UF Journal of Undergraduate Research

Published by University of Florida George A Smathers Libraries
Online ISSN: 2638-0668
Publications
Article
Since the 1980s, the labor union density has gradually declined across member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), indicating a lowering percentage of employees represented by unions. In the United States, the declining union density has been shown to have an impact on wealth inequality, which has increased correspondingly. With a lack of representation by labor unions, workers are less secure in their jobs, which could cause a reduction in job satisfaction and an increase in stress. Therefore, a declining union density can also influence the subjective well-being of an impacted group. The aim of this research was to identify and investigate the potential relationships between union density and wage inequality and union density and subjective well-being across thirteen countries through regression analysis. The thirteen countries selected were all developed, industrialized democracies and members of the OECD. Simple linear regressions were made using the most recent national data for union density, wealth inequality, and subjective well-being. Regression analysis was performed on the most recent data points of the countries as a group, and for each country individually over a period of time. There was a moderate-strong, negative correlation (R = - 0.608) for the regression of wealth inequality versus union density, yet inconsistent correlation coefficients between countries individually. There was a moderate-weak, positive correlation (R = 0.353) for the regression of subjective well-being versus union density, with more consistent correlation coefficients between countries individually.
 
Pierre-Antoine Demachy, Vue de la colonnade du Louvre, 1772. Oil on canvas. Musée du Louvre, Paris. (RMNGrand Palais / Stéphane Maréchalle)
Berlin School, Interior of a Studio, c. 1830. Oil on canvas. Private Collection, Thuringia. (Massing, p. 103)
Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Shop-Sign of Gersaint (L'Enseigne de Gersaint), 1721. Oil on canvas. Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. (Erich Lessing/ART RESOURCE, N.Y.)
Article
Eighteenth-century Paris was a site for significant changes in the art world, whether stylistically in the movement from Rococo towards Neoclassicism or socially in the growing presence of female artists. One field that emerged in this milieu was art restoration, here referring to the treatment of easel paintings in order to prevent signs of aging, such as surface discoloration, warping, etc. This paper focuses on Marie-Jacob Godefroid, a female art restorer active in the mid-eighteenth century whose career was unique in several regards, whether in life as a widowed mother or in work as an art restorer-dealer who received royal recognition. Launched from this biographic approach, my paper seeks to identify broader conceptions of womanhood that allowed female artists paths to success in a field hard-set by patriarchal traditions.
 
Article
The objective of the study was to determine the extent to which patients from various age groups perceive telemedicine as a viable mode of healthcare delivery in the context of COVID-19. A RedCap survey was sent to patients in our OB/GYN outpatient clinics with in-person, telemedicine, re-scheduled or cancelled appointments between 3/11/20 to 5/11/20. Patients’ online responses were analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square and Fischer’s Exact Analysis with p < 0.05 considered significant. A total of 1083 patients completed the survey of whom 280 (25.9%) had a telemedicine appointment. Patients answered questions relating to their telemedicine visit. While older patients did encounter a higher proportion of technological difficulties (p<0.0001), younger patients, specifically those in the 25-34 age group, expressed greater dissatisfaction with their appointment being changed to telemedicine than older patients (p=0.02), and felt that telemedicine did not accomplish the same goals as an in-person visit (p=0.01). Nonetheless, all patients, regardless of age, were satisfied with the introduction to telemedicine (p=0.02) and the instructions provided to them prior to the visit (p=0.02). Connectivity issues seem to be the biggest obstacle to older patients particularly when there is absence of a reliable internet connection and a telemedicine-compatible device. Younger patients, though less satisfied, are more comfortable with new technology and with using telemedicine; they tend to experience less connectivity issues. Our focus going forward should be on finding ways to simplify the process, overcome the connectivity issues while addressing the main reasons leading to patient dissatisfaction.
 
Article
Declared a national emergency on March 1, 2020, the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has caused a major change in everyday life and crime statistics across the United States (U.S.). The research in this study aims to assess changes in reported misdemeanor crimes in Alachua County, Florida in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as changes in the rate of misdemeanor crimes committed by certain genders and race demographics. Data was collected from the Alachua County Clerk of Circuit Court’s On-Line Court Records and Document Images Access Page from January 2019 to December 2020. The results of this study were consistent with the researcher’s hypothesis that the number of overall misdemeanor cases filed would substantially increase regardless of race or gender, likely as a result of social disorganization and community unrest. However, the original hypotheses that women and Black people would be seen committing higher rates of misdemeanor crimes in 2020 due to gender inequality and racial biases were rejected, with the data showing no statistical significance in the change in the number of cases filed for these populations. A potential explanatory factor for these findings is an overcommitment of responsibilities put upon women and girls, and a fear of racial prejudice and lack of social unity amongst Black people. These findings are important to highlight latent functions of state ordinances enacted to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, and to spotlight necessary crime control and reduction techniques that must be implemented simultaneously to adapt to the “new normal.”
 
Article
The postwar transition to suburbia inaugurated a trend in which most American builders opted to clear the land and build standardized houses without any regard for the site conditions and local climate. Elizabeth Gordon (1906–2000) was the editor of House Beautiful a popular design magazine. She launched the Climate Control Project (1949–1953) to offer the homebuilder guidance on constructing houses suited for the local climate using design principles of orientation, sun control, site planning, and ventilation. Gordon was a strong critic of the International Style that developed in Europe in the interwar period and came to America after the war. This paper will examine the techniques prescribed by the Climate Control Project and draw conclusions about the ideal postwar house promoted by the magazine. Using the Climate Control project, House Beautiful advanced strategies for physiological comfort and efficient utilization of space as central objectives for its readers. By analyzing the articles published throughout the project's duration, this study concludes that the Climate Control Project promoted the idea of a regional American home as the ideal postwar home – as an alternative to the prefabricated mass-produced suburban homes during this time period and the International Style.
 
Article
Toward the end of the 18th-century, the newly independent United States deliberated solutions to the “problem” in which Natives occupied lands that Euro-American settlers desired. The Civilization Fund Act was implemented in 1819 as one of the solutions, and it supported groups, like missionary organizations, to instruct Natives in Western culture. Charity Hall, a Presbyterian mission to the Chickasaws, was created as a result of the Act and can offer information regarding Native American accommodation and contestation to Western practices. While historical records provide ample information about the workings of Charity Hall, archaeological studies aim to make up for the lack of the Chickasaw voice in these records.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to analyze, among a nationally representative sample of college students in the U.S., gender differences in the lifetime, past 12-months, and past 30-day prevalence of e-nicotine products (ENPs) use, reasons for use, and susceptibility to ENP use among never users. We analyzed data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. The study population included college-aged individuals (18-24 years old) enrolled in a degree program. The results of the study revealed that males were more likely to use ENPs than females. Both males and females reported a high proportion of misconception about ENPs, particularly with regards to ENPs being less harmful to the user than cigarettes. It also indicated that 36% of male and 32% of female college students were susceptible to start using ENPs. Our results highlight the need to provide comprehensive, tobacco-prevention education among U.S. youth.
 
Article
This paper explores how two African American composers, Scott Joplin (c. 1868-1917) and Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), advocated for Black Advancement and uplift ideology through their syncretic operas in the early 1900s. What is presented here however is the introductory content of a larger work. Joplin and Freeman were intimately conscious and supportive of national debates for Black Advancement, propelled especially by W.E.B. DuBois, and both employed rhetorical strategies paradigmatic of the movement. They were both interested in showing White and Black Americans alike that African American music, such as gospel, spiritual, and ragtime, could be held to the same high esteem as music of the Western canon, just as Black academics often endeavored to prove their intellectual prowess to their White counterparts. To this end, Joplin and Freeman combined “Black” music and classical styles in their operas to declare the equality and richness of an integrated sound. The thematic content of these operas, Treemonisha and Voodoo, respectively, interact with the Black Advancement movement’s drive for progress and education as well. They present Black Americans’ struggle for modernity as a conflict between the “superstitious” West African religious customs still ingrained in emancipated communities and Christianity. However, Joplin and Freeman’s works diverge aesthetically and ideologically from this point forward. Joplin’s aesthetic considerations derived chiefly from ragtime, a modern African American musical form genre, while Freeman took inspiration not only from African ethnic music but Africa itself. Joplin’s form of uplift was found in the education of small Black communities, while Freeman framed his work in a nationalistic and pan-Africanist context. These distinct choices, though crafted with the same aim, help reveal subtle divergences in argumentation within the Black Advancement movement.
 
Article
2D perovskite’s quantum confinement and superlattices enhance electron and hole recombination which maximizes the photoluminescence quantum efficiency for optical devices. However, only a few works have been reported for biological applications, especially, DNA associated. Contemporary gene-editing science through CRISPR technology is advantageous as all types of nucleic acid chains such as RNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA can be modified. There are numerous reports that base pairs of nucleic acids are nonpolar and 2D perovskites that are capped with aliphatic chains possibly can operate as an optical sensor for detecting a specific sequence of DNA. Here, we demonstrate organic-inorganic halide 2D perovskite’s – capped with eight carbon long aliphatic chains – optical and structural properties. Self-assembly of tin-based perovskites showed near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield but had poor stability in water or ambient condition due to hydrolysis whereas lead-based perovskites showed less PL but were stable in water at high concentration. 2D perovskites’ unique multiple emission peaks at different wavelengths, water stability, and intensity discrepancy when conjugated in nucleoside dispersed solution were studied. However, complex multiple directionalities of PL emission, water stability by concentration, minor PL intensity or wavelength discrepancy, and toxicity followed by the lead source for the perovskites are conflicting with robust and convenient detection technique for the DNA.
 
Article
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the amount of particulate matter (PM) emitted by different industrial processes to protect human health and the environment. EPA Test Method 5 is the standard method to determine PM emissions from stationary sources. However, moisture present in emission sources can yield overestimated PM concentrations when using EPA Method 5. Alternatively, EPA Other Test Method (OTM) 36 regulates the method used for determining the concentration of PM2.5 emissions, which are particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, from moisture-saturated stationary source gas streams. The EPA has found that the OTM 36 sampling train measures lower PM concentrations than actual concentrations in the emission source. This is because the sampling train’s precutter nozzle, which is the first instrument of a sampling train placed into an emission source, collects particles at smaller sizes than intended, preventing these particles from being measured by the sampling train. The purpose of this research is to create a new precutter nozzle design that allows the PM sampling train to more accurately measure PM to reflect actual concentrations in emission sources tested by OTM 36. By using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in ANSYS Fluent program, the collection efficiency of different dimensions of the new precutter nozzle was calculated to choose the best design that more accurately collects PM. Based on this objective, a precutter nozzle with a 7-degree half-cone angle and 3-cm throat length was chosen as the most viable design.
 
Article
The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the matching factors between the human expectation of accounting job cognitive ability needed and the actual cognitive ability requirement of those jobs and how this relationship impacts job performance. First, based on the human information processing theory and previous research of cognitive ability analysis related to jobs, this paper proposes a research model to analyze the cognitive abilities’ matching factors between human expectation and actual job requirements of accounting jobs. Secondly, seven propositions are developed based on this research model. Thirdly, an instrument is developed to quantitatively measure these matching factors on job performance. Finally, theoretical and practical implications associated with the accounting job design also presented in this paper.
 
Article
Since 2007, the University of Florida has hosted summer field-based, sustainability-focused study abroad programs in Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these study abroad programs on change of major and subsequent career choice. Program alumni (2007-2019) completed an online questionnaire. N=94 responded to questions about impact on major (yes=1, no=2), career choice (yes=1, no=2), and open-ended responses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi square, and content analysis. Five of 94 respondents changed majors and 39/93 reported study abroad influenced their career choice. Content analysis revealed participation influenced: n=14 to pursue a sustainability-focused career, n=8 to work in “a helping-profession”, n=6 to pursue ecotourism, and n=4 to study environmental law. Program participation seems to be influential for some in future career choice, but not major change.
 
Article
Responding to art critic Harold Rosenberg’s notions of the state of, and even existence of Jewish art in the mid-twentieth century, this paper questions the relationship of identity and artistic practice, focusing on the creative process and theory of Ashkenazi artist, Mark Rothko.
 
Article
EET14074 is a member of the acapulcoite-lodranite family of meteorites and was discovered in Antarctica in 2014 by the Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI). Herein, we obtained (U-Th)/He ages from 20 phosphate aggregates in EET14074 to constrain the sample’s thermal history. The ages range between 116.8 Ma ± 145.7 Ma (1σ) and 4211.5 Ma ± 1089.1 Ma, with an average of 2530 ± 260 Ma (n=20). Excluding outlier ages with large uncertainties, the 13 most concentrated ages yielded a theoretical minimum age of 3000 ± 150 Ma. This age corresponds to a fraction helium loss (f) of ~31% assuming crystallization age of ~4.55 Ga. The uranium abundances in single aliquots are in the range of 1.52 - 289.93 fmol, with an average of 58.00 fmol (n = 20), whereas the thorium abundance ranges between 2.51 and 2337.06 fmol with an average of 1149.29 fmol (n = 20). To explain the observed He loss, thermal diffusion modeling was performed with an assumption that the He loss occurred during a recent passage of the meteorite in Earth’s atmosphere. For the most likely t-T condition of compressional heating in Earth’s atmosphere of this meteorite (T = ~430 ˚C, t = ~10 sec), a fractional loss of 29.3% was calculated when the diffusion domain radius (r) of 92.8 µm was assumed. This estimation is nearly indistinguishable from the observed fractional loss of 31.3%. Additionally, diffusion modeling for another set of data with a different size (r = 40.4 µm) yielded a very similar fractional loss. Therefore, the observed (U-Th)/He age distribution is likely derived from compressional heating during the passage of EET14074 in Earth’s atmosphere.
 
Article
Over the past 20 years, the Implicit Attitude Test (IAT) has become a robust paradigm for evaluating unconscious biases about socially sensitive topics (implicit attitudes) in a way that avoids social desirability bias. It has been widely applied to the psychology surrounding race, gender, and other social characteristics, and is a potentially useful tool for linguists particularly in studying the effects of dialect and accent. This study demonstrates an application of the IAT to accents, particularly examining implicit attitudes about Chinese accented English relative to Standard American English. The study evaluated participants’ implicit attitudes about Chinese accents using the IAT, measured their explicit attitudes using the Speech Evaluation Instrument (SEI) developed by Zahn and Hopper (1985), and recorded self-reported rates of exposure to Chinese accents. It found that participants had both implicit and explicit attitudes toward Chinese accented English that were significantly negative relative to American English. It did not, however, find a correlation between participants’ explicit and implicit attitudes. There was a weak correlation between implicit attitudes and self-reported rates of exposure to Chinese accents, although the interpretation of this finding is unclear.
 
Article
This research analyzes how start-up companies implement accounting in their early operations and if that use of accounting (or lack thereof) has played a role in acquiring funding. Prior research shows that the quality of financial statements positively affects investing efficiency for companies in emerging markets (Chen et al., 2011). In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that start-ups using financial statements more extensively receive more outside funding than their counterparts. This was tested with a 27-question survey broken into three sections: demographic, accounting use, and financial information. There were 44 participants. The typical start-up profile is 5-6 years old, employs ten people, and identifies in the technology industry. Approximately 75% of participants reported using financial statements. While mostly viewed positively, some participants feel strongly against using standard accounting practices. Results showed companies who use financial statements more often reported a higher percentage of debt and investment funding received than those who used financial statements less frequently or not at all. In conclusion, accounting helps start-ups communicate higher quality information to investors, thus leading to a better chance of receiving capital investment/debt financing. This sample selection was not chosen randomly and is not a statistical depiction of the entire population.
 
Article
This paper discusses a filtering method of using differential adsorption to purify helium-3 (3He) from a helium-4 (4He) impurity. In addition, the paper discusses the precision of an acoustic cavity in determining the concentration of a mixture through measuring the speed of sound for a given sample. Data analysis will include measurements at room temperature in air at 1 atm, 4He at ≈ 1.2 x 105 Pa and 1.6 x 105 Pa, and Nitrogen at ≈ 1.0 x 105 Pa.
 
Article
Male mating plugs have been used in many species to prevent female re-mating and sperm competition. One of the most extreme examples of a mating plug is the sphragis, which is a large, complex and externalized plug found only in butterflies. This structure is found in many species in the genus Acraea (Nymphalidae) and provides an opportunity for investigation of the effects of the sphragis on the morphology of the genitalia, which is poorly understood. This study aims to understand morphological interspecific variation in the genitalia of Acraea butterflies. Using specimens from museum collections, abdomen dissections were conducted on 19 species of Acraea: 9 sphragis bearing and 10 non-sphragis bearing species. Genitalia imaging was performed for easier comparison and analysis and measurements of genitalia structures was done using ImageJ software. Some distinguishing morphological features in the females were found. The most obvious difference is the larger and more externalized copulatory opening in sphragis bearing species, with varying degrees of external projections. Females of the sphragis bearing species also tend to have a shorter ductus (the structure that connects the copulatory opening with the sperm storage organ) than those without the sphragis. These differences may be due to a sexually antagonistic coevolution between the males and females, where the females evolve larger and more difficult to plug copulatory openings and the males attempt to prevent re-mating with the sphragis.
 
Article
Human-induced landscape alteration by agriculture is ubiquitous and impacts ecological processes and ecosystem services. The link between altered and native vegetation (hereafter edges) can create anthropogenic barriers for wildlife movement. Movement response to edges is dependent on landscape and functional group characteristics that shape spatial behavior in individuals; and affect population dynamics, dispersal, diversity, gene flow, and nutrient distribution. Few studies exist on small-mammal functional group movement response to edges, despite its integral role in behavioral and ecological processes. I analyzed the effect of altered land use on movement response in African savannah generalist Mastomys natalensis and specialist Lemniscomys rosalia. Each species was live-trapped for 2 months at 8 sites, across 2 boundary classes—homestead agriculture vs. savannah and commercial agricultural vs. savannah. Twelve individuals of each species were tracked and translocated at each transect with alternating treatments. Movement characteristics by M. natalensis showed a preference for altered land-use areas, possibly due to resource utilization. Conversely, L. rosalia showed a definitive trend (80%) to avoid edge crossing, regardless of abutting vegetative community, possibly due to their inability to cross and utilize altered landscapes. These results support the a priori hypothesis that altered land-use areas greatly impact specialists moving across the edge but only minimally affect generalist movements. Altered landscapes can affect small mammal movements and have cascading effects that alter vegetative and faunal communities.
 
Article
Value investing is often considered the antithesis of growth investing. However, core to any value investing strategy is an intrinsic valuation, typically calculated using a DCF analysis. One of the most sensitive DCF assumptions is the estimation of a company’s long-term cash flow growth rate. Thus, understanding a company’s growth potential is a vital component in any value thesis. This paper attempts to create a quantitative model to help predict a company’s long-term cash flow growth rate (using EBITDA growth as a proxy for cash flow growth) and to find the strongest indicators for a company’s growth potential by sector. To do so, this study analyzes variables pertaining to operating efficiency, risk metrics, market valuation, corporate investment levels, and the competitive landscape for S&P 500 constituent companies. While all categories contributed at least one statistically significant variable, the market valuation and corporate investment level categories had the highest volume of significant variables. The results show that widely used quantitative metrics can help predict a meaningful portion of a company’s five-year EBITDA growth rate when analyzed on a sector-by-sector basis. Furthermore, both the types of variables and predictive strength of the model varies widely across sectors. In practice, analysts should prioritize different ratios, metrics, and quantitative variables based on the target company’s sector when estimating the trajectory of a company’s long-term growth rate.
 
Face-neck Vessels from Tomb M-U1515, Middle Moche Period Source: San José de Moro Archaeological Project (Field Report), Peru.
Front and Back View of Northern Style Face-neck Vessel. Middle Moche Period Source: Fowler Museum at UCLA (Online Database), Los Angeles, CA.
Front and Back View of Southern Style Face-neck Vessel Source: Fowler Museum at UCLA (Online Database), Los Angeles, CA.
Southern Style Face-neck Vessel Source: Museo Larco (Online Database), Lima, Peru.
Article
This essay is an investigation of stylistic differences in the ceramic production of “face-neck” vessels from the Middle Moche Period (400-600 CE) of the Northern and Southern Moche regions. These face-neck vessels are also referred to as effigy vessels or cántaros cara gollete in Andean ceramic classifications. Face-neck vessels take the shape of human bodies where the torso and limbs have been condensed into a large globular mass; on the neck (the spout of the vessel) appears a human face in relief. In this paper, I focus on fineware face-necks rather than utilitarian wares since the majority of the vessels in this discussion originate from monumental funerary complexes for the elite. Face-neck vessels were commonly used to holds liquids like corn beer, which was consumed in ceremonial practices. By comparing vessels produced contemporaneously by Northern and Southern Moche polities, I have developed a set of distinctions in form, surface decoration, and finishing techniques that appear to distinguish each group. Using these distinctions, I argue that two face-neck vessels from the Harn Museum of Art, which have an unknown provenience, originate from the Southern Moche region between stages III and IV in the Moche ceramic sequence. In the process, I discuss burial practices, the concept of dualism in Moche culture, and the significance of mold technology (with implications for Moche funerary practice). While my research relies heavily on external observation of effigy vessels, I integrate my knowledge and experience as a ceramicist to provide insight on production processes.
 
Article
Despite being farther away from direct impacts of sea-level rise, Florida’s rural inland localities, like those across the nation and world, can be as vulnerable to a changing climate as coastal ones. However, unlike their urban coastal peers, many have not addressed or acknowledged climate change. Few existing research projects have explored the reasons why. To begin filling the knowledge gap and understanding the complexities of the rural Florida climate story, this research aims to answer the question: What challenges are preventing rural inland communities in Florida from addressing climate change, and what do they need to overcome them? To characterize these obstacles and identify next steps, a combination of primary (i.e. surveys) and secondary sources from the author, government agencies, scientists, universities, and other expert organizations were analyzed holistically. The four challenges identified include: community sentiment, investment capacity, gaps in climate literacy, and external connections and coordination. These challenges are linked to numerous underlying issues characteristic of rural communities, such as socioeconomic levels, physical and social isolation, the availability of human capital, and cultural values and perceptions. Based on this information, the discussion section reviews how various stakeholders - local governments, community members, and external supporting agents - can actively curtail disparities in climate preparedness.
 
Hydrogen sulfide breakthrough curves for different heat treatments. A steep slope indicates poor adsorption capacity.
Adsorption Capacity of Heat-Treated Fe:AC Carbons
Article
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) emissions from landfills negatively impact surrounding communities. In addition to an unpleasant, rotten-egg odor, inhalation of the gas can cause respiratory distress and irritation. Peak emissions are released from C&D landfills through the decomposition of gypsum drywall. Current removal technologies are costly and often ineffective. The goal of this research was to develop a cost-effective mat geared toward H₂S removal. Preliminary research revealed an increase in adsorption capacity through the addition of iron salts, FeCl3 and FeSO4, to activated carbon at a 5:1 carbon to iron ratio. To evaluate the effect of heat treatments on iron oxide formation, and subsequent adsorption capacity, samples were divided into heat treatment groups of 250ºC, 450ºC, and 650ºC. Samples were flushed with 100 ppm of H₂S under N₂ at 250 ml/min for two hours. Over this time duration, samples subjected to higher temperature heat treatments showed increased adsorption capacity. All heat treated samples demonstrated higher adsorption compared to the baseline non-heat treated samples. Additional research will be conducted to assess the effect of heat treatments above 650ºC.
 
Article
Activated carbon is a type of carbon that is a known catalyst for a variety of chemical reactions. Uses of activated carbon include purifying liquids and gases, food and beverage processing, odor removal, industrial pollution control, and numerous other applications. There are a variety of different activated carbons, with most being derived from coal, peat, and wood. Activated carbon is a catalyst because the small pores of the carbon increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. One primary use of activated carbon is how it adsorbs nitrates onto its surface. This paper delves into different adsorption rates of an activated carbon (Filtrasorb 600) that is treated with different chemicals and then subjected to a chemical activation at a constant pressure under different gaseous conditions. Data collected during experiments indicate there are significant interactions between surface functional groups and nitrate. Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, nitrates
 
Article
Investigating the demise of the writ of habeas corpus under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA), this paper questions the callused lineage of cases upholding Title I of AEDPA and contends that states must take up a statutory method like Texas’s to review defendant’s claims of actual innocence to ensure that the legal system designed under the U.S. Constitution remains fair and just not only in theory, but in practice. Using imagery from the southern gothic genre, this paper also reveals that “the death belt” most adequately portrays the reality of the death penalty, as many appeals based on actual innocence originate from this area.
 
Article
The elderly population in developing countries is often left without access to traditional pension plans due to participation in the informal economy. To remedy this, non-contributory pension schemes are being implemented by policy makers worldwide. Bolivia, one of Latin America’s poorest nations, has successfully implemented the non-contributory pension policy Renta Dignidad. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of Renta Dignidad on gender, language, and household specific subsamples of Bolivia’s population.
 
Article
Asthma is a significant pediatric public health concern, with 8.3% of children in the U.S. diagnosed with asthma. Pediatric asthma morbidity is consistently linked to medication non-adherence. Medication adherence has been shown to be influenced by patient-provider interactions. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between medication adherence, using both objective and subjective reports, to patient-provider collaboration in adolescents with poorly controlled asthma. Thirty adolescents ages 12 to 15 were interviewed along with their caregivers using the Family Asthma Management System Scale (FAMSS). Adherence data were collected via pharmacy refill reports and scores on the FAMSS adherence rating subscale. Patient-provider collaboration was assessed using the corresponding subscale from the FAMSS interview. Pearson correlations were conducted to examine the relationships between both measures of adherence and patient-provider collaboration. There was no significant association between adherence measured with pharmacy refills and patient-provider collaboration (r = .27, p = .176). A significant correlation was found between medication adherence, as measured by the FAMSS ratings, and patient-provider collaboration (r = .53, p = .003). These findings suggest that more collaborative patient-provider relationships may be linked to higher medication adherence among adolescents with poorly controlled asthma.
 
Article
Adolescents with asthma are at-risk for poor sleep quality. Little research has examined the relationship between sleep quality and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) adherence. Individuals from lower-income backgrounds experience disparities that may alsocontribute to sleep quality. This study sought to 1) examine associations between household income and sleep quality and 2) analyze the relationship between sleep quality and ICS adherence among adolescents with asthma.Forty-one adolescents with persistent asthma (Mage = 14.83, SD = 1.28) completed the Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale (ASWS) to measure sleep quality across five subscales. Caregivers provided their estimated household income per year and completed a free response question measuring ICS adherence. Spearman’s rank-order correlations were used to examine associations between sleep quality,household income and ICS adherence. Sleep quality and household income were not significantly related (r = .262, p = .098). Sleep quality was not associated with ICS adherence (r = -.028, p = .867). Sleep quality was not significantly related to household income or ICS adherence in adolescents with asthma. Limitations include limited power given a small sample size and less reliable measures of household income and adherence therefore, future directions should focus on using more precise measures. Additional research with larger sample sizes may help better understand potential relationships between sleep quality, ICS adherence, and household income within youth with asthma.
 
Article
There is limited research on mental health in rural Latino communities, particularly with adolescents. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the evidence of social networks and mental health research in rural Latino communities and 2) illustrate themes related to the social networks and mental health depicted by rural Latino adolescents. A secondary data analysis study was performed, using data collected through semi-structured interviews (N=59) with adolescents, 11-17 years-old, living in three rural counties of North Florida. The interviews were conducted by community health workers (promotoras), in either Spanish or English; exploring family and community relations. NVivo 12 was used to aid in managing and thematically analyzing the data. Major themes were analyzed as Protective and Risk factors for mental health. A social network framework was then created under these themes including Family, School, Outside Community and Immigration Policy as main categories. The findings of this study highlight the need for mental health promotion interventions with rural Latino adolescents and can be used to influence future studies of social networks and mental health.
 
Article
Companies like Facebook and Google track their users’ data to enhance their ads and offer highly targeted ad space. The question is then raised: how much more profitable does collecting data make companies and what is the future of these companies, as rising data privacy concerns are believed to result in the passage of future legislation? In order to isolate the effects of collecting data on profit, the revenue and revenue growth of Google and Facebook were compared to their competitors that do not collect data and revenue was adjusted to find the average per user. Google was compared to another search engine, DuckDuckGo, and Facebook was compared to a social media site, Yubo. Our analysis found that both Google and Facebook earned significantly larger amounts of revenue, per user, than their competitors who do not collect data. However, DuckDuckGo and Yubo both experienced considerably larger revenue growth this past year, highlighting improved success among companies relying on different models for generating revenue. Our research and similar studies will become more important once legislation is passed, as companies may have to pay taxes or fees associated with acquiring users’ data.
 
Article
The purpose of this research is to examine how parenting profiles, identity development, and emotional self-regulation may relate to one another in emerging adulthood utilizing a person-centered approach. The data being used for this study was from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC), which was collected using a cross-sectional online survey. The data consists of 3,775 students of which 61.9% were White and 69.9% were females ages 18-29. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed for all participants using mother and father psychological control and nurturance to identify the parenting profiles. A four-cluster solution was most parsimonious and consistent after evaluating the agglomeration table and plots. Clusters were finalized using k-means cluster analysis; differences were tested through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc testing. Parental Nurturance has high nurturance and low levels of psychological control from both parents. Parental Repression has high levels of psychological control and low levels of nurturance from both parents. Parental Equivocation has high levels of both parental nurturance and psychological control. Maternal Mitigation has high levels of maternal nurturance and paternal psychological control, and low levels of maternal psychological control and paternal nurturance. Parental Nurturance had the highest levels of depth and breadth of exploration, identification with commitment and commitment making, and use of reappraisal. The Maternal Mitigation profile was similar in outcomes. The Parental Equivocation and Parental Repression profiles were significantly lower on identity commitment and reappraisal and significantly higher on ruminative exploration and suppression.
 
Article
This research focuses on the emergency-housing demand caused by the on-going refugee crisis in Southeastern Europe. The research and proposed solutions focus on Northern Serbia, as this region generally lacks permanent housing solutions for accommodating the increasing influx of immigrants. The outcome of this research is an architectural proposal for the refugee housing unit designed particularly for the situational factors of this focus region. The study identifies earth architecture as the primary building technique, due to its ability to satisfy a range of defined end-product goals. These goals include: the sustainability of the material, quality and durability of the final product, skill level required for non-professional construction, final cost of material and execution, historical regional precedent, and opportunity for communal engagement of the immigrant population. The proposed architectural design uses earth-bag construction as the sub-method most suitable for this location and in keeping with the goals outlined above. The proposed housing unit is a singular component that could be duplicated to create larger communal housing communities. A broad overview of possible solutions is included, followed by the development of the earth-bag construction option. The development of this proposal includes material studies, sketches, and an architectural model as representation tools. The outcomes of this research serve as a guideline, rather than a precise construction model, in creating much needed refugee housing communities in North Serbia.
 
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This article studies the connection between U.S. military aid to the Afghan Mujahedeen during the Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989) and the rise of Islamist militias in Afghanistan during the 1990s. Funding for the Mujahedeen during the conflict exceeded over $3 billion between the Carter and Reagan presidencies, and these funds were later used by Islamist insurgents during the Afghan civil wars. However, the reasons behind the U.S. support is poorly understood. The article explores U.S. State Department and National Security Council documents to suggest that U.S. aid for the Mujahedeen was primarily given to repair US-Pakistani relations and humiliate Cold War rivals rather than to support an independent Afghanistan. The article argues that contemporary foreign policy goals incensed the United States to fund the Islamist organizations that would be Al-Qaeda and the Afghan Taliban.
 
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Why are some countries wealthier than others? There are numerous ways to address this question; however, there is substantial literature in development economics suggesting that a nation’s colonial history plays an integral part in pre-determining who is rich, and who is poor. Previous studies suggest that among former African colonies, British or French colonies experienced marginally faster growth rates than Portuguese, Belgian, or Italian ones. This provides additional insight to suggest that differentiation in economic growth could be explained by a nation’s colonial history. This study attempts to understand the differential impacts of British and French colonialism on the economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. By investigating the different approaches to colonizing, is it possible that one of these previous imperial powers better equipped their colonies with formidable institutions conducive for economic growth after independence?
 
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The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) was founded in 1967 by Aga Khan 4, the spiritual leader of the Shi’i Imami Nizari Ismaili Muslims. Guided by the Islamic ethics of helping the needy, the AKDN seeks to improve the quality of life of the poor in 30 countries. While inspired by faith, the organizations of the AKDN are secular in nature and reject any kind of proselytization. The AKDN has been present in Central Asia since early 1990’s where it manages concerted and integrated developmental programs to attain economic, social and cultural development. Operating in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, the AKDN has been striving to create projects that will enable the local population to attain self-reliance and develop their conditions of living. The work of the AKDN in Central Asia ranges from finance, tourism, agriculture, infrastructure, education, healthcare and habitat, to music initiatives and renovation of historical sites. The AKDN stresses the importance of multidimensional approach to development with the goal of making the local population masters of their own destiny. It embodies hope and support for the poor in the region which is known for entrenched poverty and lack of stability in some specific cases.
 
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Joints in the human body utilize torque to create movement, where a force F acts at a distance, r, from a rotation point. In biomechanics, F is generated by muscles acting on the joint, and r is the distance between the joint’s center of rotation (COR) and the muscle line of action. This distance r is known as a geometric moment arm (GMA). Changes in GMAs may be correlated with loss of muscle and hand function in people due to aging, injury, or pathology. To comprehensively evaluate GMAs, efficient and inexpensive methods for measuring them in vivo are needed. Thus, this study explores whether ultrasound is a valid imaging modality for quantifying the GMA of muscles crossing the wrist. An agar-gel phantom was used to determine if distance measurements from 20 ultrasound images of the phantom were accurate compared to a set of four baseline distances. A subsequent in vivo case study explored whether ultrasound could measure GMAs within a human wrist. The capitate bone was defined as the wrist’s COR due to its central location in the joint, and the measured GMA was defined between this COR and the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle. Both studies returned data that exhibited low measurement variability over consecutive days and provided reasonable proof that ultrasound can accurately measure wrist GMAs. Keywords: biomechanics, medical imaging, capitate, flexor digitorum superficialis
 
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Akurojin-no-hi is a flamelike ghost that was thought to appear in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Little information is known about this creature other than its basic physical characteristics and that it appears on rainy nights. Through utilization of translated primary and secondary sources from Japan as well as analysis of older documents, this paper aims to draw connections between natural disasters, and economic factors that occurred during the Edo Period of Japan. This article considers all these elements and describes how they influenced the conceptualization of Akurojin-no-hi. This paper begins by observing the economic developments of the period and then connects these new developments to other events also occurring in Japan at the time, such as the long journeys of the Shikoku Pilgrims who traveled along wide, expansive roads like the Tokaido. Natural disasters which occurred during the Edo Period are also discussed, mainly the large, widespread fires which affected cities both big and small, and also how these fires influenced the conceptualization of the Akurojin-no-hi. Finally, this article compares the characteristics of the Akurojin-no-hi to the characteristics of other fire yokai and analyzes their differences and similarities.
 
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Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) display modest neurobehavioral deficits on cognitive tasks such as working memory (WM). Neurophysiology (i.e. posterior alpha power) during the maintenance phase of a WM task was compared. Healthy controls (HC, n=50) and newly abstinent individuals with AUD (n=42) completed a directed attend/ignore WM task. Spectral alpha power was extracted from the posterior portion of the scalp. A mixed linear model compared posterior alpha power controlling for alpha power in a baseline condition between group (HC vs. AUD) and sex (male vs. female). Main effects for group (p=.01) and sex (p=.003) were significant. HC displayed a higher alpha power compared to that of individuals with AUD. Males also presented with higher alpha power compared to women. There was no significant interaction between group and sex. An exploratory analysis to determine a relationship between alpha power and performance on the task was conducted and a differential relationship between groups (p<.001) was found. There was no significant relationship between performance and spectral power for HC, but a negative relationship was found for individuals with AUD. Higher alpha power was associated with decreased accuracy (p=.09). Individuals with AUD display a lower alpha power compared to HC, and this is associated with increased accuracy. Whether this signifies a compensatory mechanism remains a question intended for investigation.
 
Harvest productivity of Oedogonium (Pond 2) and microalgae (Ponds 1 and 3). Data are means ± standard deviation (n=3).
Weekly algal culture growth
Solar irradiance (W/m 2 ) in Alachua County from Florida Automated Weather Network (2018).
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As the planet is faced with depletion of its natural resources, alternative and sustainable energy sources are becoming increasingly sought after. Research on the growth of algae has revealed their potential for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and for conversion into a fuel source for bioenergy applications. Filamentous algae have attracted recent attention as an optimal species due to their ease of harvest and dominance over other species. To determine the most suitable species for future biomass applications, a 1000-L open raceway pond was inoculated with the freshwater filamentous alga, Oedogonium. The pond culture was harvested weekly to determine the effects of CO2 addition on culture density (mg VSS/L) and harvest productivity (g VSS/m2-day). An additional two 1000-L raceway ponds with established cultures of microalgae already receiving CO2 were used as a comparison to the growth of Oedogonium. After 3 weeks, Oedogonium harvest productivity exceeded both microalgal ponds at 13.7 (± 0.2) g VSS/m2-day compared to 9.3 (± 0.7) and 9.5 (± 0.3) g VSS/m2-day for the microalgae.
 
Article
Algae cultivation has multiple potential applications including biofuel production, wastewater treatment, and carbon capture. However, dewatering and dehydration remain a challenge for commercialization. Research has focused mainly on microalgae, but filamentous algae have recently gained attention due to their larger size and thus relative ease of harvesting. The drying mechanics of filamentous algae has yet to be fully understood and optimized. This study investigated the drying behavior of the filamentous algae Oedogonium at 50℃, 60℃ and 70℃. The moisture content of triplicate samples of microalgae and Oedogonium (intact filaments, fractured filaments, and aggregated forms) was measured during drying. Intact Oedogonium filaments were fractured using a food blender. Intact Oedogonium had an average shorter falling rate phase and higher diffusivity then microalgae at all temperatures, resulting in a 15%, 8.3%, and 11% faster total average drying time at 50℃, 60℃ and 70℃ respectively. Fractured Oedogonium further had a shorter falling rate phase than intact Oedogonium at 50℃ and 60℃ where its average total drying time was respectively 18% and 9% faster, but the effect of the fracturing treatment reduced with increasing temperature and became negligible at 70℃. Thus, Oedogonium appears to dry more effectively than microalgae, and fracturing Oedogonium results in faster dehydration at lower temperatures. These findings could help optimize industrial drying and assist in the commercialization of algae cultivation.
 
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In 2018, Knight v. Trump sparked discussion about the boundaries between government and citizen speech on social media. Some scholars argued that the courts erred in their decision to characterize the speech in question as government speech. Others argued that the court decided correctly and claimed that the use of forum analysis was necessary to protect both the health of our democracy and the First Amendment rights of social media users. Within the context of algorithmic curation of social media feeds, this article argues that (1) social media platforms are not designated public forums due to the algorithmic curation of online user speech, (2) due to this, the public forum doctrine should not have been applied to the Knight v. Trump case, (3) despite this, user speech rights should be protected online. It also reviews proposed models of thinking that could address unresolved issues of the case.
 
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This essay explores American conceptions of otherness and national identity via comparative case studies of Superman in Action Comics #1 (1938, June 1) and twentieth century cartoons and comic strips that featured immigrant characters. While it is generally acknowledged amongst Superman scholars that Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the creators of Superman, were avid comic strip fans, formal parallels between Superman and his cartoon precedents have escaped study. Recognizing Siegel’s and Shuster’s childhood love of immigrant comics strips enables scholars to see the connection between Superman and this earlier tradition of immigrant cartoons and comic strips. Such comparisons highlight the nationalistic struggles that occupied American politics and society during the early twentieth century and impacted the creations of Superman in 1933 (apocryphal) and 1938 (canonical). Interwar Superman (1933 and 1938-40) paradoxically presented himself as a paragon of Americana and as a foreign immigrant. Superman’s simultaneous embodiment of two nationalistic extremes—the Rooseveltian mind and immigrant body—imbued him and his allegory with a nationality crisis.
 
Article
In the demographics of the American dance world—both professional and social—one group appears to be underrepresented: straight white men. Despite being the second largest group of Americans and over-represented in many other fields of endeavor, they are proportionally the least represented in social dance. Those men that do dance often began later in their lives than their female peers. Why are so many straight white men missing-in-action on the dance floor; and why, despite boundaries built by social pressure and a lack of enthusiasm or desire to change that fact, do some of “us” slip through and onto the floor? Through oral accounts, personal experience, and literature research, the research examines why so many men refuse to dance, and the motivations of those men that do dance—like me.
 
Top-cited authors
Jeanne-Marie R Stacciarini
  • University of Florida
Joseph Rosenberger
  • University of Florida
Heather J Gibson
  • University of Florida
Hongping Zhang
  • University of Tennessee
Inshaf Hossain
  • BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology