This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health-National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations.
This paper describes the development and implementation of the conflict-based assessment of pedestrian safety (CAPS) methodology for the evaluation of pedestrian accessibility at complex intersections. Significant research has explored pedestrian access to modern roundabouts and other complex intersections, and a significant focus has been placed on accessibility for pedestrians who were blind. A majority of these studies relied on actual street crossings by study participants under the supervision of a trained orientation and mobility specialist. These crossing studies quantified risk from a measurement of intervention events, in which the orientation and mobility specialist had to physically stop the participant from crossing. Although such studies provide useful data on the crossing risk at a particular intersection, street crossings can be dangerous to the study participants and are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. The CAPS method emphasizes the use of conflict-based safety factors to quantify risk in a framework compatible with indicator studies. This method relates pedestrian crossing decisions to advanced measurements of vehicle dynamics to estimate lane-by-lane conflicts and identifies the grade of conflict on the basis of a five-criterion rating scale. The CAPS framework was applied to a study of crossings by blind pedestrians at a multilane roundabout. The resulting risk scores were calibrated from the actual orientation and mobility interventions observed during the study. The calibrated CAPS framework correctly matched all (high-risk) orientation and mobility intervention events and further identified other (lower-risk) pedestrian vehicle conflicts. The CAPS framework provides a more efficient, objective, and consistent safety assessment of pedestrian crossings in a research context, without the need for pedestrians to step into the roadway.
Previous laboratory and simulator research has indicated that hazard detection skills and abilities are less developed among novice drivers compared with experienced adult drivers. Novices tend to miss some relevant cues and may be less able to process important elements in the environment while driving. As was found with other research methods, it was hypothesized that novices would have lower hazard detection skills and will react less appropriately to hazards than older and more experienced drivers.Three hazard perception scenarios were simulated on a test track and data were collected on newly licensed teen drivers (within 2 weeks of licensure) and a comparison group of adults. The scenarios included a hidden stop sign, hidden pedestrian, and hidden pedestrian with lane closure (this last included a text-messaging task). Discrete quantitative performance metrics were evaluated for this analysis, including: 1) Did the participant glance at the potential hazard (e.g., stop sign, pedestrian)? 2) Did the participant stop (for the stop sign scenario)? 3) Did the participant show signs of indecision, caution, or awareness (for all hazards)?Significant differences between teen drivers and more experienced adult drivers were found in a combined hazard detection analysis. Results indicate that the adult drivers observed hazards and demonstrated overt recognition of hazards more frequently than the teen drivers. Results indicated that a large portion of teen drivers failed to disengage from peripheral task engagement in the presence of hazards. The results will later be compared to naturalistic data for the same set of drivers to see whether these test track results are predictive of real-world behavior.
In the United States, 78% of pedestrian crashes occur at noninter-section crossings. As a result, unsignalized, marked midblock crosswalks are prime targets for remediation. Many of these crashes occur under sight-limited conditions in which the view of critical information by the driver or pedestrian is obstructed by a vehicle stopped in an adjacent travel or parking lane on the near side of the crosswalk. Study of such a situation on the open road is much too risky, but study of the situation in a driving simulator is not. This paper describes the development of scenarios with sight limitations to compare potential vehicle-pedestrian conflicts on a driving simulator under conditions with two different types of pavement markings. Under the first condition, advance yield markings and symbol signs (prompts) that indicated "yield here to pedestrians" were used to warn drivers of pedestrians at marked, midblock crosswalks. Under the second condition, standard crosswalk treatments and prompts were used to warn drivers of these hazards. Actual crashes as well as the drivers' point of gaze were measured to determine if the drivers approaching a marked midblock crosswalk looked for pedestrians in the crosswalk more frequently and sooner in high-risk scenarios when advance yield markings and prompts were present than when standard markings and prompts were used. Fewer crashes were found to occur with advance yield markings. Drivers were also found to look for pedestrians much more frequently and much sooner with advance yield markings. The advantages and limitations of the use of driving simulation to study problems such as these are discussed.
In recent years there has been a considerable increase in the systems used to provide real-time traffic information to motorists. Examples of such systems include dynamic message signs and 511 travel information systems. However, such systems can be used to reduce congestion-one of their primary purposes-only if one can predict the route choices of drivers as a function of the information displayed. This simulator study looks at the diversion pattern that occurs when delays are reported ahead on the main route and how these diversion patterns vary as a function of delay times (for numerical delay signs), message content (for categorical delay signs), use of 511, and drivers' familiarity with the alternative route travel times across two different age groups. For numerical delay signs, the study shows that one can reliably predict the diversion frequencies at the different delays and across the different ages; then it is possible for traffic engineers to know ahead of time how likely it is for drivers to take an alternative route. For categorical delay signs, the findings indicate that drivers' knowledge of the alternative route travel time affects the choices of older versus younger or middle-aged adults differently. When the times are not known, the two groups behave differently; when the times are known, the groups behave similarly. This finding suggests that traffic engineers should try where possible to present the alternative route travel times as well as the delays on the main route.
Drivers are less likely to comply with the "Yield to Pedestrians" sign at roundabouts than at other types of controlled intersections. The aim of this study was to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of drivers yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. The analysis used logistic regression to model the likelihood of drivers yielding based on several factors. The models were applied to 1,150 controlled pedestrian crossings at the entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches to six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models that were developed support prior research that found that the likelihood of drivers yielding at the entry leg of a roundabout was higher than at the exit. Drivers tended to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than they did to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, had a lower probability of yielding to the pedestrian. As speed increased, the probability of drivers yielding decreased. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane had a lower propensity of yielding than did drivers coming from other directions. The logistic regression models also quantified the effect of each of these factors on the propensity of driver yielding. The models included variables that were specific to each study location and explained the impact size of each study location on the probability of yielding. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds) and can feasibly be incorporated into microsimulation algorithms to model driver yielding at roundabouts.
Teenage drivers are at their highest crash risk in their first 6 months or first 1,000 mi of driving. Driver training, adult-supervised practice driving, and other interventions are aimed at improving driving performance in novice drivers. Previous driver training programs have enumerated thousands of scenarios, with each scenario requiring one or more skills. Although there is general agreement about the broad set of skills needed to become a competent driver, there is no consensus set of scenarios and skills to assess whether novice drivers are likely to crash or to assess the effects of novice driver training programs on the likelihood of a crash. The authors propose that a much narrower, common set of scenarios can be used to focus on the high-risk crashes of young drivers. Until recently, it was not possible to identify the detailed set of scenarios that were specific to high-risk crashes. However, an integration of police crash reports from previous research, a number of critical simulator studies, and a nationally representative database of serious teen crashes (the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey) now make identification of these scenarios possible. In this paper, the authors propose this novel approach and discuss how to create a common set of simulated scenarios and skills to assess novice driver performance and the effects of training and interventions as they relate to high-risk crashes.
This research investigated the influences of socioeconomic characteristics of individual travelers and of the environments where the travelers live and shop on choice of travel mode for grocery shopping. The data on travel for grocery shopping came from 2,001 respondents to the 2009 Seattle Obesity Study survey in King County, Washington. Eighty-eight percent of the respondents drove to their grocery stores, whereas 12% used transit or taxis, walked, biked, or carpooled. The addresses of 1,994 homes and 1,901 primary grocery stores used by respondents were geographically coded. The characteristics of built environments in the neighborhoods around homes and grocery stores and the distances between those homes and stores were measured in a geographic information system. Four binary logistic models estimated the impact of individual socioeconomic characteristics, distance, and built environments around homes and grocery stores on the travel mode used for grocery shopping. Fourteen variables were significantly related to mode choice. The strongest predictors of driving to the grocery store were more cars per adult household member, more adults per household, living in a single-family house, longer distances between homes and grocery stores (both the stores used and the nearest stores), and more at-ground parking around the grocery store used. Higher street density, more quick-service restaurants around homes, and more nonchain grocery stores near the primary grocery store used were related to not driving. Results suggested that reductions of distances between homes and grocery stores, clustering of grocery stores and other food establishments, and reductions in the amount of the parking around them could lead to less driving for grocery shopping.
For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum.
Young drivers (younger than 25 years of age) are overrepresented in crashes. Research suggests that a relevant cause is inadequate visual search for possible hazards that are hidden from view. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a low-cost, fixed-base simulator training program that would address this failure. It was hypothesized that elicited crashes in the simulator training would result in better scanning for latent hazards in scenarios that were similar to the training scenarios but situated in a different environment (near transfer), and, to a lesser degree, would result in better scanning in scenarios that had altogether different latent hazards than those contained in the training scenarios (far transfer). To test the hypotheses, 18 trained and 18 untrained young novice drivers were evaluated on an advanced driving simulator (different from the training simulator). The eye movements of both groups were measured. In near transfer scenarios, trained drivers fixated the hazardous region 84% of the time, compared with only 57% of untrained drivers. In far transfer scenarios, trained drivers fixated the hazardous region 71 % of the time, compared with only 53% of untrained drivers. The differences between trained and untrained drivers in both the near transfer scenarios and the far transfer scenarios were significant, with a large effect size in the near transfer scenarios and a medium effect size in the far transfer scenarios [respectively: U = 63.00, p(2-tailed) < .01, r = -.53, and U = 88.00, p(2-tailed)<.05,r = -.39].
This paper presents an approach for developing mixed-priority pedestrian delay models at single-lane roundabouts using behavioral crossing data. Mixed-priority refers to crosswalk operations where drivers sometimes yield to create crossing opportunities, but where pedestrians sometimes have to rely on their judgment of gaps in traffic to cross the street. The models use probabilistic behavioral parameters measured in controlled pedestrian crossings by blind pedestrians as part of NCHRP project 3-78a. While blind pedestrians clearly represent a special population of pedestrians, the developed delay model is structured to be applicable to any pedestrian population. Delay is predicted as a function of the probability of encountering a crossing opportunity in the form of a yield or crossable gap, and the probability of utilizing that opportunity, which are combined to produce an overall probability of crossing. The paper presents the theoretical approach to estimating the probability parameters and uses a multi-linear log-transformed regression approach to predict the average pedestrian delay. The final delay model explains 64% of the variability in the observed data and therefore represents a reasonable model for predicting pedestrian delay at single-lane roundabouts. The paper concludes with a discussion of how agencies can estimate the underlying probability parameters for existing or proposed roundabouts using empirical and theoretical approaches, and how pedestrian crossing treatments can be used in the context of the model to reduce average pedestrian delay. The research is important in light of the ongoing debate of the accessibility of modern roundabouts to pedestrians who are blind.
Previous studies have shown that roundabouts - especially multilane roundabouts - pose accessibility challenges to pedestrians with vision impairments, in part due to a lack of yielding by drivers, especially on multilane roundabout exit legs. In this study, three different treatments are assessed in terms of their propensity for increasing driver yielding rate using a driving simulator. These are stop bar and crosswalk relocation away from the beginning of exit leg, and two types of beacons, namely a Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB) and a Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon (RRFB). The study shows that installation of any kind of beacon (PHB or RRFB) with or without crosswalk relocation increases driver yielding rates significantly. Relocating the crosswalk does not provide a significant increase in driver yielding rate for the base case, but appeared to further enhance the effectiveness of the PHB and RRFB treatments. The results of using an eye tracker on drivers to track their gaze pattern while exiting the roundabout shows that having a beacon installed with crosswalk relocation increases drivers' attention both on the beacon and the pedestrian along the road. However, a portion of participants failed to see and react to the pedestrian treatments, causing concern about the visibility of these treatments at the roundabout exit leg.
Attention to the road is essential to safe driving, but the development of appropriate eye glance scanning behaviors may require substantial driving experience. Novice teen drivers may focus almost exclusively on the road ahead rather than scanning the mirrors, and when performing secondary tasks, they may spend more time with eyes on the task than on the road. This paper examines the extent to which the scanning of novice teens improves with experience. For this study, 18 novice teen (younger than 17.5 years old) and 18 experienced adult drivers performed a set of in-vehicle tasks and a baseline driving segment on a test track, the teens within 4 weeks of licensure and then again 6 months later. This paper addresses the following questions: Did teen eye glance performance improve from initial assessment? Did teens and adults still differ after 6 months? Results for some tasks showed that rearview and left mirror-window (LM-W) glances improved for teens from initial testing to the 6-month follow-up and that some differences between teens and adults at initial testing were no longer significant at the 6-month follow-up, suggesting significant learning effects. The frequency of rearview and LM-W glances during secondary tasks improved among teens at the 6-month follow-up, but teens still had significantly fewer glances to mirrors than did adults when engaged in a secondary task.
This study evaluates the usability of pedestrian signals by persons with varying visual acuities under different conditions of symbol size, crossing length and type of background behind the pedestrian signal. While viewing photographs presented on a computer monitor under unimpaired viewing conditions (approx. 20/20 visual acuity) and under simulated visual impairment (approx. acuities of 20/100 and 20/300), participants attempted to determine the pedestrian phase (Walk or Don't Walk) and to report the number presented by the countdown timer display. Performance on the phase discrimination task by those with simulated 20/300 acuity and with 9 and 12 in. high symbols often resulted in performance which was little better than chance despite a highly controlled environment (i.e., no moving vehicles or environmental distractions) and signals which were subjectively in excellent working condition and of high visibility (i.e., good luminance/contrast, no glare). Reading the countdown display was essentially impossible. Participants with simulated 20/100 acuity were rather successful with regards to phase identification - averaging better than 87% correct under all stimulus conditions - but room for improvement exists as compared to performance in the 20/20 condition. Reading the countdown display was difficult for participants with simulated 20/100 acuity - averaging between 6.5% and 58.5% correct under the various stimulus conditions. The effect of different backgrounds on the usability of the signals, as well as the implications of the findings with regards to signal size and crossing length on the current signals standards, are discussed.
Travel time information is becoming more important for applications ranging from congestion measurement to real-time travel information. This paper contains a discussion of several advanced techniques for travel time data collection, including electronic distance-measuring instruments, computerized and video license plate matching, cellular phone tracking, automatic vehicle identification, automatic vehicle location, and video imaging. The various advanced techniques are described, the necessary equipment and procedures outlined, the applications of each technique are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages are summarized
This paper deals with the development of a credible and valid simulation model of Collingwood circle in New Jersey for the afternoon peak period. The circle is modeled in PARAMICS simulation software. PARAMICS is amongst the limited number of off-the-shelf simulation softwares that can model unconventional traffic circles. However it is demonstrated in this paper that the default capabilities of PARAMICS are not sufficient to develop a valid simulation model of unconventional circles and roundabouts. It is also shown that the application programming interface (API) feature of PARAMICS is required for a statistically valid simulation model of the study circle. Gap acceptance/ rejection of drivers is modeled using binary probit model in STATA statistical software based on field data. The probit model is then implemented in the simulation using PARAMICS API.
Maritime transportation system (MTS) is a critical infrastructure system that enables economic activity through transferring goods between national and international destinations and hence, is extremely important for the U.S. National Security. This research applies a systems approach to define MTS as a system of systems (SoS). The presented definition of Maritime Transportation System of Systems (MTSoS) enables us to study its critical attributes such as resilience and security, and increases understanding of how to govern it more effectively. A variety of systems engineering models have been applied to MTS. However, it is necessary to form a structure for understanding MTSoS and to develop a new system of systems engineering (SoSE) toolset that help us in viewing interdependencies and adopting effective governance. Based on Boardman-Sauser definition of SoS, We defined MTSoS as integration of interdependent constituent systems. While each constituent system seeks its own goals, their collective body pursues a unified objective, which is transferring goods in a safe, secure, and efficient manner. This approach enables us to create a SoSE framework that can be used as a tool for more effective governance in MTSoS.
New algorithms are presented that use transit vehicles as probes for determining traffic speeds and travel times along freeways and other primary arterials. A mass transit tracking system based on automatic vehicle location data and a Kalman filter used to estimate vehicle position and speed are described. A system of virtual probe sensors that measure transit vehicle speeds by using the track data is also described. Examples showing the correlation between probe data and inductance loop speed-trap data are presented. Also presented is a method that uses probe sensor data to define vehicle speed along an arbitrary roadway as a function of space and time, a speed function. This speed function is used to estimate travel time given an arbitrary starting time. Finally, a graphical application is introduced for viewing real-time speed measurements from a set of virtual sensors that can be located throughout King County, Washington, on arterials and freeways.
With aggregate data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey for 19 years, 1984 through 2002, this study analyzes relationships between expenditures on transportation and communications. Several classification schemes for expenditure categories were used, from the most aggregate [two categories (transportation and communications)] to the most disaggregate [nine transportation categories (new vehicle purchases, used vehicle purchases, vehicle finance charges, gasoline and motor oil, vehicle maintenance and repairs, vehicle insurance, public transportation, out-of-town lodging, and other entertainment including bikes and recreational vehicles) and five communications categories (telephone service; miscellaneous household equipment including phones and computers; television, radio, and sound equipment; postage and stationery; and reading)]. Aggregate demand system modeling (in particular, the linear approximate almost ideal demand system) was then used to determine the relationships between expenditures on transportation and those on communications, again for several different classifications. The model results indicate that transportation and communications categories have substitution and complementarity relationships, often not symmetric. However, a dominant effect of complementarity can be found in the influence of communications on transportation.
Emission inventories are needed to determine the impact of different sectors and trace species on environment and health. Here we present for the first time a highly differentiated emission inventory for passenger and freight transportation worldwide. Our bottom-up country by country calculation agrees to 5% with global fuel sales. We confirm and differentiate previous emission estimates and give inter-model variability for the first time.
Road transportation emits about 4180 (±426) 10^6 tons carbon dioxide, 103 (±30) 10^6 tons car-bon monoxide, 14 (±3) 10^6 tons non-methanous volatile organic compounds, 0,7 (±0,2) 10^6 tons methane, 27 (±6) 10^6 tons nitrogen oxides, 1,15 (±0,5) 10^6 tons primary particulate matter from diesel fueled vehicles and 1,7 (±0,6) 10^6 tons sulphur dioxide worldwide in the year 2000. Passenger transportation is responsible for two-thirds of the total emissions of carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, while freight transportation accounts for about 60% of total nitrous oxides and primary particulates. Asia and the Middle East together account for less than one fifth of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, but about one third of global exhaust pollutant emissions, as much as road transportation in the USA alone.
To reduce emissions from the fleet, super-emitters should be targeted. For new vehicles higher fuel efficiency and lower exhaust emissions are obvious requests. For developing countries this requires improvements in the fuel quality.
Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, accounting for approximately a third of the U.S. inventory. To reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are planning on making vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be lowered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the reduction of traffic congestion. Traffic congestion and its impact on CO2 emissions were examined by using detailed energy and emission models, and they were linked to real-world driving patterns and traffic conditions. With typical traffic conditions in Southern California as an example, it was found that CO2 emissions could be reduced by up to almost 20% through three different strategies: congestion mitigation strategies that reduce severe congestion, allowing traffic to flow at better speeds; speed management techniques that reduce excessively high free-flow speeds to more moderate conditions; and shock wave suppression techniques that eliminate the acceleration and deceleration events associated with the stop-and-go traffic that exists during congested conditions.
Policymakers use incentive-based vehicle scrappage or "Cash-for-Clunker" programs to pursue a range of social and economic goals such as decreasing vehicular emissions, preventing vehicle abandonment, lowering consumer spending on gasoline, and stimulating new vehicle sales. However, there are no programs aimed solely at greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. This study discusses design considerations for such a program. We evaluate past and present programs to show how regulatory elements in vehicle scrappage programs can be adjusted to maximize GHG savings. We show how fuel-economy based eligibility requirements are preferable to age-based requirements and how financial incentives can be properly aligned to balance program cost and participation rate. Finally, we present a program framework that, at minimum, ensures a Cashfor- Clunkers program offsets GHG emissions attributable to vehicle manufacturing and end-oflife disposal with use-phase emissions reductions.
The NGSIM trajectory data sets provide longitudinal and lateral positional information for all vehicles in certain spatiotemporal regions. Velocity and acceleration information cannot be extracted directly since the noise in the NGSIM positional information is greatly increased by the necessary numerical differentiations. We propose a smoothing algorithm for positions, velocities and accelerations that can also be applied near the boundaries. The smoothing time interval is estimated based on velocity time series and the variance of the processed acceleration time series. The velocity information obtained in this way is then applied to calculate the density function of the two-dimensional distribution of velocity and inverse distance, and the density of the distribution corresponding to the ``microscopic'' fundamental diagram. Furthermore, it is used to calculate the distributions of time gaps and times-to-collision, conditioned to several ranges of velocities and velocity differences. By simulating virtual stationary detectors we show that the probability for critical values of the times-to-collision is greatly underestimated when estimated from single-vehicle data of stationary detectors. Finally, we investigate the lane-changing process and formulate a quantitative criterion for the duration of lane changes that is based on the trajectory density in normalized coordinates. Remarkably, there is a very noisy but significant velocity advantage in favor of the targeted lane that decreases immediately before the change due to anticipatory accelerations.
Access to transit stations is a significant barrier to transit use in many urban regions. Parking during peak hours is often limited, and many individuals are only willing to walk about a quarter mile to transit stations (Cervero, 2001). While there are some effective feeder services (e.g., shuttles) that help extend the range of transit access, these systems are limited because of fixed routes and schedules. A number of strategies have recently been implemented to improve transit access and transit use, including bicycles, electric bicycles, carsharing, and personal neighborhood electric vehicles (Shaheen, 1999; Shaheen et al., 2000; Shaheen, 2001; Shaheen and Wright, 2001; Shaheen and Meyn, 2002).
The present article was based on an empirical study aiming to reveal the relationship and interaction between use of information and communication technology (ICT) and travel behavior. To this end, a concept is developed built around the basic idea that technological developments, both in the travel and especially in the communication sector, increase flexibility, thus enabling a fundamental reorganization of activities. A major feature of the interplay between ICT and travel is the spatial-temporal fragmentation of activities, which can cause both quantitative and qualitative changes in traffic volume. Questions of this type can only be answered by a long-term study. For this reason, the study presented here is set up as a representative panel, allowing further studies in the future. Using the results of the first set of data, the article describes the relationship between communication and mobility patterns and individual characteristics of people with varying affinities to ICT and which activity-specific ICT use is typical for groups of varying affinity. The article's initial evaluation of an extensive set of data allows a clear description of the relationship between ICT use, communication behavior, and mobility behavior, while providing evidence that the question is a legitimate one.