Urban Affairs Review

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1078-0874
Publications
Article
Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal.
 
Article
Researchers measuring racial inequality of neighborhood environment across metropolitan areas (MAs) have traditionally employed segregation measures, yet such measures are limited for incorporating a third axis of information, including neighborhood opportunity. Using Census 2000 tract-level data for the largest U.S. MAs, we introduce the interquartile-range overlap statistic to summarize the substantial separation of entire distributions of neighborhood environments between racial groups. We find neighborhood poverty distributions for minorities overlap only 27% with those for whites. Further, the separation of racial groups into neighborhoods of differing poverty rates is strongly correlated with racial residential segregation. The overlap statistic provides a straightforward, policy-relevant metric for monitoring progress towards achieving more equal environments of neighborhood opportunity space.
 
Figure 1a Aggravated Assaults per 1,000 Miami Residents, 2000–2004 (Yearly Average in Quartiles by Census Tract) Figure 1b Robberies per 1,000 Miami Residents, 2000–2004 (Yearly Average in Quartiles by Census Tract) Figure 1c Drug Overdose Deaths per 1,000 Miami Residents, 1995–2002 (Yearly Average in Quartiles by Census Tract)  
Article
Although illicit drug activity occurs within local communities, past quantitative research on drug markets and violent crime in the United States has been conducted mainly at the city level. The authors use neighborhood-level data from the city of Miami to test hypotheses regarding the effect of drug activity and traditional indicators of social disorganization on rates of aggravated assault and robbery. The results show that drug activity has robust effects on violent crime that are independent of other disorganization indicators. The authors also find that drug activity is concentrated in neighborhoods with low rates of immigration, less linguistic isolation and ethnic heterogeneity, and where nondrug accidental deaths are prevalent. The authors find no independent effect of neighborhood racial composition on drug activity or violent crime. The results suggest that future neighborhood-level research on social disorganization and violent crime should devote explicit attention to the disorganizing and violence-producing effects of illicit drug activity.
 
Article
Using surveys collected from a sample of households nested within 'naturally occurring' neighborhoods in Las Vegas, NV during the 2007-2009 economic recession, this study examines the associations between real and perceived measures of neighborhood distress (foreclosure rate, physical decay, crime) and residents' reports of neighborhood quality of life and neighborhood satisfaction. Consistent with social disorganization theory, both real and perceived measures of neighborhood disorder were negatively associated with quality of life and neighborhood satisfaction. Residents' perceptions of neighborliness partially acted as a buffer against the effects of neighborhood distress, including housing foreclosures, on quality of life and neighborhood satisfaction.
 
Article
Past research has shown that transit passengers’ fears and concerns about safety influence their travel decisions. While the relationship between women’s fear of crime and public space has been the focus of considerable research, transit environments—which are especially threatening to female passengers—have received much less attention. This study examines the issue of women’s safety on transit through a survey of U.S. transit operators. The findings show that most respondents believe women have distinct safety and security needs, but most do not think agencies should put specific programs into place to address these needs. In addition, only a handful of agencies currently have programs that target the safety and security needs of women. This survey suggests that there is a significant mismatch between the safety and security needs and desires of female passengers and the types and locations of strategies that transit agencies use.
 
Article
This study analyzes traits of small businesses that received state/local government aid in such forms as managerial, technical assistance, help in obtaining loans or bonding, and procurement assistance. Over 13 percent of small firms nationwide were found to be involved in selling goods/services to state/local government. Among firms owned by nonminorities, aid recipients tend to be the larger small businesses, but this pattern did not typify minority-owned firms. Among the nonminority businesses, furthermore, those aided by state/local government are more likely than nonassisted firms to remain in operation, even when various form and owner characteristics are controlled for statistically; this pattern did not typify minority-owned firms. State/local government aid flows disproportionately to women- owned businesses and to firm owners who lack managerial experience. No evidence was found indicating targeting of assistance to specific industry groups.
 
Article
The author of this article examines the empirical support for the propositions that bank branches are significantly underrepresented in low-income and minority urban communities and that the problem has worsened in recent years. He tests these propositions with data on bank branch locations from 1970 through 1989 in five cities. The data from two of the cities are consistent with the propositions, but the patterns in the data from the other three cities are either inconsistent or mixed.
 
Taxonomy of Cultural-Products Industrial Districts
Number of Feature Films Produced by Country SOURCE: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Statistical Yearbook, 1999.
Article
The paper opens with a brief definition of the cultural economy. A first generation of local economic development policy approaches based on place-marketing and associated initiatives is described. The possibilities of a more powerful second-generation approach are then sketched out with special emphasis on localized complexes of cultural- products industries. An extensive review and classification of these complexes is laid out, and their inward and outward relations to global markets are considered. On this basis, a critical discussion of local economic policy options focussed on cultural-products industries is offered. Contrasting examples of development initiatives in major global cities, in selected old manufacturing towns, and in the Multimedia Super Corridor of Malaysia are briefly presented. It is suggested that the growth and spread of localized production agglomerations based on cultural-products industries is leading not to cultural uniformity but to greatly increased diversity at the global level.
 
Article
Nearly 100 cities and local governments in the United States have passed living wage laws since the mid-1990s. Although the central goal of living wages is to reduce poverty, they may fail to do so because of disemployment effects. We summarize and critique the existing research on the effects of living wages on wages, employment, and family income, emphasizing common findings, points of disagreement, and important questions for future research. The evidence thus far points to wage increases as well as employment losses for the least-skilled, although there is disagreement about the employment effects. On balance, there are some beneficial distributional effects. The evidence also points to efficiency wage-type effects of living wage laws that may offset some of the adverse effects on employers.
 
Article
This paper reviews what we currently know about the benefits and costs of different varieties of a "living wage": a local government requirement, now adopted by over 50 local governments, for wages above the federal minimum imposed on employers with some financial link to the local government. The review includes economic theory, empirical research on local labor markets, and empirical research on the living wage. The paper concludes that moderate living wage requirements applied to the local government's own employees, and contractors' and grantees' employees who are funded by the local government, may do more good than harm. Excessive living wages or living wages applied to non-city funded workers are more likely to have negative side-effects. The merits of living wages applied to economic development assistance depend on the local economy's strength and whether this assistance program is used by the city's competitors. In a weak local economy, living wages applied to commonly-used economic development programs may reduce the city's economic growth.
 
Article
This research was undertaken to examine the impact of political, economic, and institutional variables upon black employment outcomes in several hundred American cities. The results reveal that public employee unions exert a significant negative impact upon black job success in unreformed cities. However, public employee unions do not influence minority employment patterns in reformed communities. These findings strongly suggest that a critical reevaluation of the conventional wisdom regarding the policy effects of reformed institutions is called for.
 
Article
The authors report on an ethnographic study of Battery Park City in summer 2002, less than 1 year after 9/11. They sought to understand the impact of the disaster on this affluent residential enclave across the street from Ground Zero. The research team used rapid ethnographic assessment procedures (REAP), a productive yet relatively inexpensive rapid assessment methodology. The methods included participant observation, on-site interviews with a range of residents, and interviews with public officials and community leaders. The authors evaluate their data within a framework of hypothesized alternative “folk models” through which residents interpreted the rapid community change. Some friends and neighbors had left permanently, and many newresidents arrived the following winter and spring in response to strong rent incentives. Findings include a rise in community activism, lingering fear, and a significant fissure in the community between residents who had survived the disaster and the many new residents.
 
Article
In this article I examine the relationship between industrialization and the exclusion of southern blacks from cities and occupations between 1865 and 1910—an era dubbed by social historians as the New South. I demonstrate that the interaction of such factors as percentage of blacks, percentage of whites, and white racism played an important role in forcing blacks to participate in a secondary labor market. The findings show that ascriptive judgments often are the rule and not necessarily the exception when industrialization proceeds, populations expand, and racist ideology persists.
 
Article
Local politics is not self-contained. The authors break with existing scholarship to argue that the study of local politics requires the systematic study of state legislative politics. The state-local relationship cannot be easily characterized in terms of either interference or deference. Rather, U.S. local government and state politics appear to have been thoroughly intertwined in the period they examine. For evidence, they present a new and systematic data set consisting of all bills affecting local places-6,415 bills-considered by the legislatures of Alabama, Massachusetts, and Michigan for certain years in the period 1871 to 1921.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how historical narratives such as wealthy “suburb,” declining “slum,” and resurgent “village” can have little basis in the social conditions of the time they purport to represent, yet be used to justify urban policy and planning decisions. In a case study of Parkdale, Toronto, we show how a history of the neighborhood was constructed in the 1970s by using a selective reading of the historic record, and then show how this mythical narrative has recently been used to legitimize the gentrification of the neighborhood. We also construct an alternative narrative of persistent housing diversity in the face of opposition over 125 years, which might justify a different set of local government policies that recognizes the continuity of inexpensive rental housing options and seeks to preserve and enhance these options.
 
Article
The author examines early Los Angeles's transition from an essentially entrepreneurial growth regime (1880-1906) to a more state-centered growth regime (1906-1932). The analysis highlights the role of public infrastructure projects-water, power, and the harbor- and of powerful local bureaucracies, such as the Department of Water and Power, in shaping the region's Progressive Era development. Los Angeles's reliance upon a public strategy of economic development is placed in comparative regional perspective. In the early twentieth century, the local state served as a key instrument of economic development throughout the urban West.
 
Article
Early in the 20th century, Chicago was "the seventh heaven" of political activity for African-Americans. In no city had African-American empowerment proceeded as far. But from the 1950s to the election of Harold Washington in 1983, Chicago was considered a glaring example of African-American subordination and powerlessness. This transformation presents excellent conditions for analysis of the processes of political empowerment and the rollback of political power. The author challenges the conventional wisdom that political machines represent a "ladder" for minority empowerment. Rather, electoral competition among white factions or parties created the conditions under which African-American voters could determine electoral outcomes and African-American leaders could bargain for group empowerment.
 
Article
To what extent, and how, do social movement strategies change over time? Why are particular strategic options selected by social movement organizations? A wide range of theories bearing on these questions are used to analyze the birth and evolution of the rent strike as used within the tenant movement in New York City. The emergence and diffusion of six key groups of innovations over a 76-year period are examined. The analysis considers the origins of the strategy, the extent of change in it over time, how and why innovations occurred, and how and to what extent they were diffused through the multitude of organizations making up the movement. It also examines the extent, consistency of, and reasons for patterns in variations in the use of strategic forms among the constituent organizations of the movement, the impact of both housing and politics of the various innovations, and the ultimate institutionalization of the strategy.
 
Article
Most published research suggests that the decline of urban mass transportation after World War II resulted from the growth of private automobile use, which diverted ridership and financial resources from transit systems. This interpretation is challenged by findings from a case study of the New York City subway system, which shows a significant relationship between the amount and composition of capital investment and service outcomes. The study demonstrates that efficient and effective mass transit service is possible within metropolitan transportation markets, even when private automobile use is more prevalent.
 
Article
This article confronts three persistent problems in the analysis of the U.S. urban system by (a) employing a continuous, rather than a discrete, classification scheme that (b) has been replicated successfully for three time periods to (c) describe regional variations and changes in the U.S. metropolitan system from 1950 to 1970. Two fundamental dimensions describe the system in 1950, 1960, and 1970; an industry structure (manufacturing-service) continuum and a financial-commercial hierarchy. Familiar regional variations in the structure of metropolitan areas are summarized by these dimensions. Unique to this analysis is a description of clear regional changes in the metropolitan system from 1950 to 1970. Northeastern SMSAs became more service oriented, North Central SMSAs became more manufacturing oriented and less financially dominant, and Southern SMSAs increased dramatically in their degree of financial-commercial dominance. Theoretical interpretations of these regional shifts are discussed.
 
Article
Large law firms constitute integral components of the corporate complexes of cities. Analyses of data from 75 cities between 1950 and 1980 demonstrate that the increasing numbers, sizes, and branching of these corporate law firms correspond closely to the long-term processes of urban growth and change. The hierarchy of linked metropolises compose the key structure within which these firms operate. A governmental network headed by Washington, D.C., which also includes state capitals, overlaps it.
 
Article
Changes and differences in housing quality for blacks and whites in the United States between 1960 and 1978 were examined using data from the Annual Housing Surveys for the years 1974 and 1978, and from the one-in-one-thousand sample Public Use File from the 1960 Census. There were substantial improvements in housing quality between 1960 and 1978. However, racial differences in housing quality, as measured by structural deficiency, crowding, and age of housing unit, persisted over the two decades regardless of socioeconomic status, family composition, and geographic regions. The data do not reveal substantial declines in racial disparity in housing over the two decades.
 
Article
The authors examine changes in representation by place (central city, suburbs, nonmetropolitan areas) in the U.S. House of Representatives between 1963 and 1994, focusing on change in the representation and influence of central cities. Using a newly constructed data set, this study presents changes in central-city representation in aggregate as well as by region and metropolitan-area population size. The authors then explore the implications of these changes for the influence of central cities in the House over this time period. After examining change in the control of positions of authority-committee and subcommittee chairs and leadership positions-by central-city representatives, changes in central-city influence with respect to votes on the House floor are assessed.
 
Article
This article surveys urban affairs research as it has evolved from 1965 through 1987, principally by analyzing the content of all articles that have appeared in Urban Affairs Quarterly during this period. The survey focuses on the subject matter of the research, its relevance to problems in the contemporary city, its concern with policy, its use of quantification, its interdisciplinary character, and the extent to which its interests and priorities have shifted. The urban-research agenda has undergone significant but not radical changes in content and direction during the 22-year span analyzed, and these changes have reflected developments in the cities themselves.
 
Article
The authors argue that white racial attitudes have shifted from a universal rejection of blacks as potential neighbors to an acceptance of open housing in principle—but not in practice. As a result, 1970-1980 declines in racial segregation were confined to metropolitan areas where the number of blacks was so small that desegregation could be accommodated without threatening white preferences for limited interracial contact. Although new housing construction created an impetus for integration in some areas by increasing the proportion of homes built under the Fair Housing Act, most urban blacks lived in older urban areas where new housing was quite limited.
 
Article
The question addressed by this study is whether or not the increase in black suburbanization during the 1960s, and especially, during the 1970s, has affected the patterns of suburban racial change described for earlier decades. Patterns of suburban racial change during the 1970-1980 decade are examined for a sample of 1,114 American suburbs. It was found that during the 1970s, racial change in suburbs became more prevalent, with invasion-succession emerging as the dominant type of change in northern suburbs. In southern suburbs, invasion-succession and parallel-development (growing) patterns of racial change also occurred with greater relative frequency than in previous decades.
 
Article
Knowledge about internal migration to primate cities in Third World nations is limited. This article will analyze the determinants of migration to Bangkok, Thailand, ca. 1970, by focusing on the characteristics of province of origin. Theoretical issues are also addressed through the determinants analysis: The literature on primate city migration reflects a clear debate between ecological and political-economic explanations. Both explanations are defined and operationalized and their relative efficacy as predictors of migration to Bangkok is tested.
 
Article
Desegregation may occur through the integration of blacks into white neighborhoods or through deconcentration from ghetto areas. Using summary segregation indexes, previous researchers have been unable to show the extent to which segregation declines derive from the two change models. In this research, 1970-1980 desegregation is explored, and the extent to which two segregation indexes, the dissimilarity index and the correlation ratio, reflect changes through integration and deconcentration is tested. Results show that desegregation through ghetto deconcentration is more common; change through integration occurred mostly in turnover tracts and likely is temporary. Of the two indexes tested, the correlation ratio better reflects changes brought about through deconcentration.
 
Article
In this study, the author outlines and tests the strong party organization (SPO) theory of urban fiscal politics. The theory states that cities governed by SPOs are better able to maintain fiscal discipline because they are less responsive to prospending interest groups. This case study of Chicago finds mixed support for the SPO theory. The informal centralization provided by the political machine may have enabled Mayor Richard J. Daley to adopt fiscally conservative policies. Post-machine regimes, however, have been only modestly successful in implementing expansionary fiscal policies, contrary to the predictions of the SPO theory. Several other patterns in Chicago's recent fiscal history are somewhat more consistent with the SPO theory.
 
Article
With data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census 1970 Public Use Samples and 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample tape files for 34 metropolitan statistical areas, the authors examine cross-metropolitan variations in Puerto Rican poverty, using an instrumental variables regression model. The analyses highlight the role of residential segregation and economic restructuring on Puerto Rican poverty in 1970 and 1980. Decomposition of changes during the 1970s revealed that the primary sources responsible for increased Puerto Rican poverty rates were structural: The effects of segregation on poverty grew stronger during the decade, and the ability of manufacturing employment and self-employment to attenuate poverty grew weaker.
 
Article
The influence of urban black neighborhood characteristics on the level of homicide victimization in four American cities is examined for 1970 and 1980. Changes in the impact of the environment on homicide risk that may have occurred during the decade are identified. Demographic and socioeconomic information was gathered on all census tracts with majority-black populations. Homicide data for both years were collected from the cities' public health departments. Analysis indicates that the relationship between environmental factors and homicide risk for black neighborhoods in the four cities does not exhibit a consistent pattern.
 
Article
To better understand the significance of employing group-specific data versus aggregate information in assessing the impacts of housing policies, we use multivariate regression analysis to examine the determinants of home ownership and to isolate the source of observed racial differences for black married couples and white married couples in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in 1970 and 1980. The results indicate (1) a systematic racial difference in life-cycle stage that effects home ownership, (2) a much lower probability of blacks becoming homeowners, and, worse, (3) a possible widening of the black/white home ownership gap. Discrimination is posited as the most likely explanation for continued blocked access to home ownership for blacks.
 
Percentage of U.S. metropolitan area population in suburbs, 1900 to 2000, by racial/ethnic group Data prior to 1970 are from U.S. Bureau of the Census (1963). Whites and Blacks include Latinos, and the "total" line refers to Whites and Blacks only. Data from 1970 to 2000 are from authors' calculations from data from the Neighborhood Change Database (GeoLytics 2003). The White, Black, and Asian lines do not include Latinos, who are of all races, and the "total" line includes the Whites, Blacks, and Latinos in 1970 and all four groups from 1980 to 2000.
Hierarchical linear modeling estimates of metropolitan area (MA) suburbanization, 1970 to 2000, by racial/ethnic group N = 984 at level 1 and 246 at level 2. Figures are derived from hierarchical linear modeling random coefficient models (see Raudenbush and Bryk 2002, 75-80). For each group, data for 2000 are based on γ 00 (the MA-average intercepts), and data for 1970 to 1990 are estimated from γ 10 (the MA-average CENSUS slopes).
Fixed and Random Effects from Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) Regressions of 2000 Suburbanization Rates, by Racial/Ethnic Group
Fixed and Random Effects from Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) Regressions of 2000 Suburbanization Rates, Including Controls for Suburban Housing Supply, by Racial/Ethnic Group
Article
This research examines recent trends in suburbanization for non-Latino Whites, Blacks, and Asians, and Latinos of all races. The authors find some association between group-level acculturation and socioeconomic status and 2000 suburbanization rates; however, these associations are largely attenuated by controls for suburban housing supply and do not explain much of the variation in changes in suburbanization rates from 1970 to 2000. Suburban housing supply is strongly associated with 2000 levels of suburbanization, yet these effects are largely attenuated by controlling for the suburban share of employment and affordable housing. Finally, the authors find large effects of change in suburban housing supply on change in group suburbanization rates; however, these effects are much weaker for Blacks relative to the other groups.
 
Article
The mid-1970s was a period of rapid expansion in intergovernmental aid. With this expansion, two major issues emerged. One concerned targeting—the extent to which these new monies went to communities with the most need. A second issue focused on the growing fiscal dependency of local governments on higher levels of government. In this article we investigate the distribution of intergovernmental aid across suburbs in the mid-1970s and identify types of suburbs that came to rely increasingly on transfer funds. The research shows that higher-income suburbs significantly increased the absolute levels of aid they received, but their reliance on aid did not increase dramatically. In contrast, suburban municipalities housing the growing number of black and low-income suburbanites became the most fiscally dependent during this time period. The implications of the growing fiscal dependency of large numbers of disadvantaged suburbs for the implementation of the New Federalism are discussed.
 
Article
We expect gentrification to be associated with increasing larceny and robbery rates based on human ecological theory and gentrification research. In Baltimore, gentrifying neighborhoods, as compared to other appreciating neighborhoods, experienced significant unexpected increases in robbery and did not decline as much in larceny. The ecological characteristics of gentrifying neighborhoods partially explain this linkage. Results confirm but also question human ecological theory, underscoring the detrimental effects of rapid neighborhood change but also indicating, contrary to expectations, that human ecological processes of invasion-succession have not, and may not, reach completion in gentrifying neighborhoods. If the invasion-succession cycle remains "stalled," the locations may remain vulnerable to continuing high levels of disorder.
 
Article
In this article, the authors use a special data set compiled for 60 US metropolitan areas to examine 1970-1980 trends in the distribution of family income and shifts in the degree of segregation between income groups. They document how these changes contributed to increases in the spatial concentration of affluence and poverty during the 1970s and estimate simple descriptive models that connect these outcomes to broader socioeconomic trends in US urban areas. We begin by summarizing trends in the relative number of affluent, poor, and middle-class families in large metropolitan areas and then consider changes in the degree of spatial segregation between them. After documenting an increase in the relative number of affluent and poor families in key urban areas and confirming a new spatial separation between affluent and poor, we substantiate the growing geographic concentration of affluence and poverty during the 1970s and estimate simple statistical models to explore the socioeconomic roots of these trends in greater detail. -from Authors
 
Article
Suburbs are now active participants in the market for economic development. They use local policies to compete with one another for the location of business and for the growth of local employment. Despite the fact that suburbs support a wide range of policies to lure business growth, empirical and theoretical issues remain regarding the effectiveness of their pro-growth policies. This article investigates the growth of the retail sector in a sample of suburbs in the years 1972-1982. The effects on retail growth of local tax and service packages are estimated and compared to the effects of other forces over which local governments have less direct control. It is argued that the limits on the efficacy of local policy in attracting retail development are severe.
 
Article
African-American voters, Westside Jewish liberals, corporate downtown interests, and organized labor have formed the Mayor Tom Bradley coalition in the city of Los Angeles from 1973 through 1989. Although widespread attention has been given the other coalition sectors, little attention has been given to the relationship between Bradley and the city's trade-union movement. A major contention in this article is that discussions and analyses of Bradley and the city's politics from 1973 through 1989 have been incomplete because they have ignored labor as an influential coalition partner and player.
 
Article
After establishing that the distribution of federal and state aid to cities in New Jersey and New York was stable between 1976 and 1984, the author examines the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and aid receipts. When single years are examined, both federal and state payments are found to be broadly redistributive, especially in New Jersey. However, when change over these years is examined, the greatest federal losses are found for cities with the highest socioeconomic needs. Changes in New Jersey were more responsive to urban distress. Discussion of these differences focuses on dissimilarities in the political compromises that are reached at the state government level.
 
Article
Metropolitan patterns of black/white housing segregation are analyzed through the 1980 census data for the St. Louis Metropolitan area. Using the index of dissimilarity as an indicator of segregation, it was found that there was no change in central city segregation, and only a modest decline in suburban segregation. Analysis of segregation within incorporated places revealed that most of the area's population lived in racially homogeneous or internally segregated communities, and that virtually all racially mixed suburbs away from the major sector of black population were highly segregated. It was found that most of the suburbs that did have low segregation indices were experiencing rapid black population growth, and thus may have been experiencing racial turnover. It is concluded that patterns of segregation which have historically existed in the central city are now being repeated in the suburbs.
 
Article
The gradualist housing reform over the past quarter century has produced a highly complex mix of housing tenure forms and consumption patterns in urban China. Using a sample of sixteen hundred residential histories derived from a survey conducted in 2001, this article traces how individuals and households in Beijing responded to the different phases of the urban housing reform and gradually moved from renting work unit housing to owner occupation over the period 1980 to 2001. The proportional hazards model is used to analyze the factors that affected the tenure change at different points in time. The findings show that despite gradual introduction of market mechanisms, established rules that favored seniority in the workplace and people holding redistributive powers continued to be practiced in reform China. Cadres in Party and government organizations and state-owned enterprises and people with many years in the work unit were those who were most likely to experience the ownership switch.
 
Article
In this article, central elements making up national urban policy are reviewed and evaluated critically in light of the assumptions New Federalists make about market, state, and community. It is argued that the key challenge for urban theory and urban policy in the 1980s is to reconcile economic planning with political democracy in the city.
 
Article
Some recent municipal elections have been interpreted as indicating that America's cities are becoming more polarized on the dimension of race. It has been hypothesized that the results observed in Atlanta in 1981 and Chicago in 1983 presage an era of voting along racial lines. This article advances an alternative hypothesis: Voters who support candidates of their own race often do so simply because they have no particular reason not to. Specifically, there may be no issue-based reason to cross racial lines. Using both precinct-level and survey data from the 1981 Atlanta municipal elections, the analysis estimates the levels of racial voting (the coincidence of a racial tie between voter and candidate), racist voting (the vote for a candidate of one's own race when an issue-based motive exists to support a candidate of the opposite race), and crossover voting.
 
Article
The ability of cities to attract economic activity has been a core theme of urban research during the last decade. In this research note, the author examines the location of retail employment in 1972, 1982, and 1987 in a sample of approximately 1,000 suburban municipalities and explores the effects of local factors on the relative success that these communities experience in fostering growth in jobs in the retail sector. Policy effects are strongly limited by the inherent long-term stability in the distribution of economic activity and in the enduring distribution of the demographic conditions that define the quality and attractiveness of the local market for private goods.
 
Article
The crisis of Japan’s political economy raises the question of how it has dealt with the restructuring of its peripheral industrial regions, and the degree to which it has embraced neoliberal policies. I argue that the spread of neoliberalism in Japan has been uneven, shaped by local settings and adopted only selectively. To make this case, the article focuses on restructuring in Muroran City (2010 population, 94,600), a city of steel and heavy industry that lies on the southern coast of Hokkaido. I examine the changing fortunes of Muroran over the 1985-2010 period based upon a number of site visits made in the last 25 years or so. Set against contemporary industrial restructuring in Japan, the article evaluates the actions of the city’s major employer (Nippon Steel Corporation), central government ministries, and programs of the City of Muroran. The results show that despite the rise of the neoliberal rhetoric in Japan, restructuring in Muroran reflected a commitment to manufacturing and the local workforce by corporate as well as central and local governments.
 
Article
Whitt and Yago argue that balanced transportation never developed in the United States because consumer options and spatial densities were illegitimately manipulated by an auto-oil-rubber complex. On this basis they criticize the conventional technology-efficiency hypothesis. This comment reviews the principal arguments and sources of evidence offered by Whitt and Yago. Their arguments presume that balanced transportation is feasible and desirable in the United States simply because it exists in Europe, rest on theoretical assumptions of class struggle and rational planning which are not demonstrated, and become internally contradictory in comparing the U.S. and European cases. Because the authors blend together political and economic analysis, evaluation of transportation options winds up depending on whose class interests an investigator proposes to favor. They therefore side-step the methodological problems of ever demonstrating the superiority of balanced transportation, since its existence in Europe is likewise attributed to political struggle.
 
Article
Data from the 1988 St. Louis Dress Rehearsal Census are used to measure trends in residential segregation between decennial censuses. From 1940 through 1980, St. Louis city exhibited a persistent pattern of segregation, and through 1980, an exceptionally high proportion of its white population lived in exclusively white areas. Between 1980 and 1988, segregation declined significantly at both the tract and block levels and interracial exposure increased, suggesting a decline in the propensity of whites to move out of all-white areas that become minimally integrated. There was an overall decline in white out-migration from the city, implying that citywide net migration influences neighborhood integration potential. Still, St. Louis remains quite segregated compared to 1980 national averages.
 
Article
The urban impact of such landmark events as Olympics and world's fairs usually has been evaluated by focusing on aspects of urban renewal or planning, and they usually are understood as representative of elitist interests because of the resulting visibility and economic growth. Examining the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics with a sociological focus reveals that through an interactive process involving urban residents, this elitist event became a more populist urban festival. The result is a new perspective on the urban meaning of such landmark events, illustrating that positive emotions can be sustained in cities, in contrast to the usual negative emotions that are produced by urban problems.
 
Article
The author examines the concentration of affluent households in affluent neighborhoods in U.S. metropolitan areas in 1990. The rate of concentrated affluence, the percentage of affluent households living in affluent neighborhoods, is considered for the total population and separately for blacks and whites. Also, differences in the rate of concentrated affluence between blacks and whites are explored. Models of concentrated affluence that incorporate variables suggested by the literature on economic restructuring in the late twentieth century and by the literature on racial differences in the residential return to individual resources are developed and tested. In general, variables measuring industry/occupation employment mix influence the rate of concentrated affluence mainly through the levels of income they generate. Racial differences in the rate of concentrated affluence are influenced more by income differences between blacks and whites than by residential segregation.
 
Article
Census 2000 figures reveal broad demographic changes in America's cities during the 1990 to 2000 period. Although considerable analysis has been devoted to trends in the largest cities, there has been less attention to what is happening in smaller cities, which comprise 97% of cities nationwide. Data for 100 small cities (population less than 50,000) are drawn from the 1990 and 2000 Census Summary Files. The analysis reveals that growth is occurring faster in these smaller cities than in any of their larger cohorts. Other findings are that small-city growth is fastest in the West and Midwest, is occurring more rapidly in small cities within metropolitan areas, and is spurred by increases in Hispanic, Black, and Asian populations.
 
Top-cited authors
Susan S. Fainstein
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Robert Chaskin
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