Ukrainian Antarctic Journal

Published by State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Print ISSN: 1727-7485
The description problem of geoantineutrino spectrum and reactor antineutrino experimental spectrum in KamLAND, which takes place for antineutrino energy \~2.8 MeV, and also the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silicaalumina melts at high pressure (5-10 GP?) and temperature (1600-2200C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron- fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution in the Earth's interior is offered. It is shown that the 3He/4He ratio distribution can be the natural quantitative criterion of georeactor thermal power. On the basis of O'Nions-Evensen-Hamilton geochemical model of mantle differentiation and the crust growth supplied by actinid shell on the boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core as a nuclear energy source (georeactor with power of 30 TW), the tentative estimation of geoantineutrino intensity and geoantineutrino spectrum on the Earth surface are given.
Time evolution (a) the variations of magnetic flux in the bottom (tachocline zone) of the Sun convective zone (see Fig.7f in Ref. [6]), (b) of the geomagnetic field secular variation (Ycomponent , nT/year) [8], (c) the variation of the Earth's rotation velocity [9], (d) the variation of the average ocean level (PDO+AMO, cm/year) [10] and (e) the number of large earthquakes (with the magnitude M≥7) [11] and. All curves are smoothed by the sliding intervals in 5 and 11 years. The pink area is a prediction region. Note: formation of the second peaks on curves (c)-(e) is mainly predetermined by nuclear tests in 1945-1990.  
Schematic representation of the solar tachocline zone and Earth's liquid outer core (red region) in whose magnetic fields the conversion of axions into γ-quanta can take place with certain probability (see Eq. (3)). Note: In the conventional concept, the molten iron of liquid phase of Earth's core circulates along a spiraling in columns aligned in the north-south direction, generating electrical currents that set up the dipolar magnetic field. The concentration of fieldlines into anticyclonic vortices (rotating in the same as air around a region of high pressure) has been thought to explain the intense magnetic lobes found in Earth's field at the top of the core. (The region contained by Earth's inner core and green cylinder is characterized by strong magnetic field.)  
Reconstructed solar photon spectrum below 10 keV from the Active (flaring) Sun (black line) from accumulated observations (adapted from [20]). The dashed line is the converted solar axion spectrum. Three degraded spectra to multiple Compton scattering are also shown for column densities above the initial conversion place of 64 g/cm 2 , 16 g/cm 2 [20] and 2 g/cm 2 (present paper). Note that the Geant4 code photon threshold is at 1 keV and therefore the turndown around ~1 keV is an artefact.  
We show existence of strong negative correlation between the temporal variations of magnetic field toroidal component of the solar tachocline (the bottom of convective zone) and the Earth magnetic field (Y-component). The possibility that hypothetical solar axions, which can transform into photons in external electric or magnetic fields (the inverse Primakoff effect), can be the instrument by which the magnetic field of convective zone of the Sun modulates the magnetic field of the Earth is considered. We propose the axion mechanism of "solar dynamo-geodynamo" connection, where an energy of axions, which form in the Sun core, is modulated at first by the magnetic field of the solar tachocline zone (due to the inverse coherent Primakoff effect) and after that is absorbed in the liquid core of the Earth under influence of the terrestrial magnetic field, thereby playing the role of an energy source and a modulator of the Earth magnetic field. Within the framework of this mechanism new estimations of the strength of an axion coupling to a photon (ga_gamma about 5*10^-9 GeV^-1) and the axion mass (ma ~ 30 eV) have been obtained. Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures
Few previous site-specific studies have given attention to the development and management issues of Antarctic tourism at operating scientific stations that support non-governmental activities to some degree. This article presents findings from a study that examined the change in visitor patterns at Ukrainian Vernadsky Station (formerly British Faraday Station), one of the most visited tourist destinations in the Antarctic Peninsula area. Data detailing the trends of tourist activities at Faraday/Vernadsky Station have been collected and processed from 195 to 2008. Since 1996 there have been significant changes in governance and policy resulting in the increasing tourist numbers. This study uses a comparative approach to examine regulation patterns at different scientific stations in Antarctica and indicates policies for better visitor management at Vernadsky Station. Реферат. У зарубіжній літературі, присвяченій окремим територіям в Антарктиці, порушуються питання розвитку антарктичного туризму та управління ним на діючих наукових станціях, які певною мірою підтримують недержавні відвідування. У цій статті висвітлено результати вивчення змін у структурі відвідувань української станції Академік Вернадський (колишня британська станція Фарадей) – однієї з найбільш популярних серед туристів станцій у районі Антарктичного півострова. Динаміка туристичних відвідувань станції Фарадей/Вернадський репрезентована за даними, зібраними в період 1968–2008 рр. Значні зміни, що сталися в управлінні станцією починаючи з 1996 р., спричинили різке збільшення кількості туристів. За допомогою порівняльного підходу вивчено моделі управління туристичними відвідуваннями на різних антарктичних станціях, а також запропоновано рекомендації щодо покращення практики візитного менеджменту на станції Академік Вернадський. Ключові слова: туристична діяльність, структура та динаміка відвідувань, візитний менеджмент, Антарктичний півострів, станція Фарадей/Вернадський. Реферат. В зарубежной литературе, посвященной отдельным территориям в Антарктике, поднимается вопрос развития антарктического туризма и управления им на действующих научных станциях, которые в какой-то мере поддерживают неправительственные посещения. В данной статье освещены результаты изучения перемен в структуре посещений украинской станции Академик Вернадский (бывшая британская станция Фарадей) – одной из наиболее популярных среди туристов станций в районе Антарктического полуострова. Динамика туристических посещений станции Фарадей/Вер-надский представлена на основе данных, собранных за период 1968–2008 гг. Значительные перемены, произошедшие в управлении станцией начиная с 1996 г., содействовали резкому увеличению количества туристов. Методом сравнительного подхода изучены модели управления туристическими посещениями на различных антарктических станциях, а также разработаны рекомендации улучшения практики визитного менеджмента на станции Академик Вернадский. Ключевые слова: туристическая деятельность, структура и динамика посещений, визитный менеджмент, Антарктический полуостров, станция Фарадей/Вернадский.
Objective. This note aimed to summarize the main achievements and to determine emerging political-legal challenges of Antarctic governance in the light of the 60th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty. Methods. A Comparative Analysis of academic papers on this matter, and interpretation of the legal provisions of declarations and statements adopted during the past decade by the Antarctic Treaty Parties’ official delegations and authorized representatives. Results. The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) is widely considered as one of the most successful and robust international legal regimes. It is the first welldeveloped institution to govern all kinds of human activities on the continent-wide large scale in the area covering nearly 10% of Earth’s surface. Peaceful use, international scientific cooperation, and the protection of the Antarctic environment, including the rational use of marine leaving resource in the Southern Ocean, comprise the three basic elements that are and continue to be cornerstones of the ATS. While the Antarctic Treaty Parties have been mostly focusing on two arising issues (climate change and tourism), the ATS is now facing a number of other political and legal challenges, such as heterogeneity amongst memberstates, pressure to internationalize Antarctic governance, unresolved issues of jurisdiction and territorial sovereignty claims, including the delimitation of continental shelf in the Southern Ocean, as well as the growth and diversification of Antarctic resources commercial activities – illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and bioprospecting etc. Conclusions. The current 60th anniversary of the ATS is laid at the most stabile stage of its development in the first part of twenty-first century, just in the middle of another almost 60-year period between 1991 and 2048 milestones that referring to the banning of mining in Antarctica and possible mechanism of its review respectively. Therefore, now it is the appropriate time to reinforce international efforts through relevant and proactive interaction between government and legislative bodies, to address the most important issues putting the Antarctic Treaty System under pressure and giving rise to new challenges. It is also the appropriate time to update national Antarctic strategic interests and priorities, in particular to define clear vision for Ukraine’s political role in Antarctica.
The bibliographic descriptions of the Ukrainian scientific works on Antarctica that were published domesti­cally and abroad in 2012-2015 are listed herein. This bibliographic data extends and complements the 2010-2011 current bibliography of national publications, presented in the “Ukrainian Antarctic Journal” in 2012 (issue 10-11). The abstracts were collected from Ukrainian scientific journals, collections, and conference proceedings as well as national (“Dzherelo”, “Litopys zhumal’nykh statej”, etc.) and international (“Antarctic Bibliography”, “Scopus”, “Google scholar”, “Scirus”, “e-Library”, etc.) bibliographic databases. In total 214 publications were compiled on the topics of Antarctic research within the last four years.
Objectives of the study is to monitor the modern national scientific literature on Antarctic research, first of all, as an element of systematic information and bibliographic as well as scientometric support for the implementation of state scientific and technical programs. Methods: bibliographic search, scientometric analysis, bibliometric analysis, webometric analysis, and expert analysis. Ukrainian scientific journals, collections of scientific works and reference editions, scientific reports on projects for theimplementation of the State Special-Purpose Research Program in Antarctica for 2011—2020, as well as national (“Scientific Ukraine”, “Bibliometryka of Ukrainian Science”, “Scientific Periodicals of Ukraine”, etc.) and foreign bibliographic databases (Scopus, Google Scholar, e-Library, and others.) were used as the main information source for compiling the bibliography. Results: The article presents the results of a bibliographic search and scientometric analysis of the scientific works of Ukrainian scholars andprofessionals, published in domestic and foreign editions, as well as in materials of international bodies of the Antarctic Treaty system in 2016—2018. The bibliographic descriptions of 353 publications, the most of which are articles in periodicals (143 descriptions) as well as conference and symposia proceedings (162 descriptions), are given. The bibliometric analysis of the data obtained reveals a stable strong dynamics of the publication activity of Ukrainian researchers and their significant contribution to the worldresearches of Antarctica. There is a noticeable increase in the number of publications in domestic and foreign scientific editions that are indexed in the bibliographic database Scopus. According to the portal of Scientific Periodicals of Ukraine of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine of the NAS of Ukraine the level of relevance of publications in the Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (2007—2017) is defined. It is revealed that the bibliographic and scientometric articles are included in the top-groups of publicationsin the journal and have a positive trend of users demand. Conclusions: the list of current bibliography presented in the article complements and continues the bibliography of domestic publications for 2007—2015, which was submitted in previous issues of the Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (in 2009, 2010, 2012, and 2016). The bibliographic descriptions given create a factual basis for the scientometric and expert analysis of development trends and research results of domestic scientists and specialists as well as determinationof the contribution of Ukraine to modern Antarctic research. The data obtained indicates the expediency of further implementation of bibliographic support of the State research programs of Ukraine in Antarctica as well as a regular publication of the current and retrospective national Antarctic scientific bibliography.Keywords: Antarctic Treaty, Antarctic region, Vernadsky station, Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition, State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine, Antarctic bibliography, current bibliography, bibliographical search, scientometric analysis, bibliometric analysis, citation.
Bibliography in 2007-2017 compared with bibliography in 1997-2006.
Dynamics of formation of information arrays of bibliography (cumulative curves). Legend: N -total number of publications per year; N a -articles in journals and prolonged publications; N c -conference reports (excluding the conferences hosted by NASC of MES of Ukraine).
Оbjectives of the study: to create a bibliography of scientific works of Ukrainian scientists and specialists on Antarctic research for the period 2007–2017. Bibliographic support and scientometric monitoring of the implementation of the State Special-Purpose Research Program in Antarctica for 2011–2020. Promoting the dissemination of scientific, popular scientific as well as other information about the activities of Ukraine in the Antarctic region of the planet. Methods: bibliographic search, scientometric analysis, bibliometric analysis, expert analysis, webometric analysis. Results: bibliographic descriptions and results of the bibliometric analysis of the compiled bibliography of academic papers of Ukrainian researchers on the problems of Antarctic research published in domestic and foreign publications as well as materials of international bodies of the Antarctic Treaty System from January 2016 to December 2017 are given. Conclusions: the data presented indicate a stable positive trend in the development of Ukraine’s research in the Antarcticа and the considerable contribution of domestic scientists and specialists to the world studies of the Antarctic region.
Radargrams from the ice cap Foot (Fig. 1 a) in different periods of 2017 and 2018. Processed with Hilbert filter. Dashed line oval marks an example of the heterogeneity (fissure or area with higher moisture content), which is also visible on the radargrams from previous periods; solid line oval marks a new heterogeneity that was not previously observed
3D View of profiles with layering from the ice cap on Wo ozle Hill. Spheres of the same color mark the same reflective borders
This paper represents results of GPR surveying of the ice caps on Galindez (–64.24716W; –65.24992S), Winter (–64.25954W; –65.24944S) and Skua (–64.26530W; –65.25309S) islands (Wilhelm Archipelago, Antarctica) for the period April 2017 — January 2019. The main objectives were identification of the ice layering, monitoring of interglacial heterogeneities (crevasses, interglacial channels and voids) and measurements of the ice thickness. Methods: Surveying on the glaciers has been done with ground coupled shielded bowtie antenna VIY3-300 (300 MHz) GPR and with air coupled dipole Zond 12-e (75 MHz) antenna system. Monitoring investigation of glacier’s interior has been done with VIY3-300. Zond 12-e was applied mostly for indication of the ice-rock border. Monitoring investigation has been done on one (1) ice cap on Galindez Island, on two (2) ice caps on Winter Island and on two (2) ice caps on Skua Island. Monitoring with VIY3-300 GPR of the ice cap on Galindez Island has been done once per month since April 2017. Four surveys were done on Winter Island: May 2017, January, May and October 2018. Four periods were surveyed on Skua Island: May and September 2017, January—February and October 2018. Monitoring with VIY3-300 has been done on the same position (according to the GPS data) each time. For precise investigation during February—March 2018, islands were covered with a grid of profiles with 25 meters spacing between them. Results: Three (3) to eight (8) strong internal linear reflections are detected in the ice caps, heterogeneities are visible closer to edges of the glaciers, seasonal anomalies in glacier`s interior are observed and a maximum ice thickness of 35 meters on Galindez Island is obtained. Seasonal anomalies were traced better in November—January 2017—2018 than during November—January 2018—2019. Reflection from the ice-rock border is better visible on the data from Zond 12-e, but layering and interior structure are better identified with VIY3-300. This spatial resolution difference evidently happened because central frequency of antenna was 4 times higher in VIY3-300 than in Zond 12-e. Further monitoring of the ice caps on Galindez, Winter and Skua islands is recommended to trace their evolution. It is crucial to continue these scientific observations in the future because changes of small ice caps in West Antarctica are indicators of global warming.
Amount of CTD stations executed by the Ukrainian vessels in separate areas of Antarctica in the season of 2017-2018
Bottom temperature in the Amundsen Sea
Bottom temperature in the Ross Sea (CALIPSO)
Bottom temperature in the Weddell Sea (SIMEIZ)
Water masses of the Amundsen, Ross and Weddell Seas
Aim of works is implementation of duties, taken by Ukraine on XXXVI Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) Session and study of habitation of main fishing objects in Antarctica waters. Methods of works were the use of DST CTD recorder produced by STAR OGGICompany (Iceland) and the analysis of the obtained data. Results of works include 36 longline and 11 other stations (on a line, on streamer, on Juday plankton net) executed in Amundsen, Ross and Weddell Seas during the period from December 2017 to April 2018. Vertical changeability of temperature, temporal changeability of benthic temperature were analyzed; spatial changeability of temperatures in separate Seas was found out; 4 basic water masses were distinguished, influence of bottom temperature to the catches of Antarctic toothfish was analyzed. Conclusion was made about the increase in catches while lowering the bottom temperature in Weddell Sea.
Scheme of CTD station location
The location of the main hydrophysical fronts in the Dra ke Passage according to Shulgovsky (Shulgovsky, 2005), aug me nted from Таrakanov (Таrakanov, 2012): the dashed line marks the area of the study area
The vertical distribution of water temperature in the upper 300-meter layer according to the Argobuoy 79000296 in the Drake Passage from 21 December 2018 (profile 135) to 09 February 2019 (profile 140) (
The results of the analysis of hydrological observations made on the Ukrainian fish-krill trawler "More Sodruzhestva" in the south-eastern part of the Drake Passage in December, 2018 are presented in article. The aim of the investigation is to study the thermohaline structure of the 200 m surface water layer in the research area and comparison of the actual state of the water masses in the summer of 2018 with those identified during previous studies. The expedition was carried out at the hydrological polygon from eight stations. Measurements were conducted by the sensing complex СTD SBE 37SM. Traditional methods for graphic and statistical analysis have been used to process the obtained data. Water structures were allocated based on the analysis of the T,S and O2,σ-diagrams. In addition, satellite data of the Marine Environment Monitoring Service from the Copernicus website as well as information from one of the drifting buoys of the Project ARGO which took place through the research area during this time were involved in the analysis. The results are the spatial hydrological structure of the upper 200 m water layer in the research area. The main water masses formed this structure, as well as the actual position of the Polar Front in the north and the Scotia Sea Front in the south. Characteristics of the spatial variability of the cold intermediate layer are highlighted. The largest volume of water was occupied by the Southern Front of the Southern branch of the ACС that moves the relatively desalinated surface waters of the Bellingshausen Sea in this layer; there is a significant role of the influence of dynamic factor on the distribution of hydrological characteristics. It is noted that the on-site surveillance data are well consistent with the in for mation obtained from Copernicus and the Project ARGO.
Average annual temperatures on Akademik Vernadsky station for 2000-2019
The work presents an analysis of climate variability and glaciological changes of the Antarctic Peninsula and the results of glacier monitoring on Galindez Island and Winter Island (the Argentine Islands in the Wilhelm Archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula) in 2018—2019. The main objective of research was to determine how the volumes of glaciers changed in 2018—2019 in the course of a complex study. Methods. The material of the Ukrainian seasonal expedition of 2018—2019 was used: terrestrial laser scanning data of 2018, terrestrial digital photography of 2018 and 2019 and an unmanned aerial vehicle survey of 2019. The technique used to determine changes in the volumes of glaciers can significantly improve both the speed and accuracy of the measurements. It included complementary processing of scanning data and digital photography of 2018, and digital photography and aerial survey of 2019. Results. Changes in the volumes of glaciers were 36 000 m3 for the western part of the glacier on Galindez Island, 1 100 m3 for the southern part of the glacier on Galindez Island, and 9 800 m3 for the southern part of the glacier on Winter Island. Conclusions. The results demonstrate significant changes since 2002. This is confirmed quantitatively by independent studies of the West of the peninsula. Monitoring of the dynamics of glacier volumes enables detection of climatic and glaciological changes in the Antarctic region.
Мета дослідження – на основі спостережень температури і солоності води з високою, як за часом, так і у просторі, роздільною здатністю, ідентифікувати структури поверхневого шару океану, які перетнуло судно на трансатлантичному переході в листопаді—грудні 2018 року. Окрім вказаного, визначити географічне положення цих структур, характерні для них діапазони мінливості та просторові градієнти океанографічних характеристик, що спостерігалися. Метод дослідження полягав у тому, щоб порівняти результати аналізу інформації, отриманої на початку літа 2018 року, за допомогою одного з сучасних, призначених для безперервних попутних спостережень, вимірювальних комплексів з інформацією по тих же районах, отриманої в минулі роки і відображеної в науковій літературі. В результаті були виділені такі океанічні структури як Бенгальська течія, Південний субтропічний фронт, Субантарктичний фронт і зона його злиття з Антарктичним полярним фронтом. Просторові градієнти характерні для фронтів від 6 до 25 разів перевищували градієнти на міжфронтальних просторах. На ділянках трансатлантичного розрізу в західній півкулі, протяжністю від півтора до двох тисяч морських миль, відзначено дуже велику схожість мінливості температури і солоності, які фізично не пов'язані між собою. Коефіцієнт кореляції між ними на одному з відрізків, довжиною в 1 600 миль, дорівнював 0,96. Надане пояснення цьому явищу. Як один з висновків, слід розглядати припущення, що це явище — не рідкісний випадок. Воно має бути цілком звичайним у великих зонах змішування теплих, високо солоних субтропічних вод і значно менш солоних — холодних антарктичних. Це припущення потрібно перевірити. Відзначено якісну схожість результатів спостережень з інформацією отриманою з веб-сайту Служби моніторингу морського середовища Copernicus.
Study area and research effort: main GPS tracks of zodiacs and sailing boats
Antarctic Peninsula region is experiencing one of the fastest rates of climate change on Earth. Its waters are known as important feeding grounds for the Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). The purpose of the present study was to reveal the summer and early autumn presence of the Antarctic minke whales in the area adjacent to the Kiev Peninsula of West Antarctica and to estimate the encounter rates of the species in the area. The boat-based photo-identification cetacean studies were initiated as part of the long-term monitoring program based at the Akademik Vernadsky station near the Kiev Peninsula of West Antarctica. From 22 January to 7 April 2019, 35 boat and yacht cruises of the 821 nautical miles of total length were conducted. There were encountered 13 Antarctic minke whales in 7 sightings. The encounter rate was 0.015 whales per nautical mile. Minke whales were encountered only in 5% of the total sightings. Three more whales were opportunistically seen from the top of Galindez Island. There were single whales sighted and small groups of up to 3 specimens (Med = 2). At least 2 individuals were identified as juveniles. Primary behavior for whales in 7 sightings was foraging, and 2 groups were observed while travelling. A total 9 individuals of the Antarctic minke whales were photo-identified during the survey, and no matches were found between the different encounters. Our pilot study indicates summer and early autumn presence of the Antarctic minke whales in the area adjacent to the Kiev Peninsula. But encounter rates seem to be low in comparison with results of some previous surveys. Our results show the possibility to monitor minke whales in the area, and further long-term complex monitoring is essential for understanding the ecology and population dynamics of the Antarctic minke whales in rapidly changing marine environment of the Antarctic Peninsula.
This paper discusses the growing dynamics of the increasing of the amount and especially the Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA) and the Antarctic Specially Managed Areas (ASMA). This dynamics is а reflection of the sustainable environmental imperative in the national interests of the Antarctic Treaty Parties. This dynamics is analyzed using the Richardson's model, which was used bу Thomas L. Saaty for the analysis of the arms race dynamics in the twentieth century. Using this model made it possible to estimate the expected of the ASPA and ASMA amount and areas in the near future. So in 2020 it is expected to increase the total areas of ASPA and АSМА up to 103,700 km2 (which is comparable to the Iceland area). The question of the accuracy increasing of the used model and the accuracy of the quantitative characteristics is discussed. The obtained quantitative characteristics will provide the policy makers and national Antarctic program managers bу the additional arguments for decision-making оn the further management of the human activities and nature conservation in the Antarctic. Among the general public obtained characteristics will contribute to the better understanding of the development trends of the international legal regime of the Antarctic.
Top-cited authors
Ivan Parnikoza
  • State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center Ministry of Education and Scince of Ukraine
Vladimir Bakhmutov
  • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Viktor Kunakh
  • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Nadia Mykhailivna Drobyk
  • Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University
Oksana Zahrychuk
  • I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University