Transactions of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering

Published by Japan Society of Kansei Engineering
Online ISSN: 1884-5258
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Article
Designers consider cars' proportions using their past experiences and knowledges. However, designers may not search for all patterns of proportion satisfy requirements. In this paper, we aimed to clarify relationships between mini-cars' proportion items and users' impressions. First, we clarified correlations among the proportion items of existing 25 mini-cars using principal component analysis, and created 9 mini-cars' images using the design of experiments. Second, we conducted impression evaluation experiments for 95 subjects using the images. As a result, we clarified relationships between the proportion items and subjects' impressions. Third, we classified subjects into 6 clusters using the difference of their preferences, and clarified the patterns of proportion items that each cluster's subjects feel attractive. Finally, we conducted the evaluation re-experiment for 2 clusters' 20 subjects using the images with the patterns of proportion items preferred by them. As a result, we found strong correlations between mini-cars' heights and their preferences.
 
Article
This paper proposes a new business search model (Mirror-method) using IP landscape (also called “Patent Landscape”). The purpose of the Mirror-method is to enable even general employees who belong to the intellectual property department of a company to search for new business themes quickly and easily. The Mirror-method has two features: 1) focusing on cited applications from non-competitors, and 2) focusing on the company’s core competence. As a pilot study, applying to searching the cosmetics business, which was new business for FUJIFILM in 2000s, this paper shows the Mirror-method works effectively.
 
Article
Transactions of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering Vol.15, No.4, pp.523-529 (2016) [Addition] p.524, Left column, 11th line from the top : 本報の研究は,先行研究 [18] の方法を元に実施した.(in Japanese) p.524, Left column, Figure 1, Caption : 漆製品の一例 [18] (in Japanese) p.524, Right column, Figure 2, Caption : FRPサンプルの積層構成 [18] (in Japanese) p.524, Right column, Figure 3, Caption : FRPサンプルの外観 [18] (in Japanese) p.524, Right column, Figure 4, Caption : 漆サンプルの外観 [18] (in Japanese) p.525, Left column, Figure 5, Caption : 分光測色計CM-2600dの測定原理 [18] (in Japanese) p.526, Left column, Figure 7, Caption : 漆サンプルとFRPサンプルのL* [18] (in Japanese) p.526, Left column, Figure 8, Caption : 漆サンプルとFRPサンプルのa* [18] (in Japanese) p.526, Left column, Figure 9, Caption : 漆サンプルとFRPサンプルのb* [18] (in Japanese) p.526, Left column, Figure 10, Caption : 漆サンプルとFRPサンプルのc* [18] (in Japanese) p.528, Left column, References : [18] Kiyoshi Fujiwara, Erika Suzuki, Tetsuo Kikuchi, Takashi Furukawa, Takahiro Suzuki, Atsushi Endo, Yutaro Shimode, Yuka Takai, Yuqiu Yang: Colorimetry and Impression Evaluation of Insert Molded GFRP Plate with Black Silk Fabrics. Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management: Human Modeling (6th International Conference, DHM 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Proceedings, Part I), (9184), pp.256-266, 2015.
 
Article
We proposed KANSEI evaluation method using new 13 evaluative words which can evaluate an impression that viewers receive from high-definition large-sized images. Using this method, we compared different impression between 4K and 2K image. As a result, the validity of the proposed method was verified by reasonable experimental results such as an impression of “feeling of material” increases as the viewing distance decreases. We also considered the viewing environment and image production technique suitable for a high-definition and large-size images from the result of different viewing distances and materials.
 
Article
From the previous paper, many problems about a fashion image term were shown. In this paper, I investigated the difference in evaluation of the fashion image term by nationality. I compared with the thing the image term in which the fashion photograph of 40 in the image term of 11 was chosen by 98 young South Korean women by the young 109 Japanese woman. As a result, while over 60% of Japanese subjects chose the same image terms for eight photographs, South Korean subjects selected for only three photographs. It was found that there was variation in the selected image terms on images of fashion style among the South Korean subjects. It analyzed using Hayashi's quantification methods class III. Although both were classified into four principal components, they differed from those of Japanese subjects regarding the styles belonging to each principal component and interpretation.
 
Article
ErratumTransactions of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering Vol.12, No.2, p.335-341 (2013)TitleIncorrect: ( in Japanese )Correct: ( in Japanese )Author's NamesIncorrect: HeeKyoung OH, Tamura TERUKO and Taeko HIROKAWACorrect: HeeKyoung OH, Teruko TAMURA and Taeko HIROKAWA
 
Article
In the present study, the subjective evaluation experiment for abstract 3D shapes was conducted as the first step of construction of a system that allows non-design-professional users to design 3D shapes via subjective evaluation words intuitively. In particular, the structure of the subjective evaluation for 3D shapes and the reliability of the evaluation by non-design-professionals were examined. The results showed three-factor solution in which “Uniformity,” “Activity” and “Potency” factors were important evaluative standards in the subjective evaluation for 3D shapes. These factors are similar to Osgood's three factors, which were frequently reported factors in previous semantic differential studies. Furthermore, the subjective evaluations by non-design-professionals were generally consistent, which means that, with respect to the subjective evaluation, non-design-professionals without high level of design skills can evaluate 3D shapes in a reliable way.
 
Article
The main purpose of this paper is to develop an easy-to-use smartphone case with “fall prevention function”. It shows as a remarkable point that our developed technique of determining the grip form reflecting the traditional craftsmanship verifies for the made-to-order wooden products. It also provides the experimental result of wooden smartphone case using electromyography (EMG). The experiment consists of two cases, with using a smart phone case and not it. Then, it compared with these two cases, the result of measuring the amplitude of gripping forces. The experiment suggests that using the smartphone case relatively clearly that applies significantly less gripping force, so that prevents dropping a smartphone. The experiment suggests that using the smartphone case it applies significantly less gripping force. It will provide a new guideline of the universal design as a case study of Kansei/affective engineering regarding human grip.
 
Article
When we play three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) video games of third-person point of view, we can usually control both an avatar and a camera. There are some enemy characters in the CG game world, and we often lose contact with an enemy after the avatar collides with it. In this paper, we propose a camera control system that the view point makes a half turn in a horizontal direction after the avatar collides with the enemy. The camera shows both of the avatar and the enemy from the backside of the avatar. In addition, we propose a representation technique that obstacles make translucent to avoid occlusion when the avatar collides with the enemy. As a result of subjective evaluation experiment, it was shown that the visual effects of the proposed techniques useful to enhance affective impressions. Therefore, we think that the proposed techniques contribute to qualities of action video games.
 
Article
This study aims to produce more attractive front grills that matched the design to the customer’s kansei in each nation. In this paper, the visual impression observed in the front grills of Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) have been investigated by using 3D computer graphics and compared the effect of design types on the visual impression between Japanese and Thai consumers. Twenty-four front grills from four design types: vertical-lined type, horizontal-lined type, v-shaped type, and mesh type, were created, and four adjectives: ‘special’, ‘luxury’, ‘aggressive’, and ‘advanced’, were selected for this experiment. The visual impression for each front grill was evaluated by Rating Scale method ranging from 0 to 30. As a result, it was clear that the feeling of ‘aggressive’ is improved as the width of straight metallic parts becomes thicker, and mesh type is effective for the feeling of ‘special’ and ‘advanced’ of Thais, for instance. These results will be useful for manufacturers to propose more attractive products that match the preference of local consumers.
 
Article
This paper aims to consider the influence of technique for the children's sensibility by comparison and analysis models made by different constructional way; “tying” and “jointing”. As the method, we held a workshop of modeling a “secure house” at 1/20 scale with the third graders of primary school, and they made models with “tying” and “jointing” respectively. After the workshop, the children drew their models with explanations. As the analysis, we morphologically analyzed the models by the floor levels and the structure types, and semantically words with KJ method. As a result, in “tying”, as more primitive construction technique, its most important facility was a bed to sleep. On the other hand, in “jointing”, as more sophisticated technique, their adventurous sense has increased. That is, the difference of constructive technique evokes the sensual duality of security and adventure.
 
Article
This paper aims to consider the Kansei of the fourth graders of the elementary school to the public space through the analysis of the environmental estimation and the proposal by means of the use of Five Senses' icons and Thanks icons. The method can be categorized into three stages, the first being the conduction of the fieldwork and workshop about security in their school route and around school. In the workshop, students make suggestions about the security of a well-known city. The second being the collection of the result data discriminated in quantitative terms in order to understand their tendency and the third stage being the qualitative consideration of the proposed typical. According to the analysis during the estimation phase by the fourth graders of the elementary school, it is revealed that Thanks icons bring about the positiveness of the children.
 
Article
We investigated the influence on the physiological response of clothing pressure from a fastened waist belt under several luminance conditions. Brain activity and autonomic nerve activity were evaluated by electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram measurements. From the results, in the case of high luminance, the brain wave has a tendency to shift to fast wave activity, and the autonomic nerve activity response to stimuli of pressure sensation was striking. When the luminance was lowered at the same time that the clothing pressure was applied, the pressure sensation had a greater influence than the visual sensation on the physiological response. When the luminance was heightened, the visual sensation had greater influence than the pressure sensation. From the viewpoint of homeostasis, when evaluating stress using autonomic nerve activity, we should not make the judgment that increases in parasympathetic nerve activity are relaxed conditions, but should consider stress as changes from the normal conditions.
 
Article
When we make an innovation, we have to modify a philosophical view of the world on which our thought and conduct base tacitly. However, we are confronted by two difficulties in order to do such an innovation. The first is an ontological problem that we cannot deal with artifacts, which is an amalgamation of matter and spirit, in the traditional ontology. The second is a logical and epistemological problem that we cannot evaluate a hypothesis making process in the traditional formal logic and the modern epistemology. This paper presents a forecast that a recent philosophical issue ‘Ontology of Artifacts’ would be the key to solve the former and ‘Abduction’ would be the key for the latter. In examining such a forecast, we find that an innovative process in the fashion design provides a notable example. We conclude that those observations and considerations will contribute to establish the Science of Innovation.
 
Article
Implementation of training system of the ability to plan and manage social consensus building projects at the level of local government officials have already started all over the country. However, the consciousness of officials for social consensus building has not yet been grasped. This study will show the analysis of questionnaire by newly employed officials in Hiroshima prefecture. The purpose of the study is to make a suggestion toward the subject of acquiring the ability for the local officials to make a collaborative work with multi stakeholders.
 
Article
Typically, it is difficult to transmit visual images in words. The transmission of the visual image includes various information. Therefore, efficient communication is necessary. In this research, we focused on the relationship between onomatopoeia and modalism, and conducted a survey to measure the distance. We asked for general group and design skill holding group. Transmission of visual image in communication, we collected 200 words of onomatopoeia that are frequently used. Then we carried out relevance research on sensory modality, using the MD (Modal Differential) method. Then, we conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis and the semantic structure analysis which is called as SS analysis. As a result, we drew the SS graph for each cluster, which shows the relevance and order-related structure. The results were compared between the general group and the design skill preservation group, and discussions were made on the differences depending on the attributes of the subjects.
 
Article
Pictograms attract attention in supporting the non-verbal communication and using of interface icon. The existing pictograms are basically painted in monochrome. It was clarified from existing studies that we could clear the mean of pictograms using color expression. However, there were few studies which analyzed the relation between comprehensibility and color express of pictograms and few useful design indexes when painting colors of the pictogram. Then, this study aims to analyze comprehensibility of the pictograms using color expression and to abstract the visual languages. The visual languages are visual elements that composing the design of pictograms communicating information visually. Concretely, we clarified typical colors and color combinations of morphological elements in 20 pictograms conveying meanings of verbs. On the basis of this result, we investigated the relation between comprehensibility and color expression of pictograms by experimental design method. And, we abstracted the visual languages for painting colors of the pictogram and verified its usefulness. As a result, we have clarified the usefulness of some visual languages. However, the comprehensibility of some pictograms was decreased by colorization, we considered characteristics of those color expression.
 
Article
Field of Visual Perception (FVP) has been attracted as a method for quantitative evaluation of impression. In recently, FVP for digital images has been proposed, and the effectiveness has been confirmed. However, FVP has not been applied widely on the field of image processing by two reasons: (1) the calculation cost is too high, and (2) only calculation model for binary images has been established and it cannot be applied to grayscale images. This paper first proposes an acceleration method for increasing practicality. Next, instead of grayscale image, we verify the correctness and the effectiveness of applying FVP to halftone image, which is binary image converted from grayscale image without discomfort. The experimental results showed that the calculation cost decreased to 0.01% at least. Moreover, the results of applying FVP to halftone images showed both of the difficulties and the potentialities for evaluating impression.
 
Article
With the evolution of technology, the role of online product purchasing and information seeking has become more critical. Although there have been analyses of this process using questionnaires, none of these studies have used actual behavioral data. This study analyzes the information-seeking behavior that contributes to purchasing products on EC sites using users’ access log data captured by a research company. As a result of analyzing 100 pages of the website before visiting the EC site, it finds that it is significant to browse the one’s pages to purchase. The combination of the websites to be browsed is also essential, and it confirms that browsing three types of sites - search site, shopping mall EC site, and the one’s EC site - is significant for purchasing.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to find effective design elements to make maps easy to use for people with poor directional ability. We conducted comparative experiments using 12 types of existing maps. 58 subjects tried to find their ways using several maps in large spaces such as shopping malls and stations with rather complex structures. After observing their behaviors, we conducted interviews to clarify supportive design elements of maps to find ways. As a result, we found some effective design elements such as vivid color tones, the right angle of bird's-eye-view, the right degree of deformation of illustrations, readable design from upside down position when maps are rotated, for example. We also found two important requirements of map design; (1) landmarks on maps should be easily collated with real landmarks, (2) relations between different stories of the building should be clearly described.
 
Article
In a virtual reality (VR) environment, users often control virtual bodies. While having a body is likely to promote a feeling of presence, does an invisible body make users lose the feeling? Using a head mounted display and 360-degree camera shooting pseudo image, we constructed a situation where participants can walk “with an invisible body.” The camera was moved in accordance with the participant’s walking and was hung at the height of the participant’s line of sight, so the participants felt walking in the virtual space freely. We tested a feeling of presence in the proprietary developed VR with/without obstacle in the image and found that the feeling of presence was maintained even in the situation when they virtually “transmitted” the obstacle. Our findings suggest that consistent somatosensory-vestibular-visual stimuli during walking are accompanied with the feeling of presence even when a body was not presented.
 
Music list of wave file
Article
This paper describes an investigation result as to how the audio signal (i.e., sound and music) gives feeling impression to us and how the impression changes, depending on the distribution of power spectrum in Fourier domain of the audio input signal. In this investigation, we use three kinds of parameters accompanying the calculation of the signals' fluctuation degree. Then we examine the relationship between the parameters and affective impression, by using questionnaire survey. And also, from the viewpoint of feeling impression, we try to classify the sound signal by the values of three kinds of parameters.
 
Article
In this paper, we carried out a subjective evaluation on the perceptual difference in female speech to show the gender difference in its likability and analyzed a relationship between the acoustic features and subjective scores. This subjective evaluation used female speech uttered by 21 speakers as the stimuli, and 127 subjects (47 males and 80 females) attended it. The results suggested that there was the speech preferred without the gender difference and preferred by one gender. We then analyzed the correlation between subjective scores and five acoustic features: fundamental frequency, formant frequency, amplitude difference, spectral centroid and spectral tilt. In female subjects, statistically significant correlations were observed in all features. In male subjects, significant correlation was observed only in spectral tilt. In particular, correlation in spectral tilt showed the inverse trend between male and female subjects. These results suggest that the spectral tilt is effective in the gender difference.
 
Article
In many ball games, research on the sound quality of the sound generated when hitting a ball is underway. This is because the comfort of the impact sound exists as an important factor for athletes. In this study, we investigated the elements necessary for the comfortable impact sound, targeting the impact sound of badminton. In the experiment, the impression of the impact sound reproduced from the headphones was evaluated by the SD method. As a result, it was found that the impression of impact sound can be expressed by Beautiful & Metallic, Powerful and Spatial Factor. In addition, it was suggested that the Beautiful & Metallic Factor might be associated with the elastic performance in badminton competition, and the Powerful Factor might be associated with the flying performance. Furthermore, we examined acoustical characteristics that correlate well with each factor, and constructed the sound quality estimating model for the impact sounds.
 
Article
Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) is one of the techniques which incorporate a human in optimization processes. It is a technique that replaces the fitness function of Evolutionary Computation with human subjective assessment. Therefore, it is possible to optimize complex problems incorporating human subjectivity, affection, etc. without making a complex mathematical model. However, it has two general problems; one is burden of interactions to the user, and the other is difficulty of global search. This paper proposes two methods that reduce the problems of IEC by combining Genetic Algorithm (GA) and knowledge acquisition from interaction records which is held a decision table form. Simulation experiments are conducted using an artificial problem, in order to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods, and compare them with related work. The experiment showed that proposed methods have better solution search efficiency than the related work.
 
Article
We sometimes feel a sense of strangeness/incongruity when looking at fake objects, impossible shapes, and other such drawings. However, it is unclear whether an expert’s sense/talent for identifying this feeling is different from that of a layperson. In this study, the authors looked for experimental participants from two professional education courses: architectonics and informatics. The participants drew three-plane drawings of three types of shaded solids: (a) “impossible object,” (b) illusory solid object that can generate “impossible motion,” and (c) normal solid without these optical illusions. The results of this experiment suggested that participants learning architectonics didn’t sense incongruity while drawing type-(a) solids; the architectural students sensed a possibility of existence of impossible solids because they could estimate true shapes of the impossible solids from the silhouettes of the drop shadows. Therefore, it was inferred that receptivity to incongruity differs depending on expertise and experience.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of package inserts of over-the-counter incorporating pictograms on information acquisition and preference. In this study, elderly (mean age=73.0 years) consumers were read one of the 3 inserts (A: insert with pictograms, B: insert with greater spacing between paragraphs, C: insert with larger font size) and asked to perform two information acquisition tasks: (a) Information recalling test, and (b) Information searching test. Afterwards, participants were given all inserts and asked to rank them according to preference using Scheffe's method of paired comparison. Results of Information recalling test shows that the correctness of Group A was significantly higher than that of Group B and C. Information searching test revealed that Group A had an accurate positioning rate that was significantly higher than those of Group B and C. The results of Scheffe's method of paired comparison show that the presence of pictograms was found to contribute positively to preference.
 
Article
In this paper, we propose a dialogue system with emotion estimation and knowledge acquisition functions. In the emotion estimation part, 9-emotions are treated in the proposed bimodal approach using voice and natural language processing. In the voice processing part, 396-dimensional features are extracted from the voice data, and they are used in learning of Stacked Denoising AutoEncoder. In the natural language processing part, two methods are proposed. The first one is to consider the implications of the relationship between emotional expression dictionary and input sentence's words. The second one is to consider the co-occurrence frequency of the emotion words in emotion dictionary. In the knowledge acquisition part, the relationship patterns from the input sentences are extracted. In the evaluation experiments, we can confirm that the proposed dialogue system obtains higher score than the existing system in term of the adequacy of the feeling estimation and the variety of response sentences.
 
Article
In this paper, we propose a dialogue system with knowledge acquisition ability from the user's utterances. The following two points are considered in this system. First, the user's preference is estimated from user's utterances. In the proposed system, each user's information such as the utterances, the topic words and the deep cases are memorized. The proposed system estimates user's preference using the emotion estimation and the topic words focusing on verbs. Also, these links can be learned based on the co-occurrence frequencies of emotion estimation. Second, the user's preference is utilized the dialogue system. The proposed system can select a more suitable topic using a user's preference. In addition, the proposed system can make use of the other person's utterances. Evaluation experiments have been carried out and we confirmed that the proposed system could improve the satisfaction level by usage of the stored information by the user. In addition, we evaluated the proposed system by elderly peoples. We confirmed that the proposed system is effective also as an attentive hearing system for elderly.
 
Article
The seasoning action is greatly influenced by the memory of taste. In the present research the experiment that the cook with a different experience expresses the memory of taste is done. The relation between the seasoning action and the activity of working memory is compared with the different cooking experience, and the effect of the memory of taste on the seasoning action is discussed. NIRS is used for the measurement of the activity. As a result, the cook who has the strong memory of taste performs the feed-forward action to reduce the difference between the memory and the cooked taste, there is a probability of the product development that bases cooked characteristic.
 
Article
This study investigates how expression type (literal or metaphorical) and topic description type (action or emotional states) affects emotional evaluation of expressions. We collected 368 examples of different expression types and topic description types and four emotion types (relaxed, joyful, angry, and sad). Forty undergraduates rated the emotion of expressions using an affect grid consisting of a two-dimensional valence-arousal space. Analysis of variance results showed that participants rated (i) more positively in positive valence expression (joyful and relax) and more negatively in negative valence expression (angry and sad) on expression of feeling than expression of behavior, and (ii) higher arousal in joyful and lower arousal in relax on expression of behavior than expression of feeling. In addition, linear discriminant analysis showed there was no significant difference between literal expression and metaphorical expression in correct discrimination rate.
 
Article
A person who is struck by deep grief due to the loss of, or unwanted separation from, his/her family, spouse or the one he/she loves is believed to take a long and gradual recovery process from the state of severe mental suffering. This study conducted interviews on ten people who went through such experience to find out how their painful loss or separation took place, their psychological states, their actions in the process of recovery afterwards, the psychological change brought about by such actions, etc. The result found that the activities recognized by the sufferers as effective in facilitating the recovery process included “creative activities, such as painting, crafting, writing, etc.” along with “social activities, such as works and volunteering”, “communications with close friends and relatives”, etc. The creative activities referred here are voluntary ones and exclude “art therapy” implemented as a part of psychotherapy.
 
Article
In this study, I paid attention to the cleaning activity that was one of the organization behavior. With the improvement of the organization culture by the cleaning activity, namely, I thought that it was the influence on active organization behavior. And, I pay my attention to the association with cleaning activity and the organization behavior. From the result of the study analysis, the cleaning activity was able to significantly inspect that I affected the organization citizenship behavior and duties job satisfaction. Namely, in carrying out cleaning activity, I let you amplify the action of the organization out of the role, I promote the efficiency of the organization by the organization citizenship behavior. It is what reached the conclusion that I bring an effect to contribute to the improvement of duties achievements having the relations that are close to duties job satisfaction.
 
Article
The objectives of this research are to implement the examination and the analysis of the utterances that accompany movements, and to elucidate whether these utterances are likely to be applied as movement-support technology. In the first phase of the field survey, we studied changes in the rate of vocal output with changes in the height of a platform to stand on; then, in the second phase of the survey, we investigated the influence exerted by vocal output or the absence thereof on walking ease and Maximum Walking Speed (MWS). In the analytical study, we observed excitation levels of spinal motor cells in healthy adults using H-wave. It is suggested by the results that (1) the rate of vocalization changes, (2) MWS is not improved, (3) the ease of walking is affected, and (4) the level of stimulation of spinal cord motor cells is increased.
 
Article
In order to discuss the risk involved in purchasing products that cannot be tried when shopping online, this study investigated the difference in tactual sensations between fabrics and pictures, with a precondition that participants should not touch them. Sixteen participants were presented with 24 different textures (4 cm × 4 cm, 12 fabrics, 12 pictures) and were evaluated for tactual sensation. The result shows that two factors, “material sense” and “touch sense” could be extracted from the tactual sensation values. By interchanging the pictures and fabrics, much of the detailed information of the two factors was lost. The results also showed that fabric colors had psychological effects, which had a high possibility of giving a false impression to consumers. Therefore, if the psychological effect of colors giving a misleading impression is taken into considerations, it can be expected to mitigate the consumers' risk.
 
Article
China has become the world’s second largest economy after recent rapid economic growth. On the other hand, the urbanization of China has aggravating the problems of air pollution, traffic congestion, and the dual structure of urban and rural areas. Therefore, the Chinese government has implementing a policy to revise the efficiency-oriented city planning to the quality-oriented, namely “National new urbanization plan”. We conducted a questionnaire survey on streetscapes in Chengdu, China. In this survey, we asked pedestrians and bicycle users about the streetscape during traffic. We applied AIM (Adaptive Index Model) method [1] to analyze this survey data. We used the estimated AIM results to score the satisfaction of the streetscape based on “production rules”. As a result, safety was important for each traffic, and street cleanliness and the number of bicycle parking lot was important for cyclists. Moreover, Satisfaction was low in the school district and the vicinity of parks. On the other hand, the streets were highly satisfied in the shopping district.
 
Top-cited authors
Toshimasa Yamanaka
  • University of Tsukuba
Toshio Shimokawa
  • University of Yamanashi
Noriko Nagata
  • Kwansei Gakuin University
Kunio Nikata
  • KANAZAWA College of Art
Yuichi Wada
  • Tohoku University