Transportation Research Procedia

Online ISSN: 2352-1465
Publications
A road section. 
Concatenation of two min-plus linear traffic systems. 
An itinerary of four roads and three intersections. 
Arrival curves of the arrival matrix, service curves of the service matrix, and the time delays. 
Article
A key measure of performance and comfort in a road traffic network is the travel time that the users of the network experience to complete their journeys. Travel times on road traffic networks are stochastic, highly variable, and dependent on several parameters. It is, therefore, necessary to have good indicators and measures of their variations. In this article, we extend a recent approach for the derivation of deterministic bounds on the travel time in a road traffic network (Farhi, Haj-Salem and Lebacque 2013). The approach consists in using an algebraic formulation of the cell-transmission traffic model on a ring road, where the car-dynamics is seen as a linear min-plus system. The impulse response of the system is derived analytically, and is interpreted as what is called a service curve in the network calculus theory (where the road is seen as a server). The basic results of the latter theory are then used to derive an upper bound for the travel time through the ring road. We consider in this article open systems rather than closed ones. We define a set of elementary traffic systems and an operator for the concatenation of such systems. We show that the traffic system of any road itinerary can be built by concatenating a number of elementary traffic systems. The concatenation of systems consists in giving a service guarantee of the resulting system in function of service guarantees of the composed systems. We illustrate this approach with a numerical example, where we compute an upper bound for the travel time on a given route in a urban network.
 
Article
Understanding the complex behavior of pedestrians walking in crowds is a challenge for both science and technology. In particular, obtaining reliable models for crowd dynamics, capable of exhibiting qualitatively and quantitatively the observed emergent features of pedestrian flows, may have a remarkable impact for matters as security, comfort and structural serviceability. Aiming at a quantitative understanding of basic aspects of pedestrian dynamics, extensive and high-accuracy measurements of pedestrian trajectories have been performed. More than 100.000 real-life, time-resolved trajectories of people walking along a trafficked corridor in a building of the Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, have been recorded. A measurement strategy based on Microsoft Kinect\texttrademark has been used; the trajectories of pedestrians have been analyzed as ensemble data. The main result consists of a statistical descriptions of pedestrian characteristic kinematic quantities such as positions and fundamental diagrams, possibly conditioned to local crowding status (e.g., one or more pedestrian(s) walking, presence of co-flows and counter-flows).
 
Number of pedestrians in the room plotted against the time, data taken from experiment E4, runs are ordered with respect to the inflow as in Table 1.
Article
The transition between low and high density phases is a typical feature of systems with social interactions. This contribution focuses on simple evacuation design of one room with one entrance and one exit; four passing-through experiments were organized and evaluated by means of automatic image processing. The phase of the system, determined by travel time and occupancy, is evaluated with respect to the inflow, a controlled boundary condition. Critical values of inflow and outflow were described with respect to the transition from low density to congested state. Moreover, microscopic analysis of travel time is provided.
 
Schematic representation of the considered model-based estimation approach.
Aggregation level and spatial-temporal characteristics of (relative) flow data collected by different observers.
Article
Traffic flow can be described using three dimensions, i.e., space x, time t and cumulative flow N. This study considers estimating the cumulative flow over space and time, i.e., N(x,t), using relative flow data collected by stationary and moving observers. Stationary observers, e.g., loop-detectors, can observe flow at fixed position over time. Furthermore, automated or other equipped and connected vehicles can serve as moving observers that observe flow relative to their position over time. To present the value of relative flow data, in this paper, we take the perspective of a model-based estimation approach. In this approach, the data is used in two processes: (1) information assimilation of real-time data and models and (2) learning of the models used in information assimilation based on historical data. This paper focuses on traffic state estimation on links. However, we explain that, in absence of stationary observer that are positioned at the link boundaries, it is valuable to consider the information propagation over nodes. Throughout this study a LWR-model with a triangular fundamental diagram (FD) is used to develop the principles that can be used for the two processes. These principles are tested in a simulation (VISSIM) study. This study shows that we can find the traffic flow model parameters and can partially estimate the link boundary conditions based on relative flow data collected by moving observers alone. It also shows that the traffic flow behavior differs partially from the LWR-model with triangular FD, and therefore, we recommend the option to learn and use other traffic flow models in future research. Overall, relative flow data is considered valuable to obtain model learning datasets and to estimate the traffic state.
 
-Scenario no. 1 measurement output, GNSS XTRAK, ATRAK, HDOP and FTE signal error measurement. Source: authors
-Scenario 2 measurement output, GNSS XTRAK, ATRAK, HDOP and FTE signal error measurement. Source: authors.
Article
The article deals with the issue of GNNS GPS L1 signal interference. Authors performed experimental measurements at the Žilina airport, where two sources of GPS L1 signal interference were placed. The goal of the experiment was to confirm or to dispel fears of the increasingly undesirable interference of GNSS signals, particularly near highways and expressways, or other transport infrastructure. GNSS signal interference has a major impact on aviation safety and, in particular, in the context of the massive introduction of GNSS approach procedures for airports. Implementing procedures for airports that are also equipped with terrestrial navigation infrastructure (VOR / DME, ILS) is not a problem as there is always the possibility to switch to a terrestrial navigation system. However, for new aerodromes where the GNSS procedure will be approved using only satellite navigation systems without terrestrial expansion, there is a real safety risk in the event of accidental GNSS signal interference.
 
Survey design (a) SrV 2008; (b) SrV 2013 
Integration of interactive maps (Google maps) for surveying trips Between 2008 and 2013, the proportion of people (from the age of 14 up) who are using the Internet in Germany increased from 65 to 77 percent. Even more distinct is the increase in women and groups from age 60 up (cf. initiative D21, 2008 and 2013). This development is linked to the population's growing acceptance of online surveys and a significant increase of competence in using Internet appliances in general. In accordance with the requirements of transport planning and travel demand modeling, the determination of positions on the reporting date also includes inquiries about origins and destinations, in order to be able to assign these to traffic cells or other planning areas (geocoding). To collect the addresses in 2008, open text boxes (street, number, area code, city) were used with CATI, PAPI and CAWI. If the participants could not remember an exact address, they (also) had the option to insert a " distinct landmark " (like a crossroads or a supermarket) in the open text box. The geocoding was subsequently carried out by using list-based addresses and street directories. In 2008, 84 percent of all destinations outside their own apartment (but within the city) could be assigned by using this method. One element of the endeavor to increase usability was the integration of maps in the online forms. The service Google maps was used, also because it is the most used service in Germany by far, and thus a certain familiarity with it can be assumed on the users' part. As depicted in Fig. 3, the participants have the option to click directly on the destination of their trip on the map and, if necessary, move it. The alternative is a list-based search, where the first letters are entered in an intelligent text box, which then shows suggestions. The detected address is shown in the map and can, if necessary, be moved. If neither route leads to the destination, the address can simply be entered as distinct landmark by completing the familiar open text boxes for street, number, area code, and city. In the telephone surveys, the interviewers conducted the collection of origin and destination in the same manner (CATI-support). 
Kilometers per capita by car/motorcycle in 2008 and 2013 (revised data for 2008) 
Article
As measured by continually worsening response rates, the acceptance of general population surveys has significantly declined in the last decades. This development can be observed in many countries and is likewise applicable for surveys in Germany. “Mobility in Cities – SrV” is a methodologically comparable household survey, which is normally carried out every five years in many selected cities in Germany. In order to counteract the declining willingness to participate and the associated danger of selectivity and bias, a comprehensive methodological study took place prior to the tenth survey wave in 2013. This contribution introduces the concept and results of the methodological study as well as the resulting design of the survey. Analyses of previous surveys show that particularly for households without a telephone number in public directories, the response rate is comparably low. Since the proportion of these households is greatly increasing, a main focus of the study was to test an approach for further development of the survey concept, in particular for households not directly reachable by telephone. Additionally, several survey elements were revised. This includes a more precise collection of origins and destinations of trips with the help of an interactive mapping service. A result of the methodological adjustment was that an average of 0.5 trips was additionally able to be collected. The analytical results of this contribution can be used to develop recommendations concerning which details to be particularly considered for repeated cross-sectional surveys and how these details can affect the comparability of results.
 
Outline to achievement of JC. Source: (www.rpharms.com).
methodology. Source: Author.
JC areas within ANSP and its State. Source: FAB CE, SAF-SubC, 2014).
JC areas within ANSP after the application of the methodology. Source: (FAB CE, SAF-SubC, 2016).
Article
This article aims to help organisations in aviation to build a Just Culture (JC). Building a Just Culture is a difficult task, but there are small, local steps that you can take internally. JC 11 steps methodology is a guide which lays out several them. This article maps the evolution of the Just Culture in Europe and within the Single European Sky project. European Commission significantly supports the positive JC in the company as well as on the state level. Your organisation can actively work to change some of the practices of your organisation and maybe even within your country. The main goal of this change is to improve the reporting culture of safety occurrences. Working towards a Just Culture means trying to change some key practices, some essential rules, and perhaps some critical relationships between stakeholders, so that, eventually, a Just Culture may emerge. In this article, we bring you a potential solution, how and where to start with the implementation of different processes of the JC infrastructure. A solution is the practical approach with the list of steps which lead you to the successful JC implementation and maintenance. This methodology is based on years of experience in the JC area in aviation and on the well-recognised literature. The positive JC in your organization will support employees to report the safety related issues and to bring a satisfactory solution as well. When the organization improves safety environment and apply safety measures, this will help to support employees in a more efficient approach to their work. New EC regulations also brought new challenges for aviation stakeholders in Europe to ensure the improvement of safety for future reference periods. These ambitious performance goals, such as improving safety and increasing efficiency and performance, require a structured approach into the implementation of different aspects of aviation safety.
 
Article
In 1999, the harmonized standards EN 1317 relating to vehicle restraint systems came into force in Europe, in order to establish specific requirements based on safety features. For this reason, these systems have to overcome successfully the full-scale crash tests defined in these standards. However, some defined criteria are not in correspondence with the reality of Spanish roads. Almost a decade ago, in the United States, the evaluation criteria for crash tests were updated based on the new characteristics of the vehicles that circulated on their roads. Considering the registrations and fleet of light vehicles in Spain, a statistical analysis of the evolution that both parameters have undergone over the years is carried out in this paper. The outcome of this study shows, in a clear way, the change produced in the market in relation to the type of light vehicles that currently circulate in Spain.
 
Article
Aircraft fuselage is subject under the influence of many negative factors during its operation. Non-destructive testing methods are primarily used to minimize the possibility of possible failure. For early detection of any anomalies that may occur at aircraft fuselage are used mainly electromagnetic non-destructive testing and evaluation methods. This paper deals with inspection of riveted joints of the fuselage and wings of aircraft Zlin 142. The aircraft manufacturer determines the prescribed time intervals for the inspection of the fuselage. During the inspection, we will try to detect possible cracks and reveal a presence of hidden corrosion. A suitable method for the inspection of these riveted joints is eddy current testing method (ECT). Eddy current testing is one of the widely utilized electromagnetic NDE methods. It works based on an interaction of time-varying electromagnetic field with a conductive structure according to the Faraday’s electromagnetic induction law. This electromagnetic method is suitable for reliable detection of surface and subsurface defects of the riveted joints. Experiments will utilize Olympus OmniScan MX device with presence of ECA module. Eddy current array probes SAB-067-005-032 and SBB-051-150-032 are used, respectively. Harmonic eddy current excitation is used for this purpose.
 
Article
COVID-19 arrived in the world suddenly and unexpectedly. It caused major disruptions at economical, operational and other levels. In the case of flight traffic, the operations were reduced to 10% of their original levels. The question after COVID-19 is how to restart the operations and how to keep the balance between safety and capacity. In this paper we present an analysis using simulation techniques for understanding the impact in a security area of an important airport in Latin America; the airport of Mexico City. The results allow to illustrate the potential congestion given by the implemented covid-19 restriction, even when the traffic recovers only by 25% of the pre-covid-19 traffic. The congestion can be mitigated by applying some layout changes (snake queue vs parallel queue) and when more capacity is added to the system (extra security line). The results will raise situational awareness for airport stakeholders when implementing the actions suggested by different international institutions like WHO, IATA or ICAO.
 
Urban areas with survey participants
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly influenced people’s lifestyles including their travel choices. The pandemic resulted in placing restrictions in travelling throughout Italy due to the obligatory need for social distancing and changes in public transport services. City residents changed their mobility patterns and started using their private vehicles more often instead of public transport, while choosing to walk or cycle for short distance trips. Governments and local authorities encouraged citizens to use sustainable travel modes, particularly walking, during the pandemic period. However, the high number of infections and deaths, especially in Italy, has strongly influenced the propensity of walking due to the emotional aspects of travelling. This paper presents a statistical analysis based on data gathered through a questionnaire in urban areas of Sicily focusing on travel by walking for either leisure or work. The evaluation of negative emotions that people who habitually walk for short distances in the study areas is the main focus of the present work. The data indicated a variation between three emotions: anxiety, stress, and fear. These emotions had a potential to influence people’s daily life and, as a result, their travel habits.
 
Article
The shocks of the pandemic and the economic downturn became factors that challenged, first of all, new market structures in the national economy, the formation of which was associated with the development of information and communication technologies and the globalization of the information space. It was they who had to offer new ways to adapt to stress factors and find new areas for development. One of such structures in the Russian Federation is the virtual labor market. The lack of publications on the mechanism of its functioning in a pandemic made the research topic proposed by the authors relevant and innovative. The article proposes criteria for adapting the virtual labor market in a pandemic, on their basis, non-price tools for its adaptation are identified, and the prospects for cooperation between transport enterprises and the virtual labor market. The identified trends can be assessed as an innovative adaptation to the conditions of uncertainty associated with the active restructuring of virtual interaction channels. Of particular importance is the growth in intensity and expansion of communication channels for transport enterprises, since the solution of their systemic problems is possible only through the use of a wide range of intellectual and information products and services. The materials can be of practical importance for the creation of the main institutions of the virtual labor market and the development of strategic decisions for transport enterprises.
 
Article
The study is devoted to the evolution of logistics ecosystems, the study of trends and drivers of their development, the systematization of the logistics ecosystems’ functional types and typical stages of their evolution. A review of scientific literature showed that the theoretical foundations of the logistics ecosystems development had not been sufficiently developed. Perhaps this is due to the relative youth of the "ecosystem" term, which has not been widely used until recently. The purpose of the study is to develop a holistic integrated approach to the study of the logistics ecosystems development stages. Methods of synergetics, logistics, terminalistics, regional economics, systems approach, transport geography were used. The development of terminal and warehouse infrastructure as the basic link of any logistics ecosystem should not only be linked to the strategic development of the national transport system, but also be maximally balanced with the trends prevailing in the world market and changing the consumer demands. The transformation of a business model into a business ecosystem allows ensuring the necessary and sufficient level of responsiveness to changes. A new approach to study the evolution of logistics ecosystems is needed, which is accelerating and often passes several development levels at once. A functional-logistic approach to the logistic ecosystems’ evolution is proposed, which makes it possible to comprehensively assess the completeness of the functionality and the logistic ecosystems’ development degree. The results obtained can be useful in substantiating the staged logistics ecosystems’ development of any level and their strategic management.
 
Article
The Covid-19 crisis forced governments around the world to rapidly enact several restrictions to face the associated health emergency. The Portuguese government was no exception and, following the example of other countries, established various limitations to flat the contagions curve. This led to inevitable repercussions on mobility and environmental indicators including noise. This research aims to assess the impact of the lockdown due to Covid-19 disease on the noise levels recorded in the city of Porto, Portugal. Data from four noise sensors located in strategic spots of the city were used to calibrate and validate Time Series Models, allowing to impute the missing values in the datasets and rebuild them. The trend and the cyclic information were extracted from the reconstructed datasets using decomposition techniques. Finally, a Spearman correlation analysis between noise levels values and traffic volumes (extracted from five inductive loop detectors, located nearby the noise sensors) was performed. Results show that the noise levels series present a daily seasonal pattern and the trends values decreased from 6.7 to 7.5 dBA during the first lockdown period (March-May 2020). Moreover, the noise levels tend to gradually rise after the removal of restrictions. Finally, there is a monotonic relationship between noise levels and traffic volumes values, as confirmed by the positive moderate-to-high correlation coefficients found, and the sharp drop of the former during March-May 2020 can be attributed to the strong reduction of road traffic flows in the city.
 
3D-Rendering of the 19-seater hybrid electric commuter aircraft as explored by Bauhaus Luftfahrt and DLR.
Individual travel time benefits of regional aviation compared to car and scheduled aviation.
Distribution of travel time benefits by region pair.
Average travel time benefits through commuter air services by region.
City/region pairs with the highest total travel time benefit.
Article
Aviation policy in the EU aims at improving connectivity and reducing environmental impacts. New propulsion systems that are locally free of emissions, e.g. with battery or hydrogen powered designs may contribute to this objective. Initial research suggests that such innovations are best applied in commuter aircraft with up to 19 seats. However, the market for these aircraft has been steadily declining since the end of the 1990s. In this paper, the authors analyze the prospects of re-vitalizing this aircraft category by applying an innovative business model, using hybrid-electric commuter aircraft designed in a cooperative project between Bauhaus Luftfahrt and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in order to contribute to both objectives. The aircraft, based on characteristics of the BAe Jetstream 31, features a full electric range of approximately 200 km at a payload of 16 passengers, increasing to 1250 km, when the jet fuel-based range extender is used. The potential use of such a hybrid-electrically powered regional aircraft for regional air transport services from smaller airfields is demonstrated from a demand perspective. Travel time benefits are quantified alongside initial demand potentials, based on forecasts for 2030 at the regional pair level as provided by the German Federal Transport Plan.
 
Article
Social distancing guidelines established amid the COVID-19 pandemic have decreased the number of trips in urban transportation networks; furthermore, travelers have shifted away from high occupancy modes due to the fear of contagion. This scenario has led to reduced public transportation ridership and increased shares of private cars, cycling and walking in urban areas. In the international literature, predictive models for this scenario of changed travel behavior and imminent needs for operations and planning adjustments, however, are still scarce or limited in scope. Holt-Winter’s multiplicative method was used to extrapolate pre-pandemic datasets as a means to evaluate the impacts of the pandemic in transportation activities in Budapest. Data from March 2020 indicate that stay-at-home orders have resulted in intra-city and commuter traffic reductions of about 35%, while public transportation ticket sales decreased by 90%. Bicycle traffic, on the other hand, increased by about 13% in the same period. These observations suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has driven significant changes in trip generation and mode choice in Budapest. This study proposes the adjustment of a pre-existing four-step transportation model of Budapest based on the introduction of contextual explanatory variables and on the recalibration of model parameters in order to reflect pandemic-related trends in trip generation and trip distribution. The recalibration and validation of the model were based on data from the first wave of the pandemic in Hungary. Validation results, although limited, suggest that the traditional four-step models are able to capture the impacts on transportation of the atypical scenario of a pandemic with relatively simple adjustments and few data requirements.
 
Article
The world is being hit by a health crisis by the COVID-19 pandemic which has infected peoples across the globe. The cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia itself continue to increase every day. The transportation sector is one of the sectors that have experienced numbers of direct impacts as a result of large-scale social restriction in form of preventive regulation. Furthermore, this phenomenon causes health agencies to experience difficulties in distributing logistics for handling COVID-19, especially in water areas. In the era of the Industrial Revolution 4.0, various society aspects and industrial processes are digitally connected to increase productivity, especially for COVID-19 treatment and logistic handling. This research was conducted to analyze several proposed monohull-unmanned ship prototypes which are expected to be a proposed solution to assist COVID-19 countermeasure. A series of stability and motion analyses is conducted, then the results are assessed to conclude the best design among the proposed design options. Results of the study indicated that compared to three variations of hull types, design of the Model III has excellent characterisics of ship stability, hull resistance and seakeeping. These analysis parameters are considered as main criteria in the ship’s requirements since patient and logistic have to be transported safely to the designated location according to the given mission in assisting COVID-19 handling and treatment.
 
Article
Transportation industry prosperity is closely connected with training of transportation professionals at all level of their education and in various economic and epidemiological situations. The study aimed to show the reactions of 1st year post graduate research students (transportation professionals) on key issues of e-learning during post-extreme period (October 2020-January 2021). To answer research questions connected with characteristics of post-graduate students’ reactions to remote e-learning, risks for the students and searching novel e-learning models, the questionnaire and a descriptive approach for open-ended and close-ended questions analysis, semantic method for assessing the language content obtained empirically, the quantitative-descriptive method for presenting the research results were used. 33 transportation professionals (Engineering Field, IT, Social Science and Humanities) took part in the survey. Face-to-face format of learning was preferred by 30.30 % students (“T” and “SH” respondents). Remote e-learning only was satisfied for 39.39 % students (“T” and “IT”). At that time desire to keep such e-learning experience was demonstrated by 48.48 % of the students. They were ready for e-learning returning. 39.39 % of all the students, except 3.03 % (“SH”) were ready to remote e-learning activity “when it is necessary”. E-learning risks were mainly associated with social adaptation in the digital learning environment. At the same time e-learning was pointed out as a chance for sustainable scientific activity.
 
Scenarios for the CAD station. Own elaboration using DataStudio.
shows the result, with the same 35% threshold.
Vulnerability to COVID 19. Source: Own elaboration based on data from ((DANE), 2020).
Change in the demand and cases by diagnose date.
Daily effective reproduction number and demand rate of variation.
Article
The pandemic made the transport system administration switch the way decisions were made in topics such as the response speed, resilience to shifts in the demand, and the new policy needs. Therefore, public transport requires monitoring tools, such as dashboards, and an emphasis in user characterization, in addition to traditional modeling and supply-demand indicators historically used by TRANSMILENIO to command the operation of the public transport system of Bogotá D.C. This study employed descriptive spatial and statistical analysis to comprehend the relations among the registers of contagion waves, user survey and the boarding information on Public Transport Integrated System (SITP for their Spanish initials). Complementarily, the article shows the shifts in the demand towards the regulatory milestones for the pandemic, and how short-term changes in bus supply were made due to these set of regulations. The paper also provides a recap of the international discussion about the occupation, efficiency, and biosecurity of massive public transport systems. The main results for TRANSMILENIO were some supply changes, among others.
 
Article
The still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic lead to the most significant decrease in global air transport passenger traffic in aviation history. This decrease has been caused by a combination of demand and supply shocks. Main reasons for these shocks were the global travel restrictions, border closures, the rules and regulations for physical distancing as well as income losses of both private companies and private households even though financial support has been provided by many governments. As a consequence, airlines worldwide had to cut down the number of operated routes and flights significantly. Since February 2020, both the number of global passengers and passenger flight kilometers decreased by 80 per cent and more). These developments have caused large financial losses both for airlines and airports worldwide, critically threatening the existence of a large number of these companies. This paper investigates whether and how the economic recovery of the aviation sector should be supported by governments. Our main results indicate that government loans or government secured loans are enabling a well-balanced trade-off between governmental influence, public debt and distortion of competition if the lending criteria are transparent and nondiscriminatory. However, in the course of time, over-indebtedness will become a critical issue for most companies. At this point, non-refundable state grants offer a relatively simple but costly solution since these subsidies will directly increase public debt.
 
Article
Over the past two years, the issue of the rapid spread of coronavirus infection has been actively discussed. In this regard, special attention is paid to measures related to restrictions on international movement. Need to know what measures exist in different countries, what documents are required for unhindered entry into the territory of a foreign country. This article analyzes and compares passenger traffic before and during the outbreak of coronavirus infection. The analysis and comparison of air transportation was also carried out and the economic losses of companies that carried passengers to various countries of the world were indicated.
 
Article
The main goal of current article is to offer a system solution for keeping public transport system in sustainable and safe position by adapting it to the COVID-19 challenge, ensuring its sustainability. The introduction of the paper deals with the analysis of the public transport system in 2020 under the unclear epidemiological situation in the World by spread of Covid-19. Second chapter shows the beginning of the process of planning of system solution for adapting the public transport system to the challenge of Covid-19. Author deals with own vision of such solution. In third chapter author shows the vision of the system solution for the control of public transport system to ensure its sustainability taking into account also epidemiological situation. Last chapter shows some ideas, advanced practices and last achievements for public transport system sustainability.
 
Article
The global health crisis, to the extent we are experiencing, has not affected the international community for more than a century. The epidemiological situation in recent months has severely affected all spheres of life and the economy, and has also significantly affected bus transport. Irregular bus tour transport was affected most by the measures taken and a number of carriers have no transport performance. The paper examines the results of the impact of the adopted preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19 on suburban bus transport and urban public transport. Due to the lack of overall data for 2020, a statistical survey was carried out on a sample of selected bus operators, examining the development of the number of passengers carried, the number of kilometers traveled during the first six months of 2020 compared to 2019. The adopted anti-epidemic measures have impacts on the costs of carriers and the outflow of passengers to passenger cars, respectively. to other types of mobility e.g. bicycle transport. This means increasing demands on the financing of bus transport by customers of public passenger transport.
 
Article
The airline business is one of the businesses which have heavily been impacted from the COVID-19 pandemic. International travel restriction due to border closing policy in some countries, restricted mobility, and social distancing have significantly ceased the aviation industry. Departments concerned have issued both short-term and long-term safety measures for the prevention and control the spread of the infection. Several preventive measures have been proposed. The purposes of this research is to study the Airline Safety Measures to prevent the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) affecting the confidence of passengers in decision making to travel with domestic low-cost airlines during the pandemic. The quantitative and qualitative were conducted by online questionnaires. 400 Sample groups from passengers of 4 low-cost airlines which operated domestic flight in Thailand, 152 from Thai Air Asia, 86 from Thai Lion Air, 96 from Nok Air and 66 from Thai Viet jet. The descriptive statistical analysis included Pearson’s simple coefficient and multiple regression analysis were applied. The results found that the most significant factors of safety measures to prevent the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) affecting the confidence of passengers in decision making to travel domestic flight with low-cost airlines during the pandemic were cabin density control measures, passenger hygiene measures, passenger screening measures, pre-boarding measures, aircraft preparation measures and service personnel hygiene measures respectively. Touch less technology should be implemented in all activities related to the air transportation travel process for preventing the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
 
Article
COVID-19 pandemic has quickly propagated all around the world and exerted significant effect on cities and traffic mobility. In this article, traffic data from various sources are analyzed to determine the changes of traffic mobility during lockdown in Moscow. The data of State Road Safety Inspectorate (GIBDD) were analyzed reflecting road traffic injuries on Moscow roads during lockdown. Despite the fact that in April 2020 there were significantly fewer vehicles and people on the roads than in 2019, the number of people killed on roadways was by 33% higher than in the previous year. Moreover, in April 2020, the traffic-related mortality rate was 10%, which was by 7.2 p.p. higher than in 2019.
 
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly changed daily habits in terms of mobility, particularly in cities. The fear of prolonged contact with other users on public transport may cause great changes in citizens’ preferences towards transport in private vehicles, motorized or not, and sharing. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in mobility habits based on an online survey in Gijón (Spain) taken at the end of summer 2020, after the first wave, and generation of the so-called “new normality”. This document presents a preview of the main results, related to the vehicles most used by Gijón’s population. The results have allowed us to observe an increase in the use of private vehicles and, consequently, decrease in use of the bus. In addition, the survey sample also demonstrated the scant insertion of PMVs, motorcycles and bicycles in citizens’ preferences. Finally, they also showed gender and age differences in urban mobility.
 
Article
The article is devoted to issues related to the development of road transport in the Russian Federation. The important parameters and main indicators of the Transport Strategy of Russia until 2035 are considered. The article notes that the general goals of the transport strategy are aim at the formation of a single transport space in Russia, at ensuring the availability and quality of transport and logistics services in freight traffic, sufficient to meet the needs of the country’s economic development. Two scenarios of the development of the transport strategy of Russia are consider - the basic and innovative scenarios. The transport strategy of Russia presupposes the stages of its implementation in accordance with the vector of development of the country’s economy, which adopted based on the general development of the Russian Federation in the long term. A certain place in the Transport Strategy occupied by the development of such a direction as road transport and road facilities. Taking into account the peculiarities of the territorial space of Russia, the strengthening of global competition, interaction with neighboring states, the state of industry, agriculture, trade and other industries, the Transport Strategy presents the cost characteristics of transportation of various products, including cargo transportation by road. Taking into account the fact that road transport accounts for a significant part of the total volume of freight traffic, the Transport Strategy provides for the redistribution of freight traffic volumes between modes of transport.
 
Article
Every year there is a digitalization of transport systems where it is discussed how stations will play an important role in the digital railway revolution and highlights a project that aims to accelerate the adoption of new technologies. The world of transport is undergoing a digital revolution and railway stations may be a key platform for the implementation of new innovations. A project undertaken by the transport is seeking to accelerate the adoption of new technologies in this space. New technologies, an increased focus on integrated travel solutions and the need to maximise capacity across the rail network to cope with demand, is placing a new emphasis on innovation in railway stations. Every year, billions of people travel by rail around the world. But as passenger numbers continue to grow, and the expectations of passengers continue to be more demanding, the pressure on rail organisations to deliver high-quality passenger journeys increases. Transport for Wales (TfW) has today launched its new smartphone app, providing enhanced features and, for the first time, a bilingual service. Passenger rail has been one of the most impacted sectors by the COVID-19 pandemic, suffering a catastophic decrease in passenger numbers since March 2020
 
Article
Current article is developed in the frame of the postdoctoral project: “Adapting the public transport system to the COVID-19 challenge, ensuring its sustainability” under activity 1.1.1.2 “Post-doctoral Research Aid” of the Specific Objective 1.1.1 “To increase the research and innovative capacity of scientific institutions of Latvia and the ability to attract external financing, investing in human resources and infrastructure” of the Operational Programme “Growth and Employment”. That is why the primary goal here is to develop post-doctorate skills as a new scientist and to increase post-doctorate scientific capacity, ensuring the possibilities for starting serious career in scientific institutions. The secondary goal of current article is to disseminate the information about the start of current project and about the scientific plans of the post-doctorate to develop a system solution for keeping public transport system in sustainable and safe position by adapting it to the COVID-19 challenge, ensuring its sustainability. The first step of adapting the public transport system to the COVID-19 challenge, ensuring its sustainability is given here. The recommendations and measures done during first wave of coronavirus are structured and described. There are shown also the most common mistakes (in an unstable epidemiological situation) made while using a transport. Recommendations to reduce the negative effect of coronavirus COVID-19 in transport are given. Advanced practices and last achievements for controlling coronavirus COVID-19 to reduce its negative effect in public transport system are discussed.
 
Article
The Russian transport industry is an important sector of the Russian economy. Because of a large territory, Russian supply chains and human flows face unique challenges, inducted by natural and anthropogenic reasons. One of them is the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused supply chains disruption and changes in travel plans. The paper aims to identify the differences in the reaction of Russian transport high-growth firms and other transport firms’ performance on the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample includes 2621 transport firms (including 119 high-growth firms). The research uses the official financial data provided by Rosstat and the Russian Tax Service. The hypotheses are tested on 2020 data using one-way ANOVA. The research showed no significant differences in high-growth and normal firms’ profitability, efficiency, and solvency. High-growth firms keep a better ability to grow in pandemic and employability. High-growth firms allow the whole industry to keep a good development perspective. The research results agree with earlier studies and confirm that high-growth firms are vital for transport sector development.
 
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The COVID-19 pandemic is the major influence on the Tourism Management. Airline Industry is another major concern with unprecedented challenges. This research discusses topics in the area of crisis management with specific reference to contribute to the Strategic Plans for the Airline industry by employing an approach supported by qualitative analysis in the form of in-depth interview. This paper examined how two airlines in Thailand had coped with challenges affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents were 8 managers from two different airlines operating at the Suvarnabhumi airport during September- October 2021 to investigate the strategy and the effectiveness of the strategy. The paper then proposes strategic guidelines for the management in the Airline industry. The paper concludes that crisis cannot be stopped but the impacts can be limited by the application and extension of crisis management plans. Insights can help organizations in sectors in Tourism to respond to current situation and drive business to speedy recovery after Covid-19.
 
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Digitalization is gradually spreading through the transport and logistics industry, and the new technologies are profoundly reshaping the market, producing radical changes in every single stage of the supply chain to help reduce expenses and improve efficiency. Transport, in many respects, is an industry that is highly open to automation and implementation of IoT (Internet of Things) solutions. The successful integration of IoT technologies is likely to bring considerable benefits for transportation companies, such as diminished transportation delays, sporadic operator errors, preventive measures for poor cargo tracking and monitoring, IT failures and identity theft, in addition to the effective utilization of big data for the provision of automated real-time business analytics solutions. The present paper attempts to critically examine the impact of COVID-19 on the digitalization of the transport sector in Bulgaria, and offers, thereupon, a systematization of the major problems the enterprises face.
 
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The current full-range problem posed by the COVID-19 virus is being fought in every area, from health care, through economics, to technology. Designers in various fields are known for technological measures to reduce the restrictions resulting from measures against the spread of the virus. Aviation has suffered from the grounding of aircraft and the cessation of air traffic perhaps the most, so there is an effort to restart the operation of aircraft. The present article deals with the design of the implementation of air disinfection in the cockpit, to ensure the maximum possible safety during flight. During the research, the authors focused on the use of disinfection using ultraviolet radiation and its possibility of incorporation into the ventilation system of aircraft. The research results represent specific proposals and design of the installation for the aircraft Airbus A320 and represent specific proposals for general installation in aviation. Such a system could in the future increase the safety of flying due to the spread of viruses and bacteria in the cockpit of the aircraft and allow the resumption of air traffic.
 
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The coronavirus pandemic negatively affected the performance of the Slovak economy. The economic and employment downturn makes the Slovak Republic one of the most affected countries in the European Union. Due to the reduction of business activity and the decline in consumer demand, employers were forced to take several economic measures to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. The results of the survey show that employers in the field of transport and telecommunications most often used from changes in the organization of work and also greatly reduced the recruitment of new employees. The labour market situation has been gradually deteriorating since the beginning of 2020, with employment declining year on year in almost the whole spectrum of industries in April and May. The aim of the article is, therefore to point out the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on employers in the transport and telecommunications sectors and to analyze the use of government measures to support employment.
 
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The COVID-19 pandemic, which has been going on for more than two years, makes us pay special attention to the study and understanding of the experience of marketing activities in the transport industry in the new reality. Knowledge and skills in marketing are required to organize effective work of transport systems. It is vital to have the ability to choose a marketing strategy, use economic information, and understand ways to increase the competitiveness of transport enterprises. The authors argue that COVID-19 has become a serious phenomenon that has changed consumer behaviour and significantly accelerated the introduction of innovative technologies in the marketing activities of transport enterprises. The restrictions associated with the pandemic have given a powerful boost to the process of digitalization of business. The research reveals that along with the serious problems associated with a reduction in the income of the population, a change in the structure of demand, and a drop in labour productivity due to the transition to remote work, there emerge unique prospects caused by the development of new marketing technologies. Summarizing the data on existing experience, the authors conclude that the pandemic gave a powerful impetus to the digitalization of marketing, revealing several previously hidden problems and opening new prospects for the use of innovative technologies in marketing activities in the management of transport systems.
 
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Firstly, this study aims to study the impact to air transport employee’s quality of life from corporate downsizing during covid -19 era according to the corporate rehabilitation plan of Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. Secondly, to study the approach to adjust an emotional intelligence of air transport employee after the corporate downsizing according to the rehabilitation plans of Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. Thirdly, to study the development of new professional life quality of the air transport employee after corporate downsizing according to the rehabilitation plan of Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. The results obtained from the study are detailed as follows. The results showed that the guidelines for adjusting the emotional intelligence of flight attendants consist of 6 aspects as follows: the first aspect is understanding accepting and adapting to changes that occur due to conditions beyond the control of both the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak 19 and corporate downsizing according to the corporate rehabilitation plan of Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. The second aspect is a positive thinking in order to allow oneself to be successful in learning new experiences from the crisis that happened and stepped away from the traditional form of work (comfort zone) to new challenges. The third aspect is learning to deal with stress by doing various activities that interest oneself to relieve stress. The fourth aspect is self-empowering to realize self-worth, to build strength, to turn challenges into opportunities to continue in living. The fifth aspect is the use of dharma principles to stabilize one’s mood in order to find a solution for one’s life. The sixth aspect is to manage change in consistent with the uncontrollable changes by modifying behavior and developing oneself to survive well through this crisis.
 
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We employ a state-of-the-art modelling framework to determine the significant factors affecting rates of outdoor exercise trips during Scotland’s COVID-19 lockdown, using data from public surveys conducted by Transport Scotland. The random parameters ordered probit modelling approach is used for its ability to account for the potential effect of unobserved heterogeneity stemming from explanatory variables. The framework is extended further to also allow for detection of heterogeneity among the means of random parameters. We show that various sociodemographic factors (relating mainly to household social grade, employment status and disability) significantly influenced the frequency at which outdoor exercise trips were made during lockdown. Specifically, those who are self-employed, those from a social DE household (the household’s main income earner is employed in a manual occupation or is unemployed) and those with a health problem or disability, were shown to be significantly more likely to complete no outdoor exercise during lockdown, and therefore, these groups are at greater risk of the associated mental and physical illnesses. Model results are linked to issues surrounding transport equity, as personal vehicle ownership was found to significantly affect the rate of outdoor exercise trips made by disabled individuals. Policy implications are discussed with regards to mitigating the effects of the pandemic on the future health state of groups exhibiting low exercise levels.
 
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The unexpected, rapid spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus around the globe has almost completely paralyzed multiple industries in most nations. At the same time, even during lockdowns, many countries did practically no attempt to restrict road traffic, fearing that this would freeze the shipping of vital goods, primarily food. As a result, shipping by road transport has only been impacted by the drop in consumer demand. Nonetheless, shipping companies’ operations have undergone drastic changes due to the quarantine. Sending some of the personnel to work from home has been one of these changes. On the one hand, this has exacerbated certain risks. On the other hand, when personnel works from home, this helps reduce spending and may even be considered as a way of enforcing the lean transportation principle. The insights gained from remote controllers’ efforts to keep road shipping safe and reliable during the COVID-19 pandemic may find successful uses as a step towards greater shipping efficiency, not only in emergencies, but under other circumstances as well. In this paper, we consider the capabilities of a virtual machine-based architecture for a road shipping control system. We also elaborate on the practical results of deploying such an architecture. Our study proves that our concept of a geographically dispersed shipping company that uses a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure and Process Mining has the means to ensure productive remote controller operation, including operation through low-bandwidth Internet channels, and guarantees the integrity and confidentiality of the relevant business information.
 
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Although air transport is one of the highly stable transport modes with a continuous positive growth trend, for the first time in history with the new COVID-19 pandemic, it will have a substantial long-term negative impact that many aviation stakeholders will go under bankrupt or with high losses. Comparing with other crisis which influent aviation sector, no crises has such measures that influence so hard in infrastructure modifications and operational procedures at the airport. Those changes dramatically change the way of thinking regarding terminal and traffic flows design and capacity optimization. The level of service that we knew from the past is not achievable due to the World Health Organization recommendation. This paper explains how personal at the Zagreb Airport Croatia react in fighting against COVID-19 virus and what kind of measures can be implemented at other airports to ensure safe, healthy, and comfortable air travel in this “new normal” life.
 
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The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Three days later, the Spanish Government declared a state of alarm, which lasted until June 20. This state consisted of a two-month lockdown with mobility restrictions and a two-month phased easing of lockdown. This paper analyses the evolution of mobility patterns in the Region of Madrid through statistical information to study the impact of the COVID-19 crisis based on data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE). The results obtained in this paper show that, during the lockdown, trips made in the Region of Madrid fell by 70% compared to the normal scenario. However, the variations in mobility were very different in each area of the territory. For example, trips to San Sebastián de los Reyes were reduced by more than 90%, while trips from San Fernando de Henares decreased by only 30%. Once the easing of lockdown phases began, there was an increase in trips in the Region of Madrid of more than 60% compared to trips made during the lockdown. This growth was also very irregular. For example, travels from Arganda del Rey increased by more than 260%, while trips to the same municipality only increased by 13%. The mobility study is complemented with the analysis of socioeconomic variables, land use, and transport network to clarify the evolution of the different zones in the Region of Madrid during the COVID-19 crisis.
 
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This study is devoted to identifying the potential for assessing public opinion through the development of assessment tools, in the context of instability of global processes. The transport and logistics system turned out to be one of the most affected areas as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The negative consequences are based on various factors: the closure of state borders, the introduction of restrictions on the movement of people and goods, the disruption of supply chains, a decrease in demand and purchasing power. Now, during the coronovirus pandemic, much attention is paid to recording and monitoring new cases of the disease, however, the review of the literature shows that there is a lack of research on the development of tools that allow using clear criteria for assessing the current situation. In the article, for the analysis and interpretation of public opinion survey data, modeling tools are used, based on the results of which management decisions can be made.
 
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This scientific work is devoted to the analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the behavior of public transport consumers in world practice. The modern world is characterized by qualitatively new conditions for using public transport – the risk of being infected by a new coronavirus infection has a significant impact on passenger behavior. The issue of identifying social behavioral characteristics of public transport users for further adaptation of the sector under consideration to social strategies of consumer behavior is up to date. The following theoretical research methods are used in this work: analysis of statistical data of studies conducted in various countries of the world; review of scientific literature on the selected issues; classification of factors of behavior of public transport users in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results make it possible to identify trends in the behavior of public transport passengers and adjust some aspects of the functioning of public transport to increase demand for this type of transport services.
 
Danish National Travel Survey (TU), monthly averages of bicycle mode share in all trips by age group 16-74, Danish residents, N=747633 trips.  
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Denmark, as Europes second cycling nation after the Netherlands, has a cycling mode share of around 15% of all trips. Cycling was decreasing slowly through the 1990s into the 2000s, which inspired substantial investments and promotional efforts to reverse the trend. This paper uses Danish micro-level travel survey data series from 1996 through 2013 to analyze the trend in cycling as main or access mode, as well as the significance of background variables representing key spatial and societal trends. The analysis confirms that the general trend in cycling from 1996 to 2013 was negative irrespective of statistical control for socio-economics, ageing, location, urban density, and weather. Results points to an increasing significance of population density over time as well as changes to the effect of location vis-à-vis the largest urban centers. The difference in cycling between central areas and more peripheral areas is growing. Other changes include a decreasing ‘income divide’ in cycling as well as a decreasing retirement effect. Results are presented and discussed.
 
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Phase separation into a jammed phase and a free-flow phase is a well understood feature observed in vehicular traffic. Experiments have shown a similar behavior for pedestrians, though the situation is more complicated. The two separate phases in single-file pedestrian movement are a jammed high-density phase and a phase of medium to high density with slowly moving pedestrians. We propose a one-dimensional Stochastic Headway Dependent Velocity Model (SHDV) which is continuous in space but discrete in time. The velocity of each agent depends on its headway and on its velocity. The SHDV model can qualitatively reproduce the experimentally observed phase separation at high densities and the observed velocity distribution. The SHDV model provides a deeper understanding of the basic mechanism that leads to the unusual kind of phase separation observed in the experiments.
 
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The humanitarian logistics is a branch of logistics that aims to plan, schedule and control inventories of goods in an efficient and low cost way, beyond monitor the flow of goods from point of origin to point of consumption in order to meet and alleviate human suffering in vulnerable communities affected by natural disasters and complex emergencies. Humanitarian logistics plays a key role in any aid effort. Considering the importance of humanitarian logistics to the success of disaster response operations, this paper aims to capture the state of art in this field of knowledge using bibliometric methods and techniques of social network analysis. The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the studies in the field of humanitarian logistics, between the beginning of the XXI century (2001) and the present day (2014). This study aims to develop a literature review on the subject of the Humanitarian Logistics, rising information, scientific and technological knowledge, capturing the state of the art in this field of knowledge. The research is carried out by analyzing the citation and co-citation of articles leadership in humanitarian logistics research and seeks to provide valuable information about the knowledge network among studies in this area. Through the application of this statistical analysis, relevant theories, concepts and the research methods used in the area were identified, as well as topics for future research. This will enhance understanding of the subject, serving as a guide to the growth, development and dissemination of this scientific knowledge to better respond to humanitarian problems
 
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Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 - known as the Driving Time Regulation - lays down rules on driving times, breaks and rest periods for drivers of Lorries and buses to improve working conditions and road safety. A number of new amendments to this regulation were adopted on 15 July 2020. An important change has been made in connection with the extension of driving time, which may endanger road safety. The aim of the study is on the two independent types of research to verify that current regulation and the possible extension of driving time by two hours will not increase driver fatigue and risky driver behavior. The first analysis will be based on the collection of GPS data, digital tachograph data and video data of drivers faces monitored while driving. The second study will be realized on the Driving simulator SNA-211 at the University of Zilina. Data will be collected from each driver and each device and evaluated.
 
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Logistics is an important factor in global production. However, this does not mean that we know the impact of logistics on production and its efficiency in the short and long term. The content of the paper reflects the results of research conducted on the contribution of logistics to the scale efficiency of the world’s countries. This research uses a production function of the type proposed by Mankiw et al. (1992) to study the effect of logistics on scale efficiency through data envelopment analysis (DEA) for one hundred and thirty-three countries in the world during the period 2007-2018. This research establishes that logistics is an important channel for improving scale efficiency for the countries of the world in view of the estimation results. This research contributes to the literature by estimating the contribution of each of the components of the Logistics Performance Index (LPI), developed by the World Bank, to scale efficiency. The results highlight the significant impact of logistics on global efficiency. Available World Bank data show that a 1% increase in the logistics performance index increases the current global level of the efficiency scale by 0.42%.
 
Top-cited authors
George Yannis
  • National Technical University of Athens
Giuseppe Inturri
  • University of Catania
Matteo Ignaccolo
  • University of Catania
Stanislaw Iwan
  • Maritime University of Szczecin
Maria Kamargianni
  • University College London