifts of port-related activities stemming from simultaneous factors, such as port competition which affects the international position of Hong Kong and Singapore, and lack of space and congestion at the port-city interface. However, one main differentiating factor in the evolution of the two hub port cities is the varying impact of regional cross-border relations with mainland China and Malaysia.
 
Article
This paper analyzes the transformation of Baltimore's inner suburbs from 1980 to 2000. After developing a geographic definition of inner suburbs, we then spatially analyze them using census place-level data. The analysis shows evidence of socioeconomic decline in Baltimore's inner suburbs, but the extent of this decline varies among these suburbs. Since 1980, many declining inner suburbs had difficulty attracting new residents, White flight was the prevailing trend, and the housing stock was outdated relative to the outer suburbs. The analysis suggests three major influences on decline among the inner suburbs of Baltimore: labor market restructuring, the nature of the local housing market, and income and racial segregation. This paper concludes with a classification of Baltimore's inner suburbs based on our understanding of the processes of suburban decline in the region.
 
Article
This paper examines the provision of services to farm labor as an extension of the “new urban politics.” The new urban politics have focused on the position of cities in the emerging global economy and the efforts of elite agents in cities to manipulate that position. The issues involved in service provision, however, blend the scale and economic development questions currently at the center of debate in urban political analyses with questions of identity and of the changing meaning of “urban.” Concern for farm workers on the urban-rural fringe enhances understandings of local politics in three ways. First, it draws attention to the wide array of political agents operating at the local level. Second, the role of scale in creating uneven development within metropolitan areas is highlighted. Third, attention to the politics of service provision for farm labor makes clear the need to re-evaluate urban-rural dichotomies and their role in shaping local politics. Incorporating these issues into theories of local politics makes it possible to examine the ambiguity, political contentiousness, and new spaces for identity formation posed by the changing morphology and meaning of metropolitan areas.
 
Article
In this article, we explore both a neglected geography (the location of sexually oriented business) and a neglected instrument of sociospatial control (premises licensing). Arguing the former is increasingly shaped by the latter, we suggest that licensing provides a flexible means by which the state is able to reconcile the growing demand for "adult entertainment" with concerns about community standards, urban aesthetics, public safety, and property prices. We demonstrate this through an examination of the role of UK licensing legislation in controlling the location and visibility of such controversial businesses in London's West End. It is demonstrated that, in this case, licensing has encouraged the "upscaling" of sex-related businesses while reducing their overall number and visibility. We conclude that licensing, as a means of controlling contentious urban land uses, constitutes a "field of governance" whose legal geographies remain to be adequately theorized and explored.
 
Article
Despite recent dispersal trends, headquarters activity remains disproportionately present in identifiable clusters within large North American metropolitan areas. Through nearest neighbor and spatial autocorrelation analyses, we statistically confirm the concentrating tendencies of head offices in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary and Vancouver. It is also established that head offices operating within these four metropolitan areas show collective distinctiveness in where controlled subsidiaries are located internationally and in what industrial activity is emphasized. Finally, we evaluate (via Spearman r and Kruskal-Wallis H tests) which socioeconomic census variables are linked with head office districts in Toronto and Calgary. It is suggested that head office districts will feature a relative absence of families, high-density housing, and short-distance commuting. While head office areas in Toronto, a headquarters center at the top of the Canadian hierarchy, resonate prosperity, Calgary features head office districts that are income diverging.
 
Article
Global economic restructuring and technological change are transforming the map of global production and the global division of labor. Based on the perspectives of global value chains and global production networks, this study analyzes the production networks, value chains, and spatial organization of the computer industry in China. It was found that the notion of a symmetric, bell-shaped smiling curve is a highly idealized conceptual framework, and for a developing country like China where leading firms have yet to become top-tier transnational corporations, the smiling curve more likely exhibits a flattened saucer shape. China is also increasingly being integrated into global production networks, and a new form of spatial organization, centered on emerging global cities and globalizing cities, is emerging. An investigation of the global-local networks of the computer industry showed that the embeddedness of transnational corporations (TNCs) is heavily influenced by industrial characteristics and geographical/institutional contexts.
 
Article
It is by now well established that the Internet and other relatively recent information and communication technologies (ICTs) are fundamentally altering the spatial and temporal organization of the activities of households, firms, and other actors in cities. Views on the nature of ICT-induced changes have, however, become more qualified. At least among geographers, technologically deterministic, utopian, or dystopian visions on how urban structure and mobility may be affected by ICT have become outdated. Instead, the reciprocity of the links between telecommunications, offline activity, and urban spaces as well as their temporal and spatial complexity are being emphasized (e.g., Graham and Marvin, 1996; Aoyama and Sheppard, 2003).
 
Article
This study investigates the transition of Sunan, located in China's southern Jiangsu Province, China using the orthodox Sunan model of development through a case study of Changzhou City. We found that post-Sunan development retains some of the characteristics of the orthodox Sunan model, and the current production map of Sunan is a combination of new development and the legacies of the development and restructuring of township and village enterprises (TVEs). We have identified the emergence of a new form of core-periphery uneven development, indicating that agglomeration is a pervasive force in production and that globalization is centralizing resources as well as development. We also traced the continuous involvement of local states in economic development and discovered evidence of policy convergence in coastal China. The dominance of manufacturing in the economy of Changzhou provides on-the-ground evidence concerning the rise of China as the global manufacturing floor. However, Changzhou's industry is still mainly made up of traditional industries that exhibit industrial isomorphism and a dispersed spatial layout. Industrial development in Changzhou has been handicapped by its semi-peripheral location in the Yangzi River Delta, less successful local policies, and the legacies of the Sunan model.
 
Article
Based on interviews with local government officials and a survey of 44 foreigninvested enterprises (FIEs), this article examines the significance of local formal institutions for intramunicipal location decisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and for network properties of their investments in Hangzhou, China. This study finds that local formal institutions, in terms of municipal district governments and development zone authorities, are a significant force influencing the location decisions of MNEs within Hangzhou. These local entities shape the intramunicipal location decisions of MNEs through three primary vehicles including financial incentives, industrial infrastructures, and attitudes toward foreign investors. The start-up fiscal capability of local formal institutions is therefore central to the foreign investment development efforts. Local formal institutions, however, are a less significant force influencing the network properties of FIEs in Hangzhou. District governments and zone authorities are largely confined to measures for co-locating allied foreign supplier investments to promote FIE local linkages.
 
Article
China's economic reform is a gradual and exploratory process, which has stimulated the dramatic growth and restructuring of the Chinese cities, but has also made urban master plans quickly outdated and unable to function effectively to guide the development of cities. Through a case study of Hangzhou, the paper argues that the gradual and exploratory nature of China's reform is incompatible with the nature of the urban master plan, which requires a blueprint and the ability to project the future. Rather than guiding development and policies, urban master plans often lag behind reforms initiated at the national and local levels, and have to be revised constantly to follow the new direction of the reforms. Consequently, Chinese cities are in chaos, and much development and new construction lacks proper planning guidance. The paper argues that problems with Chinese cities and planning are related to the incompatible relationship between the nature of urban planning and that of transitional institutions. This dilemma was intensified by the disruption of planning during the Cultural Revolution, problems with planning education, and the slowness in reforming planning systems in China. The analysis highlights the broad transitional contexts underlying urban planning, and the responses of planers to growth and change. The paper also discusses the need for further reform of Chinese institutions and planning systems.
 
Article
This is an empirical quantitative study that uses urban demographic data to identify economic change in cities. Unlike previous demographic studies, a strong theoretical framework is provided for the analysis. The research is designed and interpreted through Jacobs’s theory of the city as economic process within the framework of Wallerstein’s modern world-system. This is the first time Jacobs’s theory has been subject to systematic inquiry over big time and big space. We create an inventory of 184 examples of Jacobs’s “explosive growth” from 1500 to 2005 within the modern world-system. These results are interpreted in terms of systemic hegemonic cycles with first Dutch, and then British, and finally U.S. cities dominating the inventory lists. It is found that Dutch, British and U.S. city growth spurts are front-loaded in their respective hegemonic cycles: this is strong evidence of hegemony being created and initially sustained through and by these dynamic cities. This study makes a direct contribution to developing world-systems analysis, and in a short conclusion future research on ways of contributing to Jacobs’s theory of the city are discussed.
 
Article
In an era of declining government commitment to urban and regional development, pension funds' investment strategies have come under increasing scrutiny. It is tempting to suggest, as Republican congressional critics portrayed advocates of economically targeted investments (ETIs) and the ETI clearing house sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor (DoL), that those who would mobilize pension funds for community development are (at best) irresponsible or are (at worst) the ciphers of local cabals whose interests are at odds with fiduciary duty and the welfare of plan beneficiaries. I argue that the rhetoric of the ETI debate is important for understanding the politics of public policy and for appreciating the deep disagreements over basic issues of principle that underpin Anglo-American pension fund systems. To make my case, I use material gleaned from the congressional debate over the ETI Clearing House as well as Robert Reich's reflections on his years as Secretary of Labor. Having worked through the terms of the debate, it is acknowledged that there is considerable interest amongst pension funds, specialist consulting companies, and investment management firms in pension fund-led community economic development projects. In the penultimate section of the paper, the case for pension fund community investment is re-framed in a manner consistent with the interests of the various stakeholders in employer-sponsored pension plans. This is especially relevant for public sector defined benefit programs, though my arguments may be generalized depending upon particular plans' configurations. In doing so, I argue for a more complex understanding of pension fund systems, going beyond simple-minded notions like the "exclusive benefit" of plan beneficiaries while being conscious of the need to protect plan beneficiaries' interests.
 
Article
Discontent with the current definition of metropolitan areas and the lack of differentiation within nonmetropolitan territory provided the incentive for the research presented here. Census tracts rather than counties were used as the building blocks for assignment of tracts, not just to metropolitan areas, but also to larger towns (10,000 to 49,999) and to smaller urban places (2,500 to 9,999). The analysis used 1990 census-defined urbanized areas and tract-to-tract commuter flows. Results include a modest shift of population from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan, as well as a significant reduction in the areal size of metropolitan areas, disaggregation of many areas, and frequent reconfiguration to a more realistic settlement form.
 
Article
Indonesia has about 200 provincial towns with populations between 50,000 and a million, yet they have attracted far less scholarly attention than the nation’s few megacities. Recent democratization and decentralization have brought to light patterns of communal and localist mobilization in these towns, centered on elections and other political events, that have not been seen in Indonesia since the 1950s and early 1960s. Provincial towns have talked back to the center in ways that belie their supposed passivity as expressed in the term “urban involution.” This paper attempts to build a synthetic and historical explanation for these patterns by examining the social embeddedness of the state in the provincial town. Most of Indonesia’s towns, particularly outside Java, became urban only through the formation of the modern colonial state from the mid- to late nineteenth century on. After decolonization in 1945, the expanding but chronically underfunded bureaucracy became an arena for contestation among emerging middle classes in these towns, which lacked manufacturing. The new provincial classes were politically significant because of their numbers and their mobilizational skills rather than their wealth. They successfully seized the state at the local level. The central state, anxious to establish political stability, appeased them with substantial political transfer rents, particularly during the oil boom years of the early to mid New Order, but continuing to the present day.
 
Article
This paper illustrates tacit knowledge flows between American and Canadian metropolitan areas. Using the spatial distribution of interlocking in Canada and the United States a spatial component is added to the resource dependency paradigm. Using a poisson regression model, components of cities that initiate and attract interlocking, and thus knowledge transfer, can be identified. From the results, the authors propose the concept of a "knowledge threshold" essential for the transfer of tacit knowledge. In Canada the "knowledge threshold" encompasses the entire country while it is more regionally based in the United States.
 
Article
I define how public space is constituted not by real property but by a regime made up of regulatory practices. What is at issue in assertions about the decline of public space is that this regulatory regime is reconfiguring liberty, that is, rights to public space, through a change in the conception of the public, of who and what belong as part of the public. By way of a case study, the redevelopment of the corner of Yonge and Dundas Streets in Toronto, I argue that liberty is defined by a multiplicity of practices (such as laws, regulations, urban design, surveillance and policing) that are oriented to a particular conception of the public, and which seek to guide the conduct of agents. This suggests that if our concern is to expand the political and social uses of public space then we need to turn our attention away from resources, spaces and goods and towards how the regulatory regime configures liberty and in turn the possibilities that public space can be taken and made.
 
The camp of 15 families in front of the 50 Vulturilor Street. Source: Michele Lancione ©, 2015.
A new-built condominium on Vulturilor street, separated by just one building from no. 50, now an empty lot located by the tree. Source: Liviu Chelcea, 2019.
The empty lot at 50 Vulturilor Street. Source: Liviu Chelcea, 2019.
One of the structures built by the evicted and activists. Source: Michele Lancione ©, 2015.
The water containers used by families. Source: Michele Lancione ©, 2015.
Article
Infrastructures are productive ethnographic entry points for understanding evictions. Three analytic strategies have informed the research on the entanglements of evictions and infrastructures. We outline a fourth, centered on evictees’ infra-making. A relatively frequent occurrence after evictions in central neighborhoods in Bucharest, Romania, has been that evicted families camp out in front of “their” former houses. Drawing on a case of this kind, we suggest that the way to understand resistance to being rendered abject is to invite ethnographers to foreground the disconnections, reconnections, and networked ties that the evicted mobilize post-eviction for both survival and protest. That means paying attention not only to material socio-technical assemblages, but also to preparedness in anticipation of eviction, post-eviction claims, and biopolitical expectations of care by the state. Social infrastructures, some neighborhood relations, access to networked connectivity at the workplace, and urban commons such as public water fountains gain heightened importance after eviction.
 
Article
In Debt Wish, Sbragia documents the turbulent economic history and evolving legal geography of US federalism in the 19th and 20th centuries, from which she identifies the enduring structural tendencies and path dependencies. In work that speaks to growing scholarly interest in the legal geographies of finance on- and off-shore (e.g. Christophers 2016, Knuth and Potts 2016), Sbragia’s analysis illuminates how the US’s geographical division of powers and common law system opened up spaces for financial experimentation. Notably, Sbragia characterizes waves of austerity politics and fiscal financialization as entwined over time – through the neoliberal era, but also for a hundred years prior. In Sbragia’s account, US urban governments fettered by taxation and debt limitations have repeatedly turned to the financial sector to circumvent these constraints. Because their work-arounds have typically exploited legal and structural loopholes their efforts have producing increasingly complex, opaque, and arguably undemocratic political structures. Circumvention politics have permitted cities to take on higher total debt burdens in concealed form – for example, via off-balance sheet accounting and the creation of new urban governmental entities (e.g., public authorities and special districts). Circumvention has also helped produce the US’s massive, globally unusual municipal bond market. Scholars of fiscal financialization today might rightly question Debt Wish’s relatively optimistic account of the “freedom” that indebtedness can offer embattled cities, as urban administrations reel from the effects of the Great Recession and subsequent austerity measures. However, consistent with Sbragia’s arguments, US cities have simultaneously initiated fresh fiscal experimentation. Today, climate change and green economic development provide increasingly influential justifications for experimental finance. Powerful institutions reframe this challenge as a major untapped opportunity for financial innovation (e.g., World Bank 2010). Emerging instruments range from new green municipal bonds and financing districts to infrastructure trusts, new applications of TIF products, and bids to tap into carbon markets. Circumvention strategies are often made explicit in these frontier financing schemes, as programs tout off-balance sheet status as a major selling point. Debt Wish spoke to the US experience at a time when the country’s system of sub-sovereign debt was unique. The less exceptional nature of US municipal finance makes Debt Wish increasingly relevant today. Green development arguments, government decentralization programs, and financial institutions’ search for emerging markets are prompting new urban experiments with municipal debt globally, including in developing countries. Sarah Knuth Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan Bibliography Christophers, Brett. 2016. The Great Leveler: Capitalism and Competition in the Court of Law, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Knuth, Sarah. and Potts, Shaina.,Eds. 2016. Theme Issue: Legal Geographies of Finance, Environment and Planning A forthcoming. World Bank, 2010. A City-Wide Approach to Carbon Finance, Carbon Partnership Facility Innovation Series, Carbon Finance Unit, The World Bank, Washington, DC
 
Article
Theories of place have yet to be developed to explore societal responses to terrorism in the post-9/11 city. Urban geographers have shown the relevance of place for understanding the way people live in cities, including conceptualizations of the way people perceive those places. Geographers working on environmental risk have also conceptualized perception, but only in regard to hazard perception. They have not focused on the city itself as a hazard site, nor have they studied how the contours of place affect hazard perception. Joining urban geography and risk-hazards scholarship, this study argues for a terrorism-place nexus that links terrorism hazard perception to urban place. Using survey and interview data collected from 79 financial service executives in New York City, it will be shown that terrorism has created a place-based ontological dissonance among financial executives, and we speculate about the implications for the city should these workers restore ontological order by moving away their establishments.
 
Top-cited authors
Roger Keil
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Susan Hanson
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Helga Leitner
  • University of California, Los Angeles
Sako Musterd
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Fulong Wu
  • University College London