Transport Reviews

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1464-5327
Print ISSN: 0144-1647
Publications
Videoconferencing provides an alternative means to actual face‐to‐face contact of ‘transporting’ business information. This paper develops a simple economic model to examine the comparative costs of using videoconferencing as opposed to making journeys for face‐to‐face meetings. It explores, looking at developments in both the United Kingdom and Switzerland, the actual use of videoconferencing to‐date and the factors influencing its adoption. In particular, it looks at the nature of substitutability and complementarity of videoconferencing and travel focusing on the importance of influences such as the nature of the firms involved and their internal managerial structure. There is, finally, a consideration of longer term influences on the up‐take of such telecommunications technology.
 
Car sharing, which can be defined as sharing vehicle services amongst members, thereby giving them access to a fleet of vehicles, is important in promoting the use of sustainable modes of transport. Even though the car sharing market in Germany has grown considerably in recent years, customer take-up is still relatively low. Only 0.16 % of driving licence holders in Germany have joined a car-sharing organization. As a result, the central objective of this report is to assess ways of promoting car-sharing services further. Therefore, the report begins with an investigation into the current situation in Germany, for which a survey addressing all German Car Sharing Organizations (CSOs) was conducted. Additionally, a household survey was conducted to evaluate the demand for car sharing. Finally, research into the development of car sharing in other countries was undertaken via the Internet and a brief survey to CSOs in some of those countries. Recommendations for the further development of car sharing are given on the basis of the findings from each of these studies.
 
This article investigates the role of bus rapid transit as a tool for mitigation of transport-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We analyse a Quality Bus Corridor (QBC) implemented in Dublin, Ireland, in 1999 and estimate CO2 emissions associated with differing levels of bus priority for the period 1998-2003 and for the Kyoto commitment period (2008-12). Associated monetary values are established using CO2 prices from the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. We find that, in the absence of a QBC, peak-time emissions for our sample population would have been 50% higher than in the factual scenario. For the Kyoto commitment period, we find the median value of the policy implementation to be in the region of €650000.
 
Simplified modal transfer procedure for individual car round trip
Percentage of all trips made by car in French urban areas in 1994
Supply indicators for the public transport scenarios
Potential impact of modal transfer on daily travel-time and monetary budgets Simulations based on an increase in travel-time budget with constant public transport supply
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible extent of modal shifts from car use to 'alternative modes' (public transport, cycling, walking) without any change in individual patterns of activity. Its approach is based on a transfer procedure that allows the simulation of the maximal potential market for transport modes other than the private car. The method is based on repeated iterations of a simulation model that assigns journeys to transport modes other than the automobile based on a number of improved public transport scenarios. Demand is channelled towards individual modes (walking, cycling), public transport, and a combination of individual and public modes, based on their relative time and distance performance. The modal transfer procedure is applied to several transport supply scenarios, which provide a picture of what is possible in the sphere of modal split. Each simulation entails a potential transfer of private vehicle-km to each of the other modes. Even where different public transport scenarios are simulated, the transfer is evaluated for round trips in both the Paris and Lyon surveys. There is therefore no modification in the activity pattern of the people surveyed nor trips induced by improvements in transport supply. The aim is not to predict what would be the modal split in other circumstances, but the upper limit of the shifts. This paper presents our methodology and the principal results obtained through numerical simulations based on figures for the Paris and Lyon conurbations. This approach demonstrates that a policy focused on modal shifts has the potential to reduce car use, but that this potential is limited. Any aspiration to reduce car use further would mean changes in the patterns and location of activity.
 
Railways restructuring takes place under very different circumstances and with very different goals in Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia. Observed improvements in productivity associated with vertical access and vertical separation in Western Europe are not certain to be replicated following similar restructuring in transition economies, especially if one takes account of the much higher shadow price on government subsidies in the latter. This paper describes in detail the current and proposed reforms in the railways of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia, analyzes the likely outcomes of reforms in the special economic, regulatory, and legal environments of these countries, and presents an alternative proposal for restructuring in Russia.
 
This paper reviews issues raised by the use of private firms to finance, build, and/or operate highways — issues including cost of capital, level and structure of tolls, and adaptability to unforeseen changes. The public sector’s apparent advantage in cost of capital is at least partly illusory due to differences in tax liability and to constraints on the supply of public capital. The evidence for lower costs of construction or operation by private firms is slim. Private firms are likely to promote more efficient pricing. Effective private road provision depends on well-structured franchise agreements that allow pricing flexibility, restrain market power, enforce a sound debt structure, promote transparency, and foster other social goals.
 
A Simple Recursive Structural Equations Model of Residential Location and Travel Behavior  
Detecting the True Effect of the (Continuous-valued) Built Environment on Travel Behavior under the Assumption that Attitudes Affect Both BE and TB 
Causal Inference Capability of the Different Quantitative Approaches 
Numerous studies have found that suburban residents drive more and walk less than residents in traditional neighborhoods. What is less well understood is the extent to which the observed patterns of travel behavior can be attributed to the residential built environment itself, as opposed to the prior self-selection of residents into a built environment that is consistent with their predispositions toward certain travel modes and land use configurations. To date, most studies addressing this attitudinal self-selection issue fall into nine categories: direct questioning, statistical control, instrumental variables models, sample selection models, propensity score, joint discrete choice models, structural equations models, mutually-dependent discrete choice models, and longitudinal designs. This report reviews and evaluates these alternative approaches. Virtually all of the 38 empirical studies reviewed found a statistically significant influence of the built environment remaining after self-selection was accounted for. However, the practical importance of that influence was seldom assessed. Although time and resource limitations are recognized, we recommend usage of longitudinal structural equations modeling with control groups, a design which is strong with respect to all causality requisites.
 
Types of road pricing strategies. Each row indicates a different spatial type, each column a different pricing objective, and each page a different temporal
Equity impact checklist
Are road pricing strategies regressive or progressive? This is a question that has been confronting researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers who seek to implement new mechanisms to raise funds for transportation while simultaneously managing demand. The theoretical literature is mixed, as is the empirical literature. In part this has to do with the various types of road pricing strategies that are being debated, different definitions of equity, and alternative assumptions about revenue recycling. Despite this seeming complexity, the literature is clear that equity issues are addressable. This paper provides a synthesis of the literature to date on both the theory of equity, as applied to road pricing, and the findings of empirical and simulation studies of the effects of particular implementations of road pricing, and suggested remedies for real or perceived inequities. To summarize, while there are certainly potential issues with equity associated with road pricing, those issues can be addressed with intelligent mechanism design that provides the right incentives to travelers and uses the raised revenues in a way to achieve desired equitable ends. These include cutting other taxes and investing in infrastructure and services.
 
In industrialized countries, the number of studies and surveys in the field of urban goods movement (UGM) has increased considerably over recent years. This paper compares the objectives, methods and results in this sector and focuses on nine industrialized countries of Europe, America and Asia. This non-extensive review shows that in spite of different framework methods and models, similar trends emerge at the economic and environmental levels. It is necessary to take into account urban logistics in the broadest meaning of the term. Cooperative action seems to bear fruit providing that information and dialogue take place in the long-term with all the operators involved. The development of intelligent transport systems (ITS) and better management of urban facilities may improve these attempts. We present our viewpoint in order to shed light on research oriented towards the sustainable management of urban logistics.
 
This paper reviews recent transport developments taking place in Europe. Particular attention is given to the impact of technological dynamics as reflected in the new information technology (NIT). Against this background the paper gives an overview of results and findings from four major international conferences on the impact of NIT on spatial developments and transport. There appears to be a consensus that the impact of NIT will not be dramatic and that the degree of substitutability of NIT vis‐à‐vis physical travel is limited. Peripheral areas of conurbations seem likely to be late comers in the area of NIT. However, in terms of the increase of a region's competitive position, NIT may be an important vehicle, as it may also be for logistic systems and traffic safety.
 
With several successful cases world-wide, bus rapid transit (BRT) has reemerged as a cost-effective transportation alternative for urban mobility. Despite the resurgence of BRT, there is a world-wide paucity of research examining its ability to spur and development. By estimating spatial hedonic price functions, the paper determines the extent to which access to BRT stations in Bogotá, Colombia, currently are capitalized into land values. Results suggest that for every 5 min of additional walking time to a BRT station, the rental price of a property decreases by between 6.8 and 9.3%, after controlling for structural characteristics, neighbourhood attributes and proximity to the BRT corridor. Evaluated at the average walking time to a BRT station, this effect translates into an elasticity of between - 0.16 and - 0.22. Although these estimates cannot be attributable directly to the presence of the BRT system because a cross-sectional design is used, they suggest that the land market in Bogotá values access to BRT station locations.
 
Addressing the issues of traffic safety in rural areas presents a constant challenge. The mix of light and heavy vehicles and the considerable differences in speed among these traffic participants result in high risks and delays for the faster vehicles. Agricultural vehicles (AVs) in particular have such an impact on traffic, especially when using arterial highways. This paper reviews the problems of safety and delays that AVs cause on arterial highways, and the appropriate mitigation. The concept of 'sustainable safety' in The Netherlands focuses on these problems, because of the proposed construction of parallel roads alongside all arterial highways. However, Dutch accident statistics cannot justify the high costs for the construction of parallel roads alongside 7000 km of arterial highways. Delays experienced by fast traffic are another reason for separating AVs from other road users with parallel roads. Alternative measures alongside the arterial highway, such as passing bays, restricting AVs to travelling at off-peak only and improving the conspicuity of the AVs, may be more cost-effective ways of reducing delays and/or improving traffic safety on arterial highways. Another solution may be to eliminate the need for AVs to use the arterial highway by altering their routes. For this purpose, land reallocation projects (as practised in Holland) can provide a useful tool.
 
Air traffic in the UK has increased rapidly in the past two decades and is forecast to grow at a rate of 4.3% per annum between 1998 and 2020. The failure to develop the air traffic system in order to cope with this growth has had undesirable consequences, e.g. a rise in flight delays and near misses. Given the investment required in air traffic control systems to cater for this growth, the UK government in 2000 part privatized the National Air Traffic Services (NATS), the body in charge of the UK's airspace in a public-private partnership (PPP). The UK Airline Group acquired 46% of NATS and effective operational control, though the government retains a share in NATS and safety regulation is in the public sector. However, serious doubts about safety were raised during the debate on the PPP. Similar moves towards a commercial operation (i.e. corporatization) of air navigation services have been made in New Zealand and Canada over the past decade and these provide useful insights into the results of the corporatization process. This paper analyses the main issues surrounding the part privatization of NATS. First, it highlights the experience from New Zealand and Canada of the major issues involved in corporatized air navigation services in six different categories: funding, new technology and project management, safety, pricing regime, international opportunities, and customer responsiveness. The likely impacts for NATS given the lessons from New Zealand and Canada are considered. The UK government's provisions for the PPP and their implementation in the post-PPP NATS are then outlined for these six categories. Finally, the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have had major impacts on air travel and their consequences for NATS in the six categories are highlighted. This paper concludes with some of the issues that need to be addressed to ensure the success of the PPP for NATS.
 
This paper reviews the main characteristics of the provision of urban transit systems in Cairo, namely buses, minibuses, river buses, trams and surface metros, all being currently operated by Cairo Transport Authority (CTA). It presents some generic types of indicators to compare and assess the performance of the five main urban transit systems provided by CTA. The CTA budget plan for the Financial Year 96/97 is reviewed. The absence of any form of cost modelling as an integral part of CTA budget plans is identified. Here, an attempt is made to develop cost models for the main urban transit systems operated by CTA. Four generic approaches for estimating cost models for transit services are comparatively reviewed, namely the causal factor, cost allocation, regression and temporal variation methods. Cost allocation methods are particularly applied in this research to estimate different cost models for the main transit systems operated by CTA. These models are meant to assist in predicting and showing the relative magnitude of expected changes in various cost categories, resulting from systems/services expansion or down-sizing for the transit modes operated by CTA. The development of such models is thought to contribute in raising the cost consciousness in CTA with the ultimate benefit of maximizing system efficiency.
 
An exploratory study of the prospects for congestion pricing in four Latin American metropolitan areas where traffic bans currently exist—Santiago de Chile, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Bogota—is presented. Through a historical analysis of the implementation process and experience of the traffic bans, along with a snowball-sampled survey of transportation experts in each city, three factors are found to be the most important to ensure favourable prospects for implementing congestion pricing in these cities: (1) widespread public information regarding the environmental and health risks of traffic congestion and resulting air pollution; (2) implementation of complementary policies such as public transport enhancements and increased parking fees in congested areas; and (3) development of a knowledge culture among politicians and experts through discourse on alternative road pricing policies based on systematic analysis. Among other pertinent issues discussed, the work shows that the equity concerns for low-income car drivers often cited in discussions on congestion pricing in developed countries are less applicable in the cases studied. A key concern is the lack of political will because it is people with relatively higher incomes and political influence who predominantly own and use cars in these four cities. The findings, though exploratory, are important because the potential of congestion pricing to manage the rapid pace of motorization in the developing world is not well studied. This paper presents an initial step towards studying the implementation of the policy in developing countries.
 
This paper empirically evaluates key resources and capabilities in the liner shipping context. Based on a factor analysis, three resource dimensions are identified: marine equipment, information equipment, and corporate image; whereas seven capability dimensions are identified: purchasing, operation, human resource management, customer service, information integration, pricing, and financial management. The findings suggest that operation capability is perceived as the most important dimension, followed by customer service, human resource management, information integration, pricing purchasing, and financial management. Results indicate that four dimensions are found that significantly differ between shipping companies and agencies: marine equipment, information equipment, operation, and information integration. The theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings are discussed.
 
The road sector reforms undertaken by a growing number of developing and transition countries during the past 10-20 years are described. The problems these countries share with industrialized countries and the additional factors that also affect them--large backlogs of deferred maintenance, an acute shortage of funds and dysfunctional road agencies--are also described. The paper then describes how these countries have restructured road management by separating planning and management of roads from implementation of works, provided road agencies with more autonomy, created more effective oversight, introduced annual performance agreements and turned the road agency into a more commercial organization paying market-based wages. In relation to road financing, road tolls and toll roads are touched on briefly before the new style road funds that have recently been set up in these countries are detailed. The paper then describes how they were established and their basic operating modalities--revenues only from charges related to road use (with one notable exception), no abstraction of revenues from other sectors, proactive management and oversight provided by a board of directors that includes members nominated by road users and the business community.
 
Environmental impacts related to policy measures such as transport investments are relevant for ex ante evaluations like cost-benefit analyses (CBAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and strategic environmental assessments (SEAs). However, the methodologies used in determining impacts are much less developed than those employed in estimating transport and economic impacts. The aim of the present paper is to show how rough methodologies used in current practice might lead to serious faults in estimating environmental impacts. This is followed by suggestions for improvements to these methodologies. The first suggestion is related to indicators. Since only a limited number of these are used presently, such as emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, including more indicators might prove to be helpful. Second, changes in emissions (e.g. due to regulations) are often considered for only a limited time horizon, so extending the time horizon for emission factors is therefore an important improvement. Third, sometimes emission factors from the literature or from another country/area are used, while the circumstances are not comparable; this might lead to serious faults. Using country- or region-specific data, however, will improve the quality of assessments. Fourth, one often ignores that the effects of a given emission volume depend on the distance between source and receptor. The effects due to traffic, such as particulate matter or nitrous dioxide emissions, might then have more health impacts than emissions from industrial or power plants, and be reason enough to include these aspects as well. Fifth, it is suggested that categories of goods are broken down to determine freight modes, since lorries currently transport goods with a lower specific gravity (kilograms/volume unit) than those transported by rail and barge. The sixth suggestion calls for inclusion of indirect energy use and emissions resulting from the construction of vehicle and infrastructure. While some recommendations can be implemented relatively easily in ex ante evaluations, others will need further research.
 
This paper presents an overview of some recent developments in and policy issues relating to integrated transport systems in the European Union (EU). Both goods and passenger transport systems are considered in the context of actions recently undertaken and supported by the EU. The paper considers the very general background of these systems at the EU scale and offers insights into some recent successful and promising policy, real-life, and research attainments. In addition, it attempts to identify some directions for future actions in fields such as transport policy, transport technology, transport economics and transport scenarios.
 
This paper provides an analysis of the role and development of international freight transport in Lithuania since independence from the Former Soviet Union in 1991. It reviews the current situation with regards to the movement of container traffic in particular, and uses the predominant international trade flow between Germany and Lithuania as an example. Discussion also centres around an assessment of the current situation of the three surface modes of sea, rail and road transport, the likely prospects of future developments in the context of European Union (EU) initiatives including those under the PAN European road scheme, and the impact of Lithuania's impending entry into the EU.
 
Percentage of costs covered by fares and commercial sources for European cities. 
Probit model of the probability of using urban public transport. 
Urban public transport expenditure. 
Subsidies relative to the average fare, 1990*. 
Redistributive e€ects of urban public transport subsidies (standard household). 
This paper analyses the redistributive effects generated by the subsidization of urban public transport services. We estimate a two-stage model that takes into account both car ownership decisions and expenditure in urban public transport. In this way, we are able to measure the long run effects of income changes. Under the assumption that the user is the final beneficiary of the subsidies, and computing the share of the fare that is subsidized, we measure the progressiveness of the subsidies for different income groups and city sizes. Urban public transport subsidies are shown to be progressive. In larger urban areas this effect is considerably more important than in small ones.
 
The paper provides a comprehensive review of a large amount of previously unpublished British evidence about the valuation of new railway rolling stock and its effects on demand. An important conclusion is that incentives to bias Stated Preference responses and unfamiliarity with the rolling stock being considered have led to inflated values. This has broader implications for the use of Stated Preference techniques. Also provided is fresh empirical evidence for a range of different types of rolling stock and specific rolling stock attributes. A novel aspect of the research was the use of disaggregate Revealed Preference choice data. The estimated rolling stock values are much lower than those obtained from previous studies.
 
Analysing changes in the professional environment of experts in urban transport throws light on the evolution and aims of planning in France. Here the 1970s were characterized by active town planning combined with revival of public transport. New ways of appraising the restructuring of networks and of towns evolved under the influence in particular of experts who acted as intermediaries on social and economic factors involved in local decision‐making. These experts had dual professional loyalties, central and local. They drew their cultural basis as much from the technocratic rationalism of immediate post‐war economic planning as from the libertarian and ecological social movements of the 1970s. The theory of democratic, decentralized and contractual planning which took shape during the 1970s was institutionalized in the 1980s in the form of the Urban Travel Plans. However, this took place in the context of deregulation and illustrates the ambiguous environment of the experts.
 
Ageing of the population, urban sprawl and car dependency will change travel patterns. The main objective of this paper is to give elements for a better understanding of the impact of changing demographics on the long term evolution of daily mobility using demographic-based models to forecast, for the elderly population, car-ownership, trip frequency, distance traveled, average trip distance. A second objective is to measure the impact of the long term tendencies observed on the appearance of new needs of travel demand such as a rapid increase of demand-responsive transport. The paper compares two agglomerations, both in a strong ageing process, but in quite different sociocultural contexts: a large European metropolis: Paris, and a medium sized north-american city: Montreal. Many common conclusions derived from the two different cases studies reinforce the possibility of generalizing the conclusions to other situations.
 
This paper presents a methodology for evaluating city logistics initiatives using a dynamic traffic simulation with optimal routing and scheduling. This methodology was applied to a test road network. The performance of three city logistics initiatives, advanced routing and scheduling systems, cooperative freight transport systems and load factor controls were assessed in terms of total costs and CO2 emissions by pickup/delivery trucks operations within the network. Results indicated that these initiatives were not only effective for reducing total costs, but also for CO2 emissions. The methodology presented here allows city planners to quantitatively evaluate city logistics initiatives.
 
Evolution of regional and urban population in North Korea
Main trading partners of North Korea, 2001-2005 (Unit: millions US$)
Basic territorial characteristics of North Korea and neighbouring countries, 1995-2005
Infrastructure characteristics of North Korean ports
Traditional functions of North Korean port cities
This paper analyses the interplay of transport and development in North Korea, one of the most state-controlled and underdeveloped countries of the world. While broader aspects have been well described by various studies, logistics have been given little attention as permissive or restrictive factors in the country's development. Despite the recent reforms and the growth of trade, the development of North Korea is confronted to the weaknesses of the transport system and inland logistics. An analysis of vessel movements at North Korean ports (1985-2006) shows that although coastal economies may increasingly use maritime transport to overcome inland blockages, the evolution of port traffics better reflects broader trends such as general economic decline, westward shift of populations, and the polarization of economic activities around Pyongyang area. Beside those trends, the research also estimates the importance of maritime transport in North Korean trade and it provides a base upon which further studies can be conducted, so as to better evaluate the place of North Korea among transport studies
 
Mobility declines with increasing age, reflecting the onset of physical or mental infirmity, affordability of travel for those on retirement incomes, and the mal-design of the transport infrastructure and operational arrangements. With the prospect of a rapidly ageing population, it is important to address measures to promote mobility if the quality of life of older people is to be sustained. In the UK, pensioners on low incomes, who could be hindered in their travel by the cost of fares on public transport, benefit from the general availability of half price (or better) concessionary fares for local travel. A variety of measures are in place to counter the effects of age-associated disabilities that hinder mobility, including low floor buses, subsidised taxis and community transport schemes. The Disability Discrimination Act is ensuring that public services vehicles are accessible to older people with disabilities. The motor car is of increasing importance in later life, particularly for those with disabilities, and a variety of design and technological approaches are being brought to bear to maintain the mobility of older people. These various efforts undoubtedly enhance the mobility of older people. However, beyond that broad conclusion it is hard to make evidencebased judgements. There is therefore a pressing need to develop methods to evaluate developments in policy and practice.
 
Spatial distribution of the monitoring stations. Source: Authors' own elaboration using information from SESMA (1998). 
Number of families on each per-capita income strata 
Subjective values by income segment (t-statistics) 
Social values 
A new methodology for the estimation of social values of urban air pollution for project appraisal is proposed. This is performed by using individual perceptions (marginal disutilities) of those who are directly affected by this externality, which are then transformed into social values using the social welfare approach developed by Gálvez and Jara‐Díaz in 19987. Gálvez , T. and Jara‐Díaz , S. R. 1998. On the social valuation of travel time savings. International Journal of Transport Economics, 25: 205–290. View all references. The approach also unveils the implicit social bias behind the commonly accepted willingness‐to‐pay measures. The method is illustrated using individual perceptions obtained from stated preference experiments within the context of residential location including three attributes: an objective measure of air pollution by zone of the city, an index of family accessibility to work and study, and the monthly rent. Discrete residential choice models were estimated by income group, from which indirect utility functions were obtained. Marginal disutilities were used to obtain social values of air pollution for each income group by means of the calculation of a social utility of money. The methodological underpinnings and difficulties of the approach are specially highlighted. The need to establish a national programme for the estimation of social values is emphasized.
 
This article was published in the journal Transport reviews [© Taylor & Francis]. The definitive version is available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/tf/01441647.html This paper reports an innovative application of stated preference techniques to derive values of aircraft noise by time of day and day of week. Revealed preference techniques cannot provide such segmentations which would clearly be of use in policy development especially relating to airport operations. Given the lack of research on this issue the work reported here is highly experimental. Two stated preference experiments were designed. The first focussed on a single time period whilst the second asked respondents to trade between time periods. Both approaches yielded results that are plausible and mutually consistent in terms of relative values by time period. We conclude that stated preference techniques are particularly useful in this context where the use of aggregated values may lead to non-optimal policy decisions.
 
US airports negotiate legally binding contracts with airlines and finance large investment projects with revenue bonds. Applying insights from transaction cost economics, we argue that the observed variation in contractual and financing arrangements at US airports corresponds to the parties’ needs for safeguarding and coordination. The case evidence presented reveals that public owners set the framework for private investments and contracting. We suggest that airline contracts and capital market control result in comparative efficient investments and act as a check on the cost inefficiency typically linked to public ownership.
 
This is Restricted Access. The article was published in the journal, Transport Reviews [© Taylor and Francis] is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144164042000218409 With increasing levels of congestion at the major cargo hubs and further restrictions on noise and night-time flying, freighter operators’ airport choice is a complex and important issue. The aim is to identify the factors that affect the airport choice of freighter operators through a review of the published literature. The literature reviewed includes work relating to passenger hub location, airport quality and airline network configuration, and other works relating to airport choice to paint a full picture of the current research in this area. The literature shows that freighter operators initially choose a shortlist of possible airports based on geography and then investigate any restrictions in place, such as capacity caps or noise limits that might block operations from that airport. Only when these hurdles have been cleared do freighter operators consider attributes of airport quality such as charges and terminal facilities, as well as other influences such as freight forwarder presence and airport marketing. Of particular prominence is the impact of legislation on airport choice. Restricted access
 
Critical Comparison of Time Dependent Shortest Path Algorithms
A multimodal trip planner that produces optimal journeys involving both public transport and private vehicle legs has to solve a number of shortest path problems, both on the road network and the public transport network. The algorithms that are used to solve these shortest path problems have been researched since the late 1950s. However, in order to provide accurate journey plans that can be trusted by the user, the variability of travel times caused by traffic congestion must be taken into consideration. This requires the use of more sophisticated time-dependent shortest path algorithms, which have only been researched in depth over the last two decades, from the mid-1990s. This paper will review and compare nine algorithms that have been proposed in the literature, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm on the basis of five important criteria that must be considered when choosing one or more of them to implement in a multimodal trip planner.
 
This paper will focus on factors that should be included for macro modelling of submicrometre particle emissions. Macro models give the overall level of emissions for a group of vehicles using statistics such as vehicle-km travelled and average speeds. The paper is structured as follows: first, the nature of particles and the problems this poses for emissions modellers is examined. The factors that affect particle formation at the macro level are then examined and areas where more research is required are discussed. Following this, general methods for modelling emissions are discussed before a review of particle models and an analysis of two of the major models. Given the findings of this review, a new model is proposed that aims to help overcome some of the problems identified with pre-existing particle models. (A)
 
Transport appraisals in European countries increasingly address three dimensions of sustainability—economic, ecological and social. However, social impacts of transport have been underexposed in (ex-ante) transport project appraisal, at least in the Netherlands. Firstly, this article presents a theoretical framework describing the relationships between determinants of social impacts of transport; it also provides a definition and categorization of those impacts. Secondly, the article reviews the state of the practice of national transport project appraisal in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The article shows that social impacts of transport investments can take on many forms and their levels of importance may vary widely, in project appraisal. The UK transport appraisal guidance includes a spectrum of social impacts through quantitative and qualitative assessments that is broader than the Dutch appraisal guidance. However, it does not cover the full range as identified in the literature. This holds, in particular, for the temporary impacts of transport investments, health impacts, social cohesion, the distribution and accumulation of impacts across population groups and social justice. All in all, it can be concluded that there is a long way to go before social impacts of transport projects are completely included in appraisals, in a way that allows us to compare them to economic and ecological effects. To get to the article above, please click on Journals, click on Publications A-Z, click on Transport Reviews, click on Vol 29, click on Issue 1, click on Social impacts of transport.
 
Numerous research studies have elicited willingness-to-pay values for transport-related noise, however, in many industrialised countries including the UK, noise costs and benefits are still not incorporated into appraisals for most transport projects and policy changes (Odgaard et al, 2005; Grant-Muller et al, 2001). This paper describes the actions recently taken in the UK to address this issue, comprising: primary research based on the city of Birmingham; an international review of willingness-to-pay evidence; development of values using benefit transfers over time and locations; and integration with appraisal methods. Amongst the main findings are: that the willingness-to-pay estimates derived for the UK are broadly comparable with those used in appraisal elsewhere in Europe; that there is a case for a lower threshold at 1 45dB(A)Leq,18hr1 rather than the more conventional 55dB(A); and that values per dB(A) increase with the noise level above this threshold. There are significant issues over the valuation of rail versus road noise, the neglect of non-residential noise and the valuation of high noise levels in different countries. Conclusions are drawn regarding the feasibility of noise valuation based on benefit transfers in the UK and elsewhere, and future research needs in this field are discussed.
 
Publicación ISI Email : basso@sauder.ubc.ca Many surveys have attempted to convey and synthesize the information of hundreds of studies on automobile fuel demand. In most cases, the focus has been placed in giving assessments of the most likely values of various elasticities, particularly price and income, while trying to explain the differences between results. However, given the summary characteristic of these surveys, the most popular approaches and methodologies-such as dynamic reduced-form demand models with time-series data-have dominated the core values obtained. The present survey focuses instead on the various approaches and methods that have been used. It reviews and classifies them, showing that there are relevant findings, raised by studies using less popular approaches, which seem to challenge some of the accepted core results in the literature. These other approaches include: co-integration techniques, use of disaggregate data at the household level and flexible functional forms, and structural models of automobile fuel consumption.
 
This paper reviews the main studies on transit users' route choice in the context of transit assignment. The studies are categorized into three groups: static transit assignment, within-day dynamic transit assignment, and emerging approaches. The motivations and behavioural assumptions of these approaches are re-examined. The first group includes shortest-path heuristics in all-or-nothing assignment, random utility maximization route-choice models in stochastic assignment, and user equilibrium based assignment. The second group covers within-day dynamics in transit users' route choice, transit network formulations, and dynamic transit assignment. The third group introduces the emerging studies on behavioural complexities, day-to-day dynamics, and real-time dynamics in transit users' route choice. Future research directions are also discussed.
 
The comparative superiority of shipping services with respect to atmospheric emissions per ton-km is beyond debate in the case of deep sea and bulk operations. The case for short sea shipping in a setting with small consignments and frequent port-calls needs to be demonstrated relative to road transport alternatives, in particular when cargo markets are fluctuating. The empirical part of this article is based on detailed shipment-level data from a current European short sea operation and data from engine reports on actual fuel consumption. The dataset enables the construction of a high-quality origin–destination matrix of pallet-based shipments. A contrafactual case of an alternative trucking operation serving this comprehensive set of shipments is constructed, and CO2 equivalent emissions to air are calculated and analysed under different scenarios. This comparative analysis illustrates just how efficient a modern short sea shipping operation needs to be in order to compete with road transport with respect to air emissions. The analysis suggests that such a pallet-based short sea shipping operation may be superior to trucking alternatives when it comes to carbon emissions under given circumstances, but not always.
 
In 1981, the current author published a review of rail policy and performance in Western Europe (Nash, 1981). A 3 month visit to Australia in the Autumn of 1982 gave the opportunity to extend this comparison to the railways of Australia. Since transport is predominantly a state function in Australia, there are five major publicly-owned rail systems to consider (Table I), each with its own distinct characteristics and each facing a different policy framework. Thus the exercise is much more like a repeat of the European study on a smaller scale than the addition of a single country to the sample.
 
The ongoing process of port reform has led to an increasing number of publicly owned but corporatised port authorities (PAs). The performance effects of corporatisation have been analysed, for example, for the airports industry, often showing positive effects. This paper reviews the literature on port reform and the relationship between port governance structures and performance. It also presents a first case study on the effects of corporatisation of PAs, namely for the Port of Rotterdam Authority, a publicly owned but corporatised port development company. In 2004, this organisation was transformed from a municipal department to an independently operating company. The performance indicators to evaluate the effect of this corporatisation include market share, turnover, operating costs, profits, and investments. These indicators are evaluated for two periods, one prior to the corporatisation (1997–2003) and the other afterwards (2005–11). The comparison of these two periods shows that corporatisation has led to significant improvements of all performance indicators. The findings derived from this case study are relevant for the ongoing discussion on port governance models.
 
This is Restricted Access. The article was published in the journal, Transport Reviews [© Taylor and Francis] is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441649608716940 Cambridge is a small free standing city in the UK with a population of 105 000. In recent years it has endured a worsening congestion problem essentially as a result of employment growth within the city and the narrow street layout. This is not a unique problem but one which is particularly acute in historic cities. In 1990, Congestion Metering was advanced, in addition to a number of other measures, as a means of managing traffic demand within the city. It has generated a great deal of interest internationally, particularly the field trial which took place in October 1993. This was the first time that any form of road pricing had been demonstrated practically in the UK. The aim of this article is to provide a review, establishing why the idea of Congestion Metering was originally considered and why, at least in the short to medium term, it is unlikely to be implemented in a Cambridge context. The process by which, if adopted, it is envisaged that Congestion Metering would be introduced is outlined, and the relative merits and potential weaknesses of such a demand management measure. Finally, the author considers the real problem of 'public scepticism' which needs to be addressed if Congestion Metering is to avoid the pitfalls which have bedevilled other road pricing schemes world-wide. Restricted access
 
New trends in container shipping activities operating in the Mediterranean region represent an interesting process now underway, which induces socio-economic development of the region as a whole. This work examines the causes of the containerization process within the Mediterranean basin and pays particular attention to the recent evolution of ports. It identifies two specific categories of ports now in operation in the basin for container traffic. Moreover, it analyses the reason for the recent upsurge in development and growth of transhipment ports. In this context, an understanding of the policy, economy, and technological frameworks and approaches that have been, and continue to be, the backbone for ongoing development of modern Mediterranean shipping activity allows one to outline strategies for future development of the basin.
 
Slow-moving vehicles, including agricultural vehicles, on arterial highways can cause serious delays to other traffic as well as posing an extra safety risk. This paper elaborates on a small-scale solution for these problems: the passing bay. It investigates the impacts of a passing bay on the total delay for other motorized vehicles, the number of passing manoeuvres and hindered vehicles, and the mean delay per hindered vehicle. The latter is also considered to be an indicator for traffic safety. The calculations are performed for two characteristic trips with a slow-moving vehicle. The passing bay is an effective solution to reducing delays on arterial highways when two-way hourly volumes exceed 600¿1000 vehicles. The effects depend on the trip length and speed of the slow-moving vehicle, and on the passing sight distance limitations of the road. A distance of 2¿4?km between the passing bays seems an acceptable compromise between the reduction of delay for other motorized vehicles and the extra discomfort and delay for drivers of slow-moving vehicles. This result also shows that passing bays are not effective in regions where slow-moving vehicles mainly make trips shorter than this distance
 
The paper addresses the issue of consistency between two commonly employed stated preference data—referendum contingent valuation (CV) and discrete choice modelling (CM)—with respect to estimated distributions of individual willingness-to-pay (WTP) for non-market goods. The policy context is that of a local externality: effective speed reduction by means of traffic-calming in towns crossed by fast roads. In particular, data from two independent samples of the same population are contrasted. The findings show that both methods indicate that speed reduction via traffic-calming is valued in a polarized fashion. Results from both methods are consistent with the presence of two groups of preferences: a larger group holding positive values and a smaller one with non-positive values. While the estimates of the relative proportions of the two groups are similar across the two data sources, once the econometric analysis of the CM responses allows for polarized preferences the estimates of the distribution of individual WTP differ substantially. The results from the choice modelling survey indicate that residents are also willing to pay for other benefits from traffic-calming, such as noise reduction and a decreased waiting time for crossing, but preferences for these are also polarized, with WTP for aesthetic improvements being positive only for those supporting effective speed control. In comparing distributions of value estimates from CM and CV, surveys practitioners should account for the effects of taste heterogeneity over externalities and take advantage of the ability to derive individual-specific WTP estimates from panel estimation rather than simply deriving estimates for common features of the WTP distribution.
 
Indicators of walkability 
Wayfinding and orientation effectiveness in transport facilities 
Studies on cognitive models 
Studies on evacuation models for transport stations 
Pedestrians are currently attracting the interest of various researchers and practitioners, particularly urban and transport planners. Analysis of the pedestrian behavior, environment and modeling has been carried out in diverse instances in the context of pedestrian planning. This paper seeks to identify the content of each of these three research areas and designate the linkages that connect their interests providing insights into planning indoor pedestrian facilities. To achieve this objective, a review of the literature on pedestrians walking indoors and indoor pedestrian environments was conducted. Understanding pedestrian behavior is fundamental in the pedestrian planning process. Principles of decision-making, cognition, wayfinding and flows were studied. When analyzing the pedestrian environment, Space Syntax and wayfinding analysis were found to be established methods that are an integral part of this field. Finally, the majority of the existing modeling approaches were identified. It was found that despite the dynamic evolution of each area, the integration of different research perspectives is weak. The paper concluded with the proposal of a mindmap which brings together all the concepts found in the literature and which should be explored for a more comprehensive planning of indoor pedestrian facilities.
 
This paper provides a comprehensive review of travel-time budget (TTB) studies in the literature for about the past four decades. Starting with the concept of TTBs, it discusses both the studies that support the existence of TTB and also those that deem the concept to be unfounded. Sociodemographic variables and their relation to TTB are also discussed briefly. However, as past studies use different data sources, survey techniques, and methodology for analysis, cross comparison of studies is not possible. Most importantly, the underlying cause of the regularity that is found at an aggregate level is still not known. The idea of TTB is important because, if it exists, it would mean that the total time spent on travelling per person per day will remain unchanged in spite of all improvements to transport. TTB has immense implications for transport policies and it is usually ignored. The paper also explores the available theoretical explanation of this concept, past research gaps and new analysis potentials. Recent directions in TTB studies are also discussed together with the potential use of multiday multiyear panel data in TTB research to explore the phenomenon better than before.
 
Top-cited authors
John Pucher
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Ralph Buehler
  • Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Susan Handy
  • University of California, Davis
Patricia L Mokhtarian
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
Jason Cao
  • University of Minnesota Twin Cities