Ukrainian Journal of Ecology

Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
Online ISSN: 2520-2138
Publications
Indicators of acute toxicity of the GKP-305, n = 10
Biochemical indices of blood murchak during long-term administration of GKP-305 (n = 10)
Mass coefficients of the internal organs of the tentacles for prolonged administration of the GKP-305, g, M ± m
In this study, no toxic effects were detected after single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg tadpoles. The results of macro- and microscopic examination of the internal organs 14 days after single subcutaneous administration of N'-(2-(5-((thephylline-7'-yl)methyl)-4-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acethyl)isonicotino-hydrazide (GKP-305) at a dose of 20, 40 mg/kg showed the absence of any anatomical and morphological abnormalities in the tissue structures of the tentacles. The calculated value of the drug indicates a high degree of safety GKP-305 and its prospects for veterinary practice as an effective and safe tuberculocidal drug.
 
p>We studied the main reasons caused the agricultural crop variety regards 137Cs uptake and translocation from the soil. The cereal grains - oats (Avena sativa L.), Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare L.), and millet seed (Panicum milaceum L.); grain legume – yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), and fodder crop - annual ryegrass (Lutium multiflorum Lam) were considered in our research. The transpiration, transpiration coefficient, relative transpiration, multiplicity of decrease in the specific activity of 137Cs in phytomass towards experimental variants and control, the intensity of the bioleaching process of 137Cs, the specific surfaces of rhizosphere, the rhizosphere surface density of root charges, and constants of roots and soil ion conductivity were used to calculate the 137Cs leaching from the soil by different crops. We used special model that considered the effect of double electrostatic fields of the rhizosphere and soil on the ion flux to calculate the 137Cs bioleaching from the soil by various crops. We suggested that the conductivity of the root-soil interface was the main reason of specific variation in the 137Cs leaching from the soil. We ranged the studied crops according to the decrease of 137Cs leaching from sod-podzolic sandy soil: yellow lupine, sultan grass – oats seed – millet seed – perennial ryegrass.</p
 
p>The radioecological condition of soils in agricultural lands and household plots, with estimated accumulation of <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr in crop and livestock products have been established. We defined the transition ratios of <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr in potatoes and other vegetables grown in household plots by rural dwellers of the Central Forest-Steppe. The role of cattle’s dung in the migration of <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr in radio-contaminated agricultural landscapes and its impact on the level of soil contamination was determined. We suggested that the cattle’s dung obtained from radio-contaminated territories facilitates the migration and redistribution of radionuclides <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr in agricultural landscapes and could be considered as a source of soil secondary pollution.</p
 
Rivers of Altai Krai On the territory of the Uglovsky and Mikhailovsky districts, the osprey was observed twice: in the spring of 2006, in the surroundings of Lake Lyapunikha, and in September of the same year near the lake Nagibino (Kotlov, Garms, 2007; Kotlov,
Osprey over a pond between the mountains Babyrgan and Gladkaya. June 22, 2008. Photo by S.V. Vazhov.
The osprey, Katun River. April 18, 2016. Photo by Y.K. Pleshkova (photo from: http://sibirds.ru).
Left -the osprey in the floodplain of the Biya River near the Stan-Bekhtemir village (April 28, 2018). Right -the osprey in the Ob floodplain in the Kislukhinsky Nature Reserve (September 6, 2019). Photo by S.V. Vazhov.
In recent years, the number of observing the osprey (Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in the Altai Krai (Siberia, Russian Federation) has increased slightly. We suppose this fact is due not to an increase in the number of these rare birds in the region, but to an increase in the number of interested observers and amateur photographers. The appearance of such Internet resources as the Web GIS “Red Book of Altai Krai”, the Web GIS “Feathered Predators of the World”, “Siberian Birdwatching Community” and others makes it easy to publish the results of their observations, confirmed by photos, on the Internet, which makes them accessible to a wide audience. Most of the ospreys observed in the region are most likely migratory, stray, or flying single birds. However, regular recording of ospreys during the breeding time on a pond along the river Setovochka between the mountains of Babyrgan and Gladkaya on the border of the Soviet and Altai areas in 1980-2000 allows a high degree of probability to suggest nesting of this bird here.
 
New data on the distribution of Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Altai Territory are presented. Some ecological conditions of habitation and limiting factors are noted. Measures were proposed to protect and guide further study of the species.
 
Seasonal dynamics of the emergence of the first generation of Mamestra brassicae in the Kamin-Kashirskyi district, 2017-2018.
The season dynamics of Mamestra brassicae cabbage moth emergence of second generation, Kamin-Kashyrskyi district, 2017-2018.
Terms of Mamestra brassicae development on cabbage varieties (gardens of Novi Chervyshcha village, 2017-2018).
The animal world of Ukraine is characterized by a large variety of species. Among the lepidoptera there are a lot of pests whose larvae cause significant damage to agriculture. In the paper, we investigated the seasonal and perennial dynamics of vegetable crops pests’ population of Mamestra brassicae in the agrobiocenoses of white cabbage. The basis of our study was the investigation of the relative quantity of the pest larvae, we demonstrated the damage to plants, as well as the periods of intensive emergence of the imago and the number of generations per year. In future, this will enable the development of effective ecologically sound methods for controlling the number of species of white cabbage pests in the conditions of Kamin-Kashyrskyi district of Volyn region. Kamin-Kashyrskyi area has a flat terrain and is characterized by a warm temperate continental climate with sufficient amount of moisture, the presence of impoverished sod-podzolic soils. The area is mostly plain, with large marsh massifs, which are favorable conditions for the existence of Mamestra brassicae, as this species is moisture-loving. Observation of biocenotic connections in the agrobiocenoses of white cabbage and stationary research on the development of protection, testing and implementation systems was carried out during 2017-2018 at the garden sites of Kamin-Kashirsky district during the entire vegetation period of the plants. White cabbage is damaged throughout the period of vegetation, however, the damage that appear after emergence of seedlings and planting of seedlings into the soil are dangerous due to their consequences. In the second half of summer and in autumn, the larvae of Mamestra brassicae caused significant damage to cabbage plants in the gardens of Novi Chervyshcha. Within this area, Mamestra brassicae develops two generations per year, causing tangible damage to the agrocoenosis of cabbage of different sowing dates. The contamination of cabbage by the larva of the first and second generations approximately accounts to 24%, where 2-3 larvae live on one plant. The massive emergence of the imago occurs in the middle of May the first half of June while the average daily temperature is +20°С to +22°С. The first egg laying was recorded at the end of May, which the female lays in groups, 20-80 units on the underside of the leaves, and the embryonic development lasts 6 to 8 days. Pupae hibernate in the soil, at a depth of 8-12 cm. Significant damage to white cabbage plants was caused by the larvae of the first generation in June and early July, and of the second generation in August and early September. They intensively feed at night and at dawn, and in the daytime there is a decline in mobility and nutritional activity. Second-generation larvae often bite into cabbage heads where they make holes and pollute them with their liquid excrement, which leads to a decrease in crops. The use of microbiological drugs Dimilin and Insehar are some of the most effective ways to get rid of Lepidoptera, including larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which provide protection of cabbage plants by 93-97%.
 
p>The article provides data on distribution, biological features, long-term population dynamics and modern conditions of the heath butterfly Coenonympha oedippus (Fabricius, 1787) on the territory of Belorussia. In the Belorussian Polesie region, there is quite dense network of large settlements of this species on large bog massifs. The species is very sensitive to overgrowing of the habitats by bushes and reeds caused by the drop of the groundwater level in the bogs due to the water drainage by land reclamation systems and the climate warming. The overgrowing of the bogs has significantly accelerated in the last decades when they have been no longer used for mowing. In the same time, the fight against bogs bushing by burning vegetation and mechanized mowing is a concern for the well-being of the settlements of C. oedippus . </p
 
Nitrite is toxic to fishes and is often encountered in recirculation aquaculture systems. The present study was carried out to study gills, liver and kidney histopathology in the juvenile freshwater fish Oncorhynchus mykiss which exposed to nitrite (1.2 ±0.03 mg L-1) for 96 hours. Histopathological alterations in gills, liver and kidneys observed microscopically showed damage in the tissues while gills, liver and kidneys of control groups exhibited a normal architecture. The most characteristic features observed in nitrite exposed fish were hemorrhages in the oral cavity, in gills and on fish body surface; focal hemorrhages under the liver capsule and in the stratum of parenchyma; atrophy and destructive changes of hepatocytes; granular degeneration of liver and kidney; liver hyaline-drop dystrophy. The study confirmed that histopathological biomarkers of toxicity in fish organs are a useful indicator of environmental pollution.
 
A time budget (background observations) and Schorygin' coefficient of tigers
Olfactory enrichment day
Our primary interest is in welfare of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, Temminck, 1844) in the Barnaul Zoo and Leningrad Zoo. As discussed below, behavioral researches can reveal much about the welfare of captive wild animals. Amur tiger s behavior is studied and time budget is calculated for males and females. The Schorygin’ similarity coefficient of behavior is determined (82.64% and 86.76%). We analyzed the differences in their behavior before and after olfactory enrichment. Cinnamon oil reduces pacing, sheltering, sleep and rest time, play behavior, increases exploratory behavior in 50% of researched Amur tigers. The reaction time of the flemen increased in both males. Younger animals better perceived olfactory enrichment. Stereotypical behavior (pacing) have decreased in post-enrichment day.
 
p>A comparative analysis of the structural and functional state of the organs of the peripheral endocrine system in red deer and other deer living in different conditions was carried out. Seasonal reorganization of the adrenal, thyroid, and endocrine parts of the testis underlies the morpho-physiological adaptive mechanisms in animals. We identified them as general biological and species-specific patterns, associated with the red deer with specific habitat conditions, especially in farming. Data on the morpho-functional status of ovaries in females of modern red deer also allow us to consider them being seasonally polyester. Thus, there are some data on the presence of 3-4 sexual cycles in the breeding season in female vapiti. It was noted that even in the red deer females during the rut period there can be several ovulations, and in winter 18.5% of females undergo anovulatory sexual cycles, while the inadequate development of follicles is attributed to poor nutrition and insufficient iodine content in soil and water of Mountainous Altai. We supposed that long period of relatively high level of spermatogenic activity of the testes, found by us in the red deer, can be regarded as the adaptation of males to the seasonal polyestricity of females, which reflects the evolutionary history of the species.</p
 
Morphological characteristics and ecology data of the Australobius magnus (Trotzina, 1894) are summarized. Distribution map and list of synonyms are given. Order Lithobiomorpha, family Lithobiidae, genus Australobius and species Australobius magnus (Trotzina, 1894) are reported to the Jambyl Region of the Kazakhstan for the first time.
 
The article presents data on the study of the diversity of crustacean communities in the Moscow-river basin. Two most common are two species of amphipods, invasive species Gmelinodes fasciatus and the native species Gammarus lacustris, were detected and studies during the study. However, the number of one of the most important bioindicator species of crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus found in our samples is insufficient for quantitative conclusions. At the same time, population of G. fasciatus can be characterized as stable at all studied stations and the species can be used as bioindicator of the natural condition of the river flowing within the Moscow City. The species seems to be significantly less sensitive to environment conditions and especially anthropogenic pollution than the native amphipod species G. lacustris and can successfully replace A. aquaticus as bioindicator species in the area where the latter species is absent. Thus, a new bioindicator pair Gammarus lacustris / Gmelinoides fasciatus is suggested for using in estimation water pollution In European part of the Russian Federation and adjacent areas.
 
Dynamics of concentration of top-priority pollutants present in open air of Rivne city during 2000-2019 years.
Dependence of pollutant concentration in open air on meteorological conditions in Rivne city.
Current state of world affairs in 2020 during quarantine enforced due to COVID-19 pandemic is characterized, on the one hand, with economic recession, but on the other hand, also with improvement of ecological state of environment. Thus a unique opportunity came up to study processes of open air conditions formation in settlements in circumstances of restricted economic activity and limitations imposed on all kinds of transportation. This article presents results of research of trends of formation of open air quality of urbanized territories (using city of Rivne as an example) during quarantine enforced due to COVID-19 pandemic. It is determined that due to introduction of quarantine measures air quality has improved. So, during the quarantine as well as after relaxation of quarantine measures only concentration of formaldehyde in open air of Rivne city did exceed average daily MAC. Primary source of open air pollution in Rivne city is motor vehicles which comprise 79% of total amount of pollutant emissions. Main pollutants which influence formation of open air quality in the city are: dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and formaldehyde. They exceeded average daily MAC by factor of 1.3 to 32. Complex air pollution index (CAPI) was equal to 5.4 during quarantine restrictions but grew to 5.7 when the restrictions were partially loosened. Thus, air pollution level was evaluated as "mild pollution". During the corresponding periods of 2019 this index was changing from 6.9 ("mild air pollution") to 7.7 ("polluted air") respectively. Open air pollution level is determined by a complex of constituents including pollutant emission amounts, their specifics and dependency on meteorological factors. Due to this aspect we have performed statistical examinations to determine dependency of open air pollutant concentrations on meteorological conditions using multiple correlation coefficients. Strong correlation was exhibited for nitrogen oxide, hydrogen chloride and ammonia: multiple correlation coefficients fall within 0.76-0.80 range; moderate correlation was seen for dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen disulphide, phenol and formaldehyde with multiple correlation coefficients varying in 0.51-0.70 range.
 
Dyspessa wiltshirei Daniel, 1938, male (holotype) (MWM) 
Dyspessa wiltshirei Daniel, 1938, female (allotype) (MWM) 
Male genitalia of holotype of Dyspessa wiltshirei Daniel, 1938 (GenPrMWM: 28.027). 
p>The article gives a detailed illustrated redescription of the rare little-known species, Dyspessa wiltshirei Daniel, 1938, including description of the male genital structure which is presented for the first time. The differences of this species from its closely related species are also provided. </p
 
Increasing of honey bee colony losses is considered to be a global threat to the planet's ecosystems, food security and global economy (Neumann & Carreck, 2010; van der Zee et al., 2012; van der Zee et al., 2014; Chauzat et al., 2016). A large-scale study of this phenomenon using the standard protocol is conducted by the international honey bee research association COLOSS. Ukraine has been providing the data since 2015. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony losses in Ukraine after the winter of 2015-2016 have been analyzed according to the physiographic zones of the country. It has been established that the total loss (the sum of the dead colonies and the colonies lost due to the unsolvable queen problems) after the winter of 2015-2016 was 9.9%, which is 1.5 times lower compared to the winter of 2014-2015 (14.9%). The losses due to colonies death decreased (6.3% after the winter of 2015-2016; 13.4% after the winter of 2014-2015), while the losses due to the unsolvable queen problems increased (3.6% after the winter of 2015-2016; 1.6% after the winter of 2014-2015). The overall loss rate of 12.0% was recorded for the countries participating in the international COLOSS monitoring after the winter of 2015-2016, therefore Ukraine is considered to be the region with the comparatively low risk. Small apiaries had a significantly higher loss rate than medium and large ones. The highest loss rate was noticed in the zone of mixed forests, whereas it was the lowest in the deciduous forest zone. The majority of the respondents (44.4%) from the mixed forest zone, where the loss due to the unsolvable queen problems reached the largest scale, noted that the problems with the queens after this winter were more serious than usual, and wintering of the colonies with new queens was better, than with the old ones (83.3%). 64.4% of respondents conducted monitoring of Varroa infestation level of their colonies, and 82.5% treated the colonies against Varroa. The correlation between the use of some chemical and biotechnical methods against Varroa (lactic acid, amitraz, formic acid, hyperthermia, etc.) and losses due to both colonies death and unsolvable queen problems was revealed. It has been shown that queen replacement before winter contributes to lowering winter mortality (r = -0.18).
 
p>This research aims at studying the field and the nature of the flow pattern within the Gorgan Bay. The sandstone slabs of Miankaleh and Gorgan Bay openings under the hydrodynamic factors are constantly changing. Various factors such as wind, sea level fluctuations and flow are affected by this deformation. In this paper, the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Gorgan Bay is presented using the Mike 21 hydrodynamic model software to calculate the flow velocity. Changes in water level at the only open boundary of the model (Ashuradeh - Turkmen port), Gulf primary water level, Meteorological parameters including precipitation, evaporation, wind speed and direction, time step, ambient heat exchange, and coefficient of roughness of the floor in the appropriate range to the model Applied. Using flow velocity data, the hydrodynamic model was accurately calibrated and verified. The results of the model state that the average direction of flow in a year in the Gorgan Bay is clockwise. The average water flow rate is 0.029 m/s, and the flow pattern calculated by the model is compared with the continuous measurements of flow through float tracking in two stages and the results are confirmed.</p
 
Effect of different adsorbing resins on the rapamycin yield in Streptomyces hygroscopicus VKM Ас-2737D
Rapamycin, a metabolite of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, has a wide range of therapeutic applications in medicine. However, the possibility of its use is significantly limited, since the existing natural strains of this microorganism have rather low productivity that negatively influences the cost of the substance and the possible volumes of its industrial production. At the same time, the commercial use of overproducing strains is also very problematic, since they secrete a large number of metabolites suppressing both the growth of microbial culture and the biosynthesis of a target product. A possible way to solve the problem includes the addition of adsorbents to a fermentation medium for the binding of excess metabolites. In this study, five different selective adsorbing resins, DIAION™ HP20, DIAION™ HP21, DIAION™ HP 20SS, Chromolite, and LPS-500 were tested to provide optimal conditions for the rapamycin biosynthesis by the earlier developed highly-active S. hygroscopicus strain VKM Ac-2737D. The experiments were performed in a 15-L bioreactor using the optimized fermentation medium developed earlier and supplemented with the tested resins. The highest rapamycin yield (1420±5 mg/L) was obtained using a Chromolite 15AD2 adsorbing resin; this result exceeds the earlier obtained yield by 11.4%. The sorptive capacity of this resin was 92% that may significantly facilitate the processes of rapamycin isolation and purification under industrial conditions. The results of the study may be of certain interest for the further scaling-up of the industrial rapamycin production.
 
The nutrient composition and ingredients of experimental diets.
Effect of different treatments on feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of experimental broilers at different weeks of experiment.
Effect of different treatments on relative weight of dressing, breast, thigh, liver, heart, spleen and bursa of Fabricus at 42 days of age. (% body weight).
Effect of different treatments on Ig G of experimental broilers at 42 day of age. (mg.ml).
To investigate the efficiency of savory essential oil on performance, organs relative weight, some blood parameters, immune response and hepatic enzymes of broiler chickens, a total 320 male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to four treatments and four replicates of twenty birds as a completely randomized design from. The varidifferent levels savory oil. The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded at continues weeks of the experiment. Relative weight of visceral organs was determined and blood serum glucose and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured after blood sampling at 42 days old and plasma IgG immunoglobulin was quantified. Data showed that BW and FI increased with savory oil inclusion (p≤0.05). Besides, the savory oil decreased the plasma glucose, AST and ALT and serum blood Ig G of heat stressed broilers, increased significantly (p?0.05) instead. In conclusion we may suggested that, the savory oil at 0.4 ml/L could improve economic proficiency in broiler flocks due to accumulation of minute advantages in greater BWG, FI, and improved immune system and lowered hepatic enzymes under heat stress condition.
 
Fat content in cow's milk, village Torchitsa, Stavishchensky district
Fat and protein content in cow milk, M ± m, n = 25
Content of DDT and its derivatives in cow's milk, village Torchitsa, Stavishensky rayon (July)
The article presents the results of investigations on the determination of the content of organochlorine pesticides and DDT in the milk samples obtained in some settlements (village Movchanivka, Leninske, Mali Lisivtsi, Velikopolovetskye, and Pustovarivka), Skvirsky district, Kyiv oblast. The analysis of fat and protein content in milk in the winter and summer periods of the year. We registered that in the winter period with an increase of fat content in the milk, the concentration of DDT and its derivatives also increases. The content of organochlorine compounds in cow's milk did not exceed the maximum permissible level. In case of prolonged inflow of pesticide residues with food products into the human organism or feed into the animal organism, toxic substances gradually accumulate in them and have a negative influence on different functional systems of organisms, causing disturbances in their work. Purification from harmful substances is carried out by metabolic conversion of toxicants into more mobile in tissues compounds that can be more easily removed from the body. The process of removal of harmful substances, including metabolites of pesticides from the body warm-blooded with biological fluids and fecal masses is very long, and its intensity is mostly due to the degree of toxic load of xenobiotics on a person or animal. An indicator of the degree and quality of toxic exposure of humans and domestic animals to pesticides that live in a particular agricultural region may be the levels of these pesticides in human and warm-blooded milk. However, the most convenient and affordable indicator of pesticide exposure to organisms may be found in cattle milk, primarily cow milk. The great advantage of this object of toxic load indication is the unlimited possibility of biomaterial selection and deficiency of volumes, necessary for sanitary and hygienic researches because herds of cattle are almost in every farm of different agricultural regions.
 
We conducted a retrospective study of EchoCG from 33 males who had the myocardial infarction. Patients with a diagnosis of "neurocirculatory dystonia" (30 people) entered the control group. We studied the size of the left ventricle, the left atrium, the right ventricle, their relationship to each other, the mass of the myocardium and the mass index of the myocardium of the left ventricle. The study of the morphological structures of the heart revealed a change in the size of the left ventricle, the left atrium and the right ventricle in patients who had an acute myocardial infarction, manifested by an increase in the end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions of the left ventricle, the left atrium, and the right ventricle. In 2/3 of the patients who had an acute myocardial infarction, the normal geometry of the left ventricle was observed. Around one-quarter of the patients had a concentric remodeling (24%), an eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle was the least common (15%). The heart of patients who had an acute myocardial infarction demonstrates a lower functionality being compared to the subjects in the control group. In these groups, the maximum value of the DAC / DDR ratio is observed, the ejection fraction is reduced. To a greater extent, the onset of acute myocardial infarction was determined by the size and mass of the left ventricular myocardium. Important meaning had also the body weight, BMI, surface area of the body, the size of the left atrium, and the right ventricle.
 
p>This paper presents the results of a molecular genetic analysis of the changes in the composition of the microbiota of the blind processes of the intestine of the hens of the industrial loam "Lohmann Brown" during ontogeny. According to the results of the analysis of taxonomic affiliation it is established that over 70% of the phylotypes belong to the three phylums - Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, less represented were Actinobacteria, Tenericutes and Fusobacteria, and a significant number of unidentified bacteria was detected. During ontogenesis, birds exhibited marked changes in the ratio of the number of phylotypes and taxonomic groups of the intestinal microbiota. At the age of 20-40 weeks, the birds showed a significant increase in the representatives of the Clostridia class involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, acid-utilizing bacteria of the order Negativicutes and bacteria with high antagonistic properties (Bifidobacteriales, Bacillus), as well as a significant decrease in the content of a number of opportunistic and pathogenic taxa - family Enterobacteriaceae, the order of Pseudomonadales, phylum Tenericutes. The greatest homogeneity of the bacterial community of the blind processes of the gastrointestinal tract in laying hens was revealed at the age of 20 weeks, which is confirmed by the estimation of biodiversity by means of ecological indices. </p
 
Water crisis: One of the most important and effective solutions to cope with water crisis is optimum use of consuming water in agriculture section. In other word, increasing “agricultural water productivity” is unavoidable in future planning and decision making as an effective factor. Therefore, deficit irrigation is stated as a proper solution in water limitation aiming to maximally use water volume unit. In addition to applying irrigation management methods, using developed techniques to save soil moisture is of the effective measures to increase irrigation efficiency and achieving sustainable agriculture. One of the strategies for optimal use of water resources and its preservation is using super absorbent polymers. This study was conducted during two growth seasons and within 2014-2015 in the farm and in Sari University of agricultural sciences and natural resources on single cross 704silage maize. The treatments included three irrigation regimes (as the main plot) and three levels of super absorbent (as subplots) with three replications. Irrigation treatments included complete and partial root irrigation in two levels of 55 and 65% (PRD65, PRD55) and three levels of water super absorbent polymer of A200 type, including 20, 40 and 60kg/hectare. Based on the obtained results, the plants, were regularly irrigated during their growth period and cultivated in the conditions of 60kg/hectare of super absorbent, had the most rate of yield components but they weren’t significantly different from those plants, irrigated with 55 and 65% volume. In other word, the function of super absorbent in these treatments increased the efficiency of water use and partial irrigation in 55 and 65% volume has been able to generate an equal yield with the conditions of complete irrigation.
 
Live weight dynamics of experimental young bulls.
Daily weight gain dynamic of young bulls.
Absolute weight gain dynamic of young stock.
Slaughtering qualities of meat breeders in the age of 18 months (n=3).
Morphological composition of right half-carcass.
This paper deals with the research of special features of fattening and slaughtering qualities of specialized meat cattle bred in Ukraine. It establishes special feature of the cattle growth intensity and development in terms of live weight gain and linear assessment of the exterior in the age from birth to 18 months. It has been established that young bulls of Volyn Meat breed were characterized by a higher slaughter yield of 61.7%. Charolais bulls of the same age had the highest carcass yield of 78.5%. Young Aberdeen Angus cattle had the highest fleshing index of 4.5 compared to 4.3 in bulls of the same age of other breeds.
 
Dynamics of live body weight of heifers, kg (M±m)
The average daily weight gain of bull-calves, g (M±m)
Absolute body weight gain of heifers, kg (M±m)
In beef cattle breeding, unlike dairy farming, the only product is a calf. Therefore, the industry's competitiveness directly depends on the annual retention from each cow and heifer calf, the preservation of calves, and the high growth energy of young animal growth throughout the rearing period. These indicators are influenced by many factors, one of which is the breeding technology. The colostrum period is the most critical; newborn calves that do not receive adequate attention at the beginning of this period die within the first two days of life or have growth retardation. Given this, it becomes urgent to establish the level of dependence between young animals' growth and the technology of keeping cows and calves during the colostrum period. The studies were performed on cows and calves of the Aberdeen-Angus breed having problems in interaction during the colostrum period due to a weak maternal instinct in cows or a sucking reflex in calves (problem pairs' cow-calf). The growth rates of bull-calves and heifers were studied: live body weight, average daily gains, absolute gains, and multiplicity of live weight gain. The factor of a new technological element - the transfer of problem pairs' cow-calf into correction sections, in the colostrum period, on the further growth of young growth was analyzed. Our studies have shown a potential difference (P=0.999) between the live weight of bull-calves, which in the colostrum period were transferred together with the cows to the correction sections, and those for which no correction sections were used. The advantage in live weight at the age of 18 months is 27% and 28% (P=0.999) in favor of bull-calves that were transferred; they prevailed by 28% (P>0.999) in average daily gains, and by 28% and 29% (P=0.999) in absolute terms. When compared by live weight at the age of 18 months, the heifers, which had been transferred to correction sections during the colostrum period, had an advantage of 26%. The average daily and absolute gains in these heifers were 29% greater than the heifers, which were not transferred.
 
Results of discriminant analysis parameters of rate and spectra of chromosomes rearrangements 
In the article we report about our investigation of cytogenetic parameters in chromosomal complex of the new Ukrainian winter wheat varieties and some relations amid value of cytological indexes and different concentrations of DMS (dimethylsulfate). We used the anaphases method for the investigation of chromosomal rearrangements and determination the mutagen action on plants and identification the nature of mutagen. We studied combined the sensitivity of genotype by the cytological analysis of mutagen treated population of wheat and revealed the reaction of different varieties depending upon the way of its origin. This was done for determining its connections and differences on cytogenetics level together with specificity of mutagen action on cell level. Dry seeds of seven varieties and one line of winter wheat were subjected to DMS in 0.0125, 0.025, and 0.05 % concentrations, which are the most useful for winter wheat in terms of genetic investigation programs. We investigated the rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in winter wheat (primary roots of tips cells) during the mitosis. We identified the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and lagging chromosomes. Investigation of DMS action confirmed reliability of fragments-bridges ratio (prevalence of fragments under the bridges for chemical mutagens and vice versa for physical mutagens) for the mutagen nature identification.
 
Pumpkinseed catches in 2016. 
Distribution of new species of fish in the basin of Zaporizhske reservoir
p>Substantial changes in the hydroecosystem of the Zaporizke reservoir have led to a significant transformation of aquatic biocoenoses. As a result, number of some aboriginal fish species have decreased. The regulation of the Dnipro river has contributed to the spread of new species of fish. Over the past 30 years, the ichthyofauna of the reservoir has gained about 20 species of fish that acclimatized and expanded their range. The article presents the results of ichthyological research of 2010- 2016. The article determines main causes of the spread of new species of fish, and gives the results of complex monitoring studies on the number and biomass of young alien fish species of the Zaporizke reservoir. It was found that the most numerous first summer individuals of alien fish species are big-scale sand smelt Atherina pontica (Eichwald, 1831), Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck et Schlegel, 1846), black-striped pipefish (Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1826) and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758).</p
 
Occurrence and abundance of R. carthamoides at slopes with different steepness
Abundance of R. carthamoides in habitats with absence (0) and presence (1) of large-rocky substrate
Abundance of R. in habitats with absence (0) and presence (1) of anthropogenic load The abundance of R. carthamoides varies considerably depending on the type of plant communities. Four groups of phytocenoses can be identified according to the number of shoots per 1 m 2 (Fig. 7). The highest abundance is observed in the
Rhaponticun carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin is a rare medicinal plant listed in the Red List of the Russian Federation. Spatial patterns of its reserves were studied for the monitoring and protection of wild populations at the Kuznetsk Alatau. The dependence of population abundance on environmental factors was revealed by geobotanical profiles. We derived the equation of nonlinear regression for rapid method of determining the weight of subsurface parts by counting the number of shoots. To assess rapidly and monitor the natural reserves we developed a mathematical model describing the abundance of R. carthamoides and its habitat altitude.
 
p>Examining the Cossidae of Transcaucasia we have studied specimens of this family deposited in the collection of the Institute of Zoology of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science (Baku). The collection includes 10 species of 9 genera and 2 subfamilies collected in the middle of the 20th century on the territory of three countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Several species are indicated for the fauna of Azerbaijan for the first time.</p
 
p>The influence of oil and gas extraction on the composition and structure of oribatid mites’ population in areas with different periods of soil remediation is researched. The ecological structure of the oribatid mites’ population in disturbed areas and in virgin steppe is compared. The ecological structure of the oribatid mites’ population of the studied oil and gas extraction areas with different soil remediation period is broken. It is typical artificial ecosystems and it characterized by the low values of species richness, average population density, indexes of ecological diversity. The dominant structure and the life forms distribution are disturbed, especially on the experimental plot 103 after completion of hydraulic fracturing.</p
 
p>20 mite species of 10 genera of Phytoseiidae were found on the plants in urban environment, namely Amblyseius andersoni Chant, 1957; Amblyseius rademacheri Dosse, 1958; Neosiulus herbarius Wainstein, 1960; Neoseiulus reductus Wainstein, 1962; Euseius finlandicus , Oudemans, 1915; Kampimodromys aberrans Ouderman, 1930; Dubininellus echinus Wainstein et Arutunjan, 1970; Dubininellus juvenis Wainstein et Arutunjan, 1970; Typhlodromus cotoneastri Wainstein, 1961; Typhlodromus laurae Arutunjan, 1974; Typhloctonus aceri Collyer, 1957; Typhloctonus tiliarum Oudemans, 1930; Paraseiulus incognitus Wainstein et Arutunjan, 1967; Paraseiulus soleiger Ribaga, 1902; Amblydromella (s.str.) caudiglans Scheuten,1959; Amblydromella (s.str.) pirianykae Wainstein, 1972; Amblydromella ( s . str .) rhenana Oudemans, 1905; Amblydromella clavata Wainstein, 1972; Amblydromella ( Aphanoseius ) verrucosa Wainstein, 1972; Galendromus longipilus Nesbitt, 1951. The peculiarities of their distribution in plant associations of Kyiv city, Uman city, Vasylkiv town, and Brovary town (Ukraine) were determined together with some spatial characteristics (population, area, urbanization degree, etc.). Common and rare species (that occurred only in one area of study) were ascertained; their biotopic relation with host plant species was estimated. Species composition of mites on the grass and tree-and-shrub plants in all the territories of associations was researched separately. Comparative characteristic of species composition of phytoseiidae mites on the plants that grew along the city streets and green plantations of the parks was made. We discovered definite patterns in mites distribution. Dominant species, subdominant, subdominant of first order, and minor members of species communities were revealed while analyzing the structure of predacious phytoseiidae mites. E. finlandicus species is dominant in all research territory: Kyiv (Di=51,63%), Uman (Di=60,32%), Vasylkiv (Di=15,65%), Brovary (Di=33,90%). K . aberrans (Di=15,52%) and finlandicus were the dominants in Vasylkiv town. K . aberrans (Di=2,35%) and T . aceri (Di=1,30%) were the subdominants in phytoseiidae mite communities. We also registered some predacious phytoseiidae mites - A . caudiglans and A . rhenana species which had the features of stenoecic species, while they considered to be the euryoecic species. Among euryoecic species there was a group of species with positive biotopic affinity to all the studied plants – A . rademacheri , N . reductus , N . herbarius , D . juvenis , T . с otoneastri , T . laura , A . pirianykae , A . clavata , G . longipilus , and species that had negative indexes to some plant species – A . andersoni , E . finlandicus , K . aberrans , D . echinus , T . aceri , T . tiliarum , P . incognitus , P . soleiger . </p
 
The summary is given in the article about the observed species of the Erythraeidae Robineau- Desvoidy, 1828 mites in the Greater Caucasus Region of Azerbaijan. 25 species belonging to 8 genera of 5 sub-families have been found. Among them 1 sub-family (Balaustiinae Grandjean, 1947), 4 genera (Erythraeus Latreille, 1806, Curteria Southcott, 1961, Balaustium v.Heyden, 1826, Neobalaustium Willmann, 1951) and 22 species are new for the Caucasian fauna. 2 subfamilies (Callidosomatinae Southcott, 1961 and Abrolophinae Witte, 1995), 2 genera (Charletonia oudemans, 1910 and Abrolophus Berlese, 1891) and 1 species (Charletonia cardinalis (Pallas, 1772)) are new for the studied area. Abrolophus Berlese, 1891 genera are rich with species, 8 species have been found. The found species are spread over the altitudes and landscape zones, landscapes and forest biotopes. Also, the zoogeographic analysis of the erythraeid mites was carried out and they were divided into ecological groups. The studies show that the base of the fauna of the Erythraeidae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1828 mites in the Greater Caucasus region consists of 3 zoogeographic groups: European species (9 species), Central European species (5 species), Holarctic species (4 species).
 
A-Map of the territory where the study was conducted in the Republic of Azerbaijan; B-Turyanchay State Nature Reserve and surrounding areas where animal bodies were discovered.
Scavengers can provide ecosystem services to people by removal of dead animals that could become sources of disease. From such point of view, it seems appropriate to evaluate these benefits in Azerbaijan in quantitative terms. To this end, in 2013, an extensive monitoring was organized in the Turyanchay Reserve, which covers six regions and neighboring territories (the total population here is 640 thousand people). A high level of animal mortality in the Turyanchay Reserve is supported by the concentration of 24 species of wild mammals and 700 thousand domestic animals in the surrounding environment. The difficult terrain area is another factor leading to the death of animals. Animals grazing on hillsides often break down and die. The bodies of domestic and wild animals killed by wolves also often remain lying on this territory. In addition, vehicles traveling along the Agdash-Gabala highway cause the death of many domestic and wild animals. During the two months of the study (from June to July), 62 dead animals were found. Ten kinds of diseases were identified in 38 undecomposed bodies of these animals. Scavengers eat animal bodies in one-three days (without bones), preventing them from becoming a source of infection. The role of necrophages in minimizing of epizootic cases and improving sanitary conditions is important for ecosystems, because the blood of most animals is a carrier of diseases and most of the parasites present in it are common to both humans and animals. Scavengers can be used by veterinary organizations as indicators to simplify the identification of animal bodies and the subsequent disposal of their remains.
 
Contamination of fodder raw materials by heavy metals
Content of heavy metals in feed
Content of heavy metals and microelements in some edible parts of poultry
Balance of heavy metals in the poultry body under silicon extract usage
Impact of silicon and mineral extract on the concentration of heavy metals in poultry meat
The level of contamination of poultry fodder raw material, which includes 30% of corn, 55% of wheat, 5% of oats, 5% of barley and 5% of sunflower meal, by heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, copper) in the zone of intensive farming of the Right-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine is shown. The impact of silicon and mineral extract on the intensity of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, copper) accumulation in the edible parts of poultry, namely in the red and white meat, liver and skin is studied. It has been revealed that there is an excess of MAC in cadmium by 2.1 times in the fodder wheat and by 3.0 times in the sunflower meal (Medical and Biological Requirements 5061-89) in the zone of intensive farming of the Right-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine. The replacement of 10% of water with siliconand mineral water extract in the poultry diet under their keeping at households contributes to increase the removal of lead from their bodies by 27.4 %, cadmium – by 30.2%, zinc – by 20%, and copper – by 16.3%. We determined that the use of silicon and mineral water extract in the poultry diet reduced the concentration of lead by 1.6 times in the liver, by 1.1 times in the white meat and by 1.02 times in the red meat; it reduced the concentration of cadmium by 1.2, 1.6, and 1.2 times; reduced the concentration of zinc by 1.3, 1.05, and 1.8 times; the concentration of copper by 1.3, 1.3, and 1.4 times, respectively.
 
Experimental scheme 
p>Californian red worms hybrid biomass is a biologically valuable feed supplement for livestock, poultry and fish. The worm body contains a significant amount of protein, lipids, vitamins and minerals. The chemical composition of worms depends on the nutrient medium in which they were grown. Worms can accumulate minerals from the nutrient medium in the body which called forth conducting research on obtaining worms biomass enriched with Cobalt with the prospect of its further use in fish feeding. It has been found out that the worms quantity and the mass increase depends on the content of Cobalt in the nutrient medium. Adding 20 mg / kg of Cobalt to the nutrient medium contributed to 38.0% and 40.4% increased amount of worms weighing 0.4-0.8 g respectively. The study reveals that the number of immature worms increased by 32.2%. Adding 40 mg / kg of Cobalt to the nutrient medium resulted in worms number and mass increased by 45.9 and 51.1% respectively. Adding 160 mg / kg of Cobalt resulted in 6.5-27.7% smaller amount of worms weighing 0.4-0.8 g as compared with the experimental groups. It has been found out that the number of small worms reduced by 24.0-50.7% compared with the experimental groups under adding 160 mg / kg of Cobalt. The weight reduced by 22.4% and amount of young worms compared with the control has been revealed. We have established the pattern that as Cobalt amount in the nutrient medium increases, its concentration in the worms biomass increases as well. The highest content of Cobalt was found in the biomass dry matter of worms grown in the nutrient medium enriched with the studied metal in the amount of 160 mg / kg. Biomass of worms grown in the nutrient medium with 40 mg / kg of the studied metal added can be used in fish feeding as a protein supplement with a high content of Cobalt.</p
 
Microclimate parameters in the poultry houses, depending on the time of accumulation of litter on the belts of cage batteries without built-in air ducts.
Microclimate parameters in the poultry houses, depending on the time of accumulation of litter on the belts of cage batteries with built-in ducts and upgraded air mixer.
One of the main reasons of the destabilization of the ecological environment around poultry farms is the widespread use of resource-consuming and environmentally irrational production processes and technological preparation, processing and disposal of poultry waste. Nowadays, cage batteries with a belt removal system are becoming more widespread in the poultry farming. However, the use of such equipment does not guarantee compliance with applicable veterinary and sanitary requirements for the content of harmful gases in the air of the poultry houses and its microbial contamination. This, in turn, has a negative impact on the state of the environment. In addition, the equipment designed for countries with a milder climate than in Ukraine does not support the designed regimes of its individual systems. Therefore, the study of the effect of the accumulation of the litter on the belts of the cage batteries on its humidity, chemical composition and microclimate in the poultry house, from the environmental point of view, remains an urgent problem. On the basis of complex studies, the kinetics of the drying of the litter on the belt conveyors of the cage batteries for keeping laying hens with built-in air ducts and without air ducts in different seasons, as well as the effect of the duration of the accumulation of the litter on the microclimate in the poultry house, microbial contamination and chemical composition of the litter have been studied. The study of the microclimate in the poultry house, depending on the time of accumulation of the litter on the conveyor belts, showed that with the increase in the time of accumulation of excrements in the air, the content of ammonia increased, and after 5 days of accumulation in the cold season its level began to exceed the maximum contamination level (MCL)-15 mg per m3 of the air. The amount of ammonia on the 7th day of the litter accumulation in all poultry houses was 1.8-2.8 times greater (P 0.001) compared to the first day. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air increased by 1.14-2.00 times, but it never exceeded the MCL - 0.25%. When studying the both types of cage batteries, 1.2-2.6 times the maximum contamination level of the air (220 thous. microbic units per m3) was established in the poultry houses. In the case of cage batteries without built-in ducts from the 1st to the 7th day of accumulation, microbial air contamination increased by 1.9 times in the cold season, and by 1.7 times - in the warm season; and on the 7th day it was 579 and 462 thous. microbic units per m3, respectively. When using the cage batteries with built-in ducts, microbial air contamination increased slightly: by 1.7 times in the cold season and 1.4 times in the warm season and on the 7th day it was 535 and 580 thous. units per m3, respectively.
 
The peculiarities of Zn and Cu accumulation by the red clover Trifolium pratense L., condition of the pigment system of the red clover leaves in the presence of environmental pollution caused by these metals are specified in this work. Amount of chlorophyll а+b in the leaves has been evaluated. It has been established that when the accepatable level of HM had been exceeded tenfold, chlorophyll content in comparison with the control decreased by 60 - 80%. An experiment showed that when different concentrations of the studied metals were brought into the soil, chlorophyll content pollution to 1 MAC level was almost identical to or even exceeded the control points. Only when MAC was exceeded five-fold and tenfold, the pigment count level in the cells decreased sharply. When the metal concentration on the soil increased, Trifolium pratense lamina area decreased. It has been established that the maximum level of chlorophyll а+b can be observed during flower-bud formation, and the lowest consolidated figures are reached during flowering.
 
Yield and product quality of tomato plants sv. Solerosso under Folicur and Esphon treatment 
p>We studied the influence of ethylene product Esphon® and triazole derivative Folicur® on the morphogenesis and productivity of tomatoes. The obtained results explained the significant role of morphological and mesostructural components of “source-sink” relation system of tomatoes in the formation of crop productivity. We established that the Folicur application resulted in more significant anatomical and morphological changes in the formation of leaf apparatus in comparison with the ethylene producer: the measurement of number, weight, area of leaf surface, and leaf index were higher in this variant of experiment. We also noted the appropriate changes in the mesostructure measurement of leaves: thickness of leave – main photosynthetic tissue of chlorenchyma, assimilatory cells size of palisade and spongy parenchyma. Analysis of depositing possibilities of plants vegetative organs at the fruitification stage indicates the importance of temporary postponement of nonstructural carbohydrates and nitrogen containing compounds in them followed by reutilization for carpogenesis needs. Application of Folicur resulted on the formation of a more powerful donor sphere and in the early fruit growth and formation stages are postponed more carbohydrates in vegetative organs of tomato plants compared to control. The content of sugars and starch in the roots, stems and leaves of plants under Folicur treatment was highest in all organs of the plant throughout the fruitification phase compared to control and variant with Esphon application. Our results also testify to the possibilities of nitrogen compounds remobilize from vegetative organs to carpogenesis needs. After Folicur treatment, the most intense decrease in the content of nitrogen containing compounds was observed during the transition from the fruit formation stage to green fruits stage in roots and stem of plant during the period of the most intense tomatoes growth. We concluded that a significant increase the yield of tomato crop was caused by the more powerful donor sphere formation and reutilization of assimilates and nitrogen containing compounds after Folicur application.</p
 
Chromatogram of the extract of D. helianthi at different days of cultivation, at 208 nm, 254 and 300 nm: 1) 7 days; 2) 14 days; 3) 17 days. B -derivatives of benzene, phenol, thiazole and other compounds. The accumulation of identified secondary metabolites differed significantly at different times of D. helianthi cultivation. The content of fomosin in the culture filtrate of the fungus did not change significantly from 7 to 17 days of cultivation (123-128.5 mAU) (Fig. 4). Other identified secondary metabolites showed multidirectional changes in quantitative and qualitative parameters depending on the timing of fungus cultivation. The content of fomopsolides significantly decreased in the culture filtrate of the 17-day cultivation period of D. helianthi M. in comparison with the 7-day cultivation period (16.6 times). In the spectrum of the 17-day fungus mycelium medium, the lines characteristic of xanthones have disappeared, which indicates the complete inhibition of their synthesis. The increase in the period of mycelium cultivation led to a gradual increase in the content of cytosporones (1.09 and 2.41 times, respectively, on the 14th and 17th day of cultivation). Such changes, in our opinion, are due to the fact that the identified substances have different properties. Fomosin (C13H16O7×H2O) is a highly active dimethylglyceric acid (Specian et al., 2012) with species-specific action. It can cause browning of Helianthus annuus L. leaves in small concentrations (5 pg in 24 hours), but does not affect plants of Cucumis melo L., Glycine max l, Zea mays l, Pisum L. and Nicotiana L. (Mazars et al., 1990). Detection of fomopsolides in filtrates of different times of cultivation of D. helianthi mycelium testifies to the wide variety of their structure and properties. In studies with Staphylococcus aureus found that all fomopsolides have a general biological inhibitory effect, namely antimicrobial properties (Vasudeva et al., 2015). These secondary metabolites are characterized by cytotoxic, fungicidal, allelopathic, bactericidal and antiviral activity (Qing-Wei Tan et al., 2017). Secondary metabolites from the group of cytosporones are bioactive compounds, that are widely distributed in nature and belong to phenolic lipids (Brady et al., 2000). Xanthones are a product of condensation of γ-pyrone and two benzene rings. These compounds are biogenetically close to such groups of phenolic compounds as flavonoids due to the similarity of their physicochemical properties (Kruglov, 2015). The observed changes are an increase in the number of cytosporones, a decrease in the content of fomopsolides, and inhibition of xantones synthesis. These processes occur against the background of relatively unchanged values of fomosin.
Mean length of seedlings of Tr. aestivum on filtrates of D. helianthi of different time of cultivation, cm
The study presents variability in the qualitative composition and quantitative indicators of secondary mycelium metabolites of the fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et al., the most harmful plant pest of Helianthus annuus L. Toxicity of secondary metabolites of D. helianthi was analyzed by determining the average length of seedling shoots of Triticum aestivum L. test object grown on fungus filtrates of different cultivation dates. The maximum toxic effect of D. helianthi was recorded during the germination of Triticum aestivum L. seedlings on a 17-day filtrate of pure mycelium culture of the fungus. The mean length of wheat seedlings in this variant of the experiment decreased by 3.5 times compared with the control and 3.3 times compared with the filtrate of the culture medium of 7 days of cultivation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified secondary metabolites of D. helianthi as fomosin, fomopsolides, cytosporones, and xanthones. There was a redistribution of secondary metabolites due to increase in number of cytosporones, decrease in content of fomopsolides, and termination of xanthone synthesis with increasing time of cultivation of fomopsis mycelium, under conditions of relatively stable indicators of fomosin content.
 
p>The problem of transformation of natural landscapes resulted from the negative technogenic impact is highlighted. It is shown that mining enterprises are powerful anthropo-technical sources of organic and inorganic toxicants entering the environment. Their wastes pollute all components of the ecosystems and negatively influence human health by increasing a risk of disease. The nature of the accumulation of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) by invertebrate animals of various functional groups under conditions of anthropo-technogenic pressure was studied. The sample plots were located on self-overgrowing sites with ruderal vegetation located in the immediate vicinity of the Mangan ore-dressing and processing enterprise (Dnipropetrovsk region). It is quite naturally that among the studied biogenic microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni), the phyto-, zoo-, and saprophages in the investigated zone of technogenic pollution most actively accumulate Fe: 22758, 17516 and 18884 mg/kg dry weight on average, respectively. There are significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the content of studied microelements between saprophages and phytophages. The saprophages accumulate such trace metals as Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd in high quantities, but Ni and Pb – in smaller ones. The saprophagous functional group of invertebrates is an active agent of detritogenesis, in the conditions of modern nature management it acts as a powerful element of ecosystem engineering (habitat transformation), the main ecological role of which is to modify the habitat of other soil biota. In addition, the saprophages fulfil their concentrating geochemical function. They actively participate in the most important soil biochemical process: the formation of humus, the migration of microelements along trophic chains, the biological cycle in general, and provide such supporting ecosystem services as increasing soil fertility and nutrient cycling.</p
 
Goal. Assessment of the influence of growing leguminous perennial herbs on the intensity of heavy metals accumulation in winter wheat as in a subsequent crop rotation. Methods. Field, laboratory atomic absorption method, mathematical and statistical processing. Results. cultivation of winter wheat after precursors of Medicago sativa I., Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis arenaria Kit., Melilotus albus L., Lotus corniculatus L. or Galéga orientalis Lam. leads to a decrease in the content of lead by 1.8-2.5 times, cadmium – by 1.7–2.6 times, copper - 2.2–4.6 times and zinc - 1.6–1.9 times compared to winter wheat after corn precursor on silage. To obtain winter wheat with a minimum lead and copper content, the optimal precursor is Onobrychis arenaria Kit., with a minimum cadmium content - Galéga orientalis Lam. precursor, with a minimum copper and zinc content - the Trifolium precursorpratense L. The lowest influence on the reduction of heavy metals accumulation in winter wheat grain is caused by the precursor Lotus corniculatus L. Thanks to the use of leguminous perennial herbs as a precursor to winter wheat, it is possible to reduce the accumulation coefficient of heavy metals by 1.1-2.9 times compared with the corn precursor on silage. The lowest accumulation coefficient of the studied heavy metals was observed after the precursor of Medicago sativa I. Conclusion. Leguminous perennial herbs - Medicago sativa I., Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis arenaria Kit., Melilotus albus L., Lotus corniculatus L. and Galega orientalis Lam. promote optimization of soil condition by increasing the content of humus, minerals nutrients, optimization of soil acidity. As a result, they reduce the accumulation of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc) in winter wheat as the next crop in crop rotation and contribute to the reduction of accumulation coefficient of heavy metals in winter wheat.
 
p>The possibility of using a morpho-geometric method for determining the indices of the fluctuating asymmetry of Асе r pseudoplatanus L. leaf for bioindication is evaluated. The material was collected on the roadside territories of motorways of the city of Donetsk with different traffic intensity. The values of the fluctuating asymmetry of A. pseudoplatanus leaf blade, grown in conditions of city roadside ecosystems, are increased with the increase in the transport load, obtained through Procrustean analysis of variance. The morphogeometric method for determining the fluctuating asymmetry showed greater sensitivity in comparison with the use of an index calculated by the normalizing formula based on measurements of individual bilateral features. It is expedient to carry out studies in which the task is to accumulate data on the dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry indices obtained by a morphogeometric method, with a view to the subsequent widespread application of this approach for bioindication and biomonitoring of the state of the environment.</p
 
p>Lactobacillus acidophilus - homofermentative lactobacillus, specializing in living in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of mammals and birds. It accompanies a person from birth and throughout his life, providing a whole range of useful services, the main one of which is active participation in the body's defense system against the harmful action of undesirable microorganisms (preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria and restraining populations of opportunistic microbes at a safe level) . It is this property of the acidophilus rod that explains its wide practical use in various probiotic products and preparations of dietary, medical and agricultural purposes. Although the acidophilus rod is known and purposefully used for a long time, it still ha the great potential for the research. The use of gene-molecular approaches has made it possible to clarify the systematic position of L. acidophilus in the family of lactobacilli and to identify a group of closely related species, often indistinguishable by traditional physiological and biochemical identification methods. Today, the efforts of researchers are focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which antagonistically active strains of L. acidophilus carry out a bactericidal and bacteriolytic effect on harmful microbes. Disclosure of these mechanisms will not only allow more efficient selection and use of strains of L. acidophilus, but also create a new class of antibiotics that are more effective and have less side effects than existing ones. This review is devoted to the description of the probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus acidophilus. In the article the biological and ecological properties of the acidophilus rod are described in detail, examples of practical use of this microorganism in various branches of the national economy are given.</p
 
Heavy metal concentration in the tissues of honey bee heads, mg/kg natural weight (М ± m, n=3)
Level of anionic forms of fatty acids in the tissues of honey bee heads, g -3 /kg natural weight (М ± m, n=3)
Concentration of non-esterified forms of fatty acids in tissues of honey bee heads, g -3 /kg natural weight (М ± m, n=3)
The tissues of the head of honey bees which are kept in the areas with a medium and low level of technogenic burden demonstrate the decrease in the contents of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and cadmium in comparison with the tissues of the head of honey bees grown in areas with a high level of technogenic burden. Due to the activity of saturated fatty acids with the even and odd number of carbon atoms in chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families, the contents of anionic fatty acids, which are inaccessible for the bee body, decreases in the tissues of the head of honey bees which are kept in the areas with a medium and low level of technogenic burden in comparison with the tissues of the head of honey bees grown in areas with a high level of technogenic burden. 3. Monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families in the tissues of the head of honey bees lead to increase of the total number of easily accessible non-esterified fatty acids for the honey bees which are kept in the areas with a medium and low level of technogenic burden in comparison with the tissues of the head of honey bees grown in areas with a high level of technogenic burden. Furthermore, the intensity of transformations of the non-esterified form of linolenic acid in its more long-chain and more unsaturated derivatives rises in the head tissues of the former. This fact indicates that the reduction of technogenic impact on the area results in the increase of the activity of desaturase in the tissues of the head of honey bees. The contents of heavy metals, anionic and non-esterified fatty acids in the tissues of the head of honey bees which are kept in the areas with low level of technogenic burden undergoes the most significant changes.
 
Level of hemoglobin in blood of rats under conditions of poisoning with tetrachloromethane and under the action of feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus", g L -1
The level of globulins in the blood of rats under the conditions of poisoning with tetrachloromethane and the action of the feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus", g L -1
Ratio of A/G in the blood of rats under the conditions of tetrachloromethane poisoning and the action of the feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus".
The intensive development of animal husbandry at the present stage requires new approaches to organizing the feeding of farm animals and the introduction of modern feed additives, which are not normally used purely as feed, but are deliberately added to feed or water to improve their quality, increase productivity and animal welfare. To prevent the development of oxidative stress in animals, we used the feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus", which in its composition contains the fruits of milk thistle, selenium, methionine and vitamins A, E and D3. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feed additive Butaselmevit-plus on blood morphological parameters and protein synthesis of rat liver under tetrachloromethane poisoning. For research, we used Wistar male rats, which were divided into three groups of 20 animals each. Control rats were intact. The first and second experimental group of rats were administered tetrachloromethane. Experimental intoxication in animals was performed by twice (after 48 h) intragastric administration of tetrachloromethane at a dose of 0.1 ml per 100 g of rat body weight in the form of a 50% oil solution. Experimental group R2 was fed a feed additive of Butaselmevit-plus for a dose of 0.1 g per 100 g of body weight together with the feed for experimental toxicosis for 30 days. On the basis of the conducted researches positive effect of feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus" on the organism of rats, which were intoxicated with tetrachloromethane, is shown, which is shown by normalization of hematological parameters and protein synthesis of liver function. Restoration of hematopoietic function of bone marrow of rats by intoxication with tetrachloromethane is due to the fact that the feed additive "Butaselmevit-plus" contains in its composition fruits thistle, which have a high level of vitamins A and K, and trace elements, namely: Ferum, Cuprum and Cobalt that are directly involved in hematopoiesis. When feeding Butaselmevit-plus as feed supplement, the number of red blood cells in the blood of the second experimental group of rats was higher than that of the first experimental group, but the control values reached only on the 30th day of the experiment. When using the feed additive Butaselmevit-plus in rats under conditions of oxidative stress development, the leukocyte count decreased to the optimum level.
 
Degree of disinfection effect of chlorine agent No. 2 on T. canis egg culture
Ovocidal effectiveness of disinfectants on T. canis test culture
Disinfectant properties of disinfectants relative to the T. canis test culture applied to the test objects
Ovocidal efficiency of 4.0% solution of means No. 1 on T. canis eggs in soils (n=5)
Disinfection of environmental objects with highly effective disinfectants is a reliable and effective means of preventing the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious and parasitic diseases. The purpose of our work was to determine the disinfection properties of modern disinfectants based on the test culture of Toxocara canis helminths and to establish the optimal modes of their use. It has been proven that an aldehyde disinfectant containing didecyldimethylammonium chloride (2.25%), benzalkonium chloride (8.0%), glutaraldehyde (15.0%), phosphoric acid, nonionic surfactants, water exhibits disinvasive activity against test cultures of Toxocara canis eggs at a concentration of 2.0-4.0% at a temperature of 20±0.5°C and an exposure of 3-24 hours, and the ovocidal efficiency is from 90.60% to 99.70%. Aldehyde disinfectant can be used for disinfection of soil (black earth, sandy loam, loamy) contaminated with Toxocara canis eggs, at a concentration of 4.0% at 6:00 exposure and a consumption rate of 3000 cm3/m2. Chlorine agent, contains dichlorantin, dimethylhydantoin (12.4-16.4%), dispersant (9.0-12%), nonionic surfactants, corrosion inhibitor, filler exhibits disinvasive activity against Toxocara canis test culture in a concentration of 3.0-4.0% with an exposure of 3-24 hours, and the ovocidal efficiency in this case ranges from 97.40% to 98.82%. The chlorine agent is effective for soil disinfection only at a depth of up to 2 cm at a concentration of 4.0% at a consumption rate of 1000 cm3/m2 and an exposure time of 24 hours.
 
Content of hydrogen peroxide in leaves of winter wheat at different levels of soil nitrogen. Here and further the varieties of winter wheat are presented: 1-Astarta, 2-Kievskaya opasty, 3-Malinovka (I-high nitrogen background, II-high nitrogen background + carbamide treatment, III-low nitrogen background, IV-low nitrogen background + treatment carbamide), (M ± m, n = 5-7). 
p>We proved that the insufficient supply of soil nitrogen, induces defense reactions in winter wheat, as evidenced by the increase in hydrogen peroxide and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Treatment of plants with carbamide on a low nitrogen background, induced a decrease in the content of hydrogen peroxide in leaves of varieties of winter wheat, which may indicate a low level of oxidative processes in plants due to the inclusion of antioxidant enzymes in stress conditions. At the same time, the intensification of the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of varieties of winter wheat for the low nitrogen nutrition of plants was recorded. Foliar dressing of winter wheat urea is regarded as a kind of stress on the plant, on the one hand, and on the other, as a factor that stimulates of inclusion the protective mechanisms, in the above privacy and activation of work in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle and superoxide dismutase. This contributes to a better realization of the genetic potential of winter wheat varieties.</p
 
The frequency of pathological mitoses induced by the samples of the Chumysh River water in the onion root meristem, % 
The mitotic regime in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. 
Pathologies of mitosis in the onion root meristem cells induced by the samples of the Chumysh River water: a-chromosome bridge; b-chromosome lagging; c-micronuclei 
p>The Allium test system is worldwide used for biological monitoring of environmental pollutants. We have studied toxic and mutagenic activity of water from the Chumysh River, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Upper Ob. Water samples were taken near industrial settlement Talmenka (Altai Territory of Russia) during the spring flood and low autumn water level in 2015. Root tips of Allium cepa L. was used as a biological model. There were examined 30 samples. Purified tap water of medium hardness served as a control sample. After the synchronizing the cell divisions, the onion bulbs with roots reaching a length of 2-3 mm were transferred to glass cups containing the selected samples of River water and cultured for several days at a temperature of +24 ± 1°C. After exposure, root tips were rinsed in distilled water and fixed in a cold mixture of ethanol and acetic acid (3:1). Fixed samples were used after 12-24 h or transferred to 70% alcohol and stored in refrigerator at a temperature of +4°C until required. The fixed materials were hydrolyzed in 1N HCl at 60°C for 5-8 min and squashed in aceto-orcein. Prepared slides were viewed under the microscope at a magnification of ×90. The mitotic index (MI), the phase indices, the frequency of abnormal mitosis, and chromosomal aberrations were determined by the examination of 500 cells per a replicate (100 cells per slide). We established that the decreased or increased levels of mitotic activity and the frequencies of pathological mitoses (up to 7.9%, P < 0.05) in onion root tips revealed the presence of mitotoxic and genotoxic agents in the Chumysh River water. We found that the most number of chromosomal abnormalities occurs at the stages of meta- or anaphase. The main abnormalities are chromosome laggings in meta- and anaphase, chromosome bridges, chromosome fragments and micronuclei. Their number increased in 5.0-10.8 times compared with the control value. It has been discovered the temporal and spatial distribution of compounds with different toxicity and genotoxicity within a stream. The greatest level of mitotic depression and the highest frequency of chromosomal mutations were observed in the tissues of the onion root tips germinated on the samples collected in low autumn water. The mechanisms of plant adaptation to unfavorable environmental factors are discussed.</p
 
Influence of disinfectants on the immune status of rats (n=6)
The purpose of the research was to study acute toxicity, irritating and sensitizing effects, biochemical and immunological parameters of animal blood after influence of "Orgasept" disinfectant, consisted from silver nanoparticles, benzalkonium chloride and lactic acid. To determine acute toxicity, 6 months old clinically healthy male rats (5 groups, six rats per each group) and female rats (5 groups, six per each group) with body weight of 180-200 g were used. We determined the average lethal dose (LD50) and the main parameters of acute toxicity after Orgasept rats administration in various dozes. We found that, at intra-gastrointestinal administration of Orgasept, the LD50 for male rats was 5000.0±43.0 mg/kg body weight and 5045.0±56.3 mg/kg for the females. We also registered that Orgasept does not have cumulative and sensitizing properties, does not show irritating effect, suppressive effect on growth and development of animals, and does not affect the hemopoiesis. We revealed that Orgasept demonstrated significant effect on nonspecific and specific factors of the organism's protection compared to the formaldehyde.
 
Intra-gastric drug administration.
The dynamics of body weight of white mice in a chronic experiment under the influence of Ginkgo Biloba extracts (M ± m, n=20).
The article presents the results of acute and chronic toxicity of Ginkgo Biloba samples. When analyzing the general condition of animals after 30 minutes and 1 hour single extract administration at doses of 1, 2.5, and 5 mg kg-1, it has been established that the motility and mobility of mice were reduced. After third hour of observation these phenomena was not observed. Other signs of intoxication, in particular the central and autonomic nervous system (lateral position, reduction of muscle tone, violation of coordination of movements, blepharoptosis, hyperalsalivation, etc.) were not noted. Based on the results of the studies, Ginkgo Biloba extract with subcutaneous administration to white mice for 14 days in a therapeutic dose did not cause significant changes in the general condition, body weight, morphological and biochemical blood parameters.
 
Top-cited authors
Bogdan Gutyj
  • Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv
Alex Matsyura
  • Altai State University
Bushueva Inna
  • Zaporozhye State Medical University
A. A. Legalov
  • Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals
Andriy Shcherbatyy
  • Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv