Time & Society

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 0961-463X
Publications
The aim of this article is to throw light on the link between high-speed means of transportation - especially the TGV - and the present-day temporal structures of society. The first part describes how the industrial timeis born out of industrial capitalism and its conceptions of the work. This model changes but it is still very topical, regarding certain important aspects of contemporary socioeconomic structures. Nevertheless, this permanence can't explain the whole current evolutions. The second part shows how high-speed travel behaviours - considering only professional purposes - also reveal some mains breaks with the model of industrial time. The third part of the article looks into the model of fragmented time, which appears gradually surimposed to industrial time. Finally, the fourth part presents the concepts of high speed as an opportunityand high speed as a necessity. This dual reading of the ways in which we can deal with the distance in high speed means of transportation appears adapted to the double temporal structure which prevails today.
 
GENDER DIFFERENCES 
This study provides additional empirical evidence to the research concerning the effects of gender and age on retrospective time judgements using data obtained from a Spanish database with more than 40,000 individual observations on time estimations. Statistical analyses were performed using the Levene F-test and the t-test of variances and means, respectively. The most important results of the study are as follows: i) differences in time estimation in relation to gender largely depend on the age groups analysed, with greater differences observed in the younger age group; and ii) a monotonous relationship does not exist between age and time estimations when age is a constituent factor in time judgements.
 
American popular and academic discourses suggest that 'quality time'--conceived as unstressed, uninterrupted special time with children--is important for family well-being. However, such discourses often engender stress and guilt among working parents, who have difficulty finding time for 'quality time'. This article explores the concept of 'quality time' in academic and popular literature (such as websites) and then draws on interviews and ethnographic video recordings of 32 dual-earner, two-parent American families to explore both perceived and lived experiences of family time. It proposes that everyday activities (like household chores or running errands) may afford families quality moments, unplanned, unstructured instances of social interaction that serve the important relationship-building functions that parents seek from 'quality time'. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Recent reflections on the possible changes which the Internet may have on our concept of time have focused on notions of `timeless time' (from Castells), `absolute time for everybody ' (from Negroponte), and `virtual time'. A more considered view of temporality, drawn from sociology and anthropology, as well as the history of the establishment of consensus on time keeping, can provide more insight. We take a view informed by research on six dimensions of temporality which govern organizational practices to show how the Internet can be understood in terms of temporal behaviour. KEY WORDS . information technology .
 
As global capitalism took shape, during the 1990s and early 2000s, high-speed, financialized profit making disrupted long-term strategies of capital accumulation centered upon production, employment, commodity exchange and aggregate demand. In addition, state constructions of time and temporality were besieged by the short-termist tendencies of financialized capitalism. This sharpened temporal disjunctures within the nationally constituted economy and the nationally circumscribed state. And, as upper reaches of many nation states conformed to the temporal urgency of supra-national decision-making bodies such as the IMF, national politics could not effectively process the slower rhythms of the representative assembly, the election cycle, public policy formation and mediated public debate. Against this background, the aftermath and repercussions of the 2007--08 financial collapse will be examined. Global capitalism became pervaded by a crisis of temporalities, manifestations of which can be summarized as follows. First, the temporal contradiction between financialized profit making and long-term strategies of capital accumulation remain unresolved; therefore, financial instability and recessionary spirals will be a recurring pattern. Second, in a world of financial turbulence and global recession, spatio-temporal fixities within and across particular national political economies have weakened or disintegrated. Third, the political impossibility of reconstructing Keynesian policy instruments at a national, supra-national and international level has generated a historic malaise. Unregulated financialized capitalism and neo-liberal policy regimes cannot be sustained over time, yet new political-economic arrangements characterized by spatio-temporal fixity are not in prospect.
 
In modern social and critical theory, clocks have figured as the embodiment of social order or, more ominously, as an exemplar of the threat posed to living thought by technology. As an alternative to such a bipolar evaluation, this paper examines the technicity of clocktime. The concept of technicity was suggested by the French philosopher, Gilbert Simondon. It is way of understanding the mode of existence of technical objects ontogenetically, that is, in terms of how they come to be rather than what they are. This paper introduces an ontogenetic account of clocktime as a new capacity to articulate diverse geographical, economic, technical and political realities together. It explains the convoluted precision of contemporary clocktime ensembles as just such an articulation. It discusses an ineliminable residue of metastability in the increasing precision of clocktime.
 
This article is based on the analysis of 259 titles of articles selected from four American sociological journals (the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, the American Sociological Review and Social Problems), over a period of 60 years (1940–2000). These titles contain key words such as age(s), generation(s), life cycle and life course, as well as a group of words that identify the purpose of each specific article. The lexical analysis of the data gathered in this way allows us to observe how various orientations, themes and objects of research are encoded in the titles. Comparing how each of these terms is used shows the way in which sociological reasoning has integrated different perspectives on individual and social temporalities. We have established that each of the four different perspectives considered refers to an exclusive lexical repertoire, to themes of differentiated research that belong to a specific historical period.
 
This study mapped the changes in the timing of working hours in Belgium as reported in workers' daily work schedules, obtained from the Belgian Time-Use Surveys of 1966 and 1999. A typology of working schedules was drawn up by means of a sequence analysis. This approach showed that work performed beyond the standard times, that is, in the evening, at night, or on weekends, did not grow in importance in the intervening years. In 1999, standard working hours clearly accounted for a larger share of the work schedules of the active population. Although the analyses did certainly not corroborate the often alleged trend towards a 24-hour society in Belgium, it could be shown that certain categories of the working population are more susceptible to flexible working hours than others.
 
This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies greatly. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey week than usual are asked for. Contractual hours are hardly asked for and so are paid and unpaid overtime hours. The timing of work is asked for in a minority of the questionnaires, and predictability and control over working hours is also not a major issue. The incidence of an on-call contract is the most likely proxy for predictability.
 
Many of the best studies of time have been concerned with the transitions from one temporal order to another, and in particular the origins and the pervasive global impact of metric time. This focus risks attributing a facticity and durability to capitalist time at the expense of other temporalities. This study counterbalances this problem by exploring the time use and 'Dreamtime' of Australian Aboriginal people, from pre-history, through the British invasion to the present day. Despite the massive disruptions in temporal order, significant continuities are revealed.
 
The common discourse about the flow of time is wrong; the sophisticated discourse about the relativity of time is also wrong, but for different reasons. Time does not flow because it does not exist in the objective sense, as an ingredient of the physical reality. The physical reality constantly changes its manifest shapes: things are becoming and vanishing. People project their experience of change onto the coordinate of their space of discourse, called time. Time is the abstract means by which people express and measure the amount and intensity of change. The assumption that the coordinates of the space of discourse are parts of the physical reality and that they are ‘malleable’, is structurally wrong and it leads to inconsistent discourse. Some devoted adherents of ‘Einstein's revolution’ describe it as ‘frustratingly unfinished’. I argue that this revolution is structurally and logically flawed, so that it cannot be finished; it should better be abandoned.
 
Textual manifestations of temporal themes in article titles 
Drawing on discursive approaches of stylistic linguistics and linguistic analysis, we explore ways in which temporality is an invoked and represented aspect in management journal titles. We analyze the titles of scholarly articles from three interdisciplinary organizational journals published in 2000: Administrative Science Quarterly, Group and Organization Management, and the Journal of Management Studies. We note manifestations of temporality in punctuation and word choice, in research interest, the use of academic terminology or keywords, and in underlying assumptions of temporality or timelessness. We conclude that journal titles may tell us about the speech community of management scholarship manifest through discipline-based constructions of temporality, but little about the individual experience of temporality in contributing to such a construction.
 
Through metaphor (as ever), we explore some aspects of the mutually implicated con-text, ideo-text, ego-text and sub-text to be found in the contemporary UK academic lifeworld. To this end, carefully selected data from a qualitative study of the changing nature of academic work in Britain is analysed to speculate about how a discourse of performativity (‘the RAE’) has been ‘translated’ into what appear to be ‘normalized’ legitimate forms of organizing and social action. By illustrating how these forms are reflected in academics’ liminal ‘work talk’, it emerges that one possible effect of this holographic process is a spatio-temporal constriction of the academic ‘lifeworld’.
 
Universities have witnessed a radical growth in the number of academics working on short-term employment. In this article I will explore the future orientations of these academics faced with job insecurity. Drawing on biographical interviews with 40 Finnish academics, I identify three ideal typical future orientations: instant living, multiple futures and scheduled future. Instant living refers to bracketing the future and concentrating on the present. In multiple futures, by contrast, academics are loosely rooted in the present as they ponder alternative careers. Scheduled future refers to structured aims and plans by which the future is divided into progressive career steps. In addition to exploring the temporal characteristics of the three orientations, the article discusses the implications for professional identities and for the nature of research work.
 
Although perceptions of ‘acceleration’ are common in everyday life, empirical studies are rare. We investigated Rosa’s theoretical framework of social acceleration in working life. Based on the framework and the concept of job demands in work and organizational psychology we developed a questionnaire that distinguishes between demands for technological acceleration, demands for the acceleration of social change, and demands for the acceleration of the pace of life. The results of two studies (in the fields of office work and aviation service work) confirmed the tripartite structure of the framework and delivered evidence that employees indeed perceive acceleration-related demands in working life.
 
In his Contributions to Philosophy, Martin Heidegger (1999) introduces ‘acceleration’ as one of the three symptoms – along with ‘calculation’ and the ‘outbreak of massiveness’ – of our technological way of ‘being-in-the-world’. In this article, I unpack the relationship between these symptoms and draw a twofold conclusion. First, interpreting acceleration in terms of time pathologies, I suggest the self is becoming increasingly fragmented and emotionally overwhelmed from chronic sensory arousal and time pressure. This experience makes it difficult for us to qualitatively distinguish what matters to us in our everyday lives, resulting in a pervasive cultural mood of indifference, what Heidegger (1995) calls ‘profound boredom’. Second, by drawing on Heidegger's hermeneutic method, I argue that the practice of mainstream psychology, by adopting the reductive methodology of the empirical sciences, largely ignores our accelerated socio-historical situation, resulting in therapeutic models that have a tendency to construct and perpetuate the very pathologies the psychologist is seeking to treat.
 
Where working-time options are favourable to part-time ‘mummies’, part-time employment (PT) is likely to expand among other workers. The article adopts a case-oriented comparative approach in the UK and the Netherlands. Efforts to promote PT in the UK are hindered by segmentation and the long-hours culture, but job sharing is promoting an increase in the number of good PT jobs. In the Netherlands, PT is also gendered and segmented; however, access to PT is easier in a context of regulatory support where organizations, already facing short full-time employment and a high rate of PT, are learning to decouple business hours from employees’ shifts.
 
Scholars have observed growing variability in life course transitions, such as entry into a full-time job. Life course theorists use the concept of agency to account for increasing diversity and unpredictability in developmental trajectories. In so doing, they presume that agency can only be a source of heterogeneity. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 406 people from all walks of life, I examine a form of temporal agency or ‘time work’ – that is, efforts to modify one’s own experience of time or that of others. The findings suggest that agency does not operate in the way life course theorists envision.
 
OBJECTIVE DATA (OD) AND ACTUAL OCCASIONS (AO)  
APPLICATION TO ACTION THEORY
This is the author's final draft of the paper published as Time & Society, 2004, 13 (2-3), pp. 301-319. The final published version is available at http://tas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/13/2-3/301 DOI:10.1177/0961463X04045474 Although many authors in the field of sociology and social theory have integrated temporal features into their theories, there is still a lack of theories based on time. This is mostly due to the complexity of the phenomenon of time, which not only produces a number of paradoxes, but also spans the complete realm of the natural and social sciences. Moreover, time is often conceptualised in its common sense, Newtonian shape, thus ignoring major theoretical developments of the last 100 years. One philosopher who has attempted to address these shortcomings is A.N. Whitehead. The present contribution draws on his philosophy in order to develop a theory of action based on a post-relativity concept of time.
 
The temporal dimensions of Internet use have been primarily examined as daily or weekly totals in the literature, which ignores other important structural dimensions of time and the contextual nature of Internet use. Using event history analysis, this study provides a nuanced analysis of the timing and duration of Internet use with an Internet-activity diary dataset collected in Columbus (Ohio, USA) in 2003–2004. Compared to the analysis of daily totals, the fine-grained analysis reveals that besides social, demographic, and geographic factors, the attributes of Internet episodes, such as activity purpose, also significantly affect both the timing and duration, and these temporal dimensions of Internet use are also connected.
 
Drawing on 20 qualitative family interviews with mothers, fathers, and adolescents (aged 16 to 19 years), we explore the experiences of time in parent–adolescent relationships. Changing time patterns comprised of a range of times including time spent together and apart, and more ambiguous times which incorporate elements of both being together and apart are described by participants. These descriptions highlight not only the amount of time and individual subjective experience of these times, but also the meaning that family members collectively make of these times, and how these elements of time contribute to the emergent relationship between parents and adolescents.
 
David Claerbout’s recent video and photographic works generate a distinct temporal aesthetic. In particular, these works experiment with time by situating the historical past not as a discrete moment in time, but rather as an actively engaged part of the present moment. Through the use of digital technologies Claerbout re-presents, experiments with, and opens up time as non-linear and complex, in effect producing a new experience of temporality through a mediation of the past. Using Gilles Deleuze’s concepts of time, informed by Michel Serres’ and Roland Barthes’ work on photography, I explore a theory of time through these artworks in which the past is understood as transpiring within the present, attempting to understand Deleuze’s temporal concepts aesthetically, not just philosophically.
 
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate chronic pain patients' perceptions of the pain-future relation, more specifically, of the way such perceptions affect: (1) well-being and coping; (2) psychosocial organization/adaptation; and (3) experienced agency in a clinical context. In-depth interviews with 18 chronic pain patients were conducted in order to generate categories describing the influence of chronic pain on the patient's perception of the future. The analysis resulted in six general conceptual patterns: diagnosis - `a signpost' to the future; changes in prospective thinking and feeling; `frozen futures'; changed strategies for coping with the future; perceived degree of agency; and approaches to handling conflicts in a clinical setting. The results call for more `time empathy' in patient-doctor encounters.
 
Though considerable research has been conducted on the subjective experience of time periods of short duration, little has been written about acceleration of long intervals of remembered time with age. The author reviews and assesses psychosocial, biological, and mathematical considerations contributing toward a comprehensive understanding of why the years seem to ‘fly by’ increasingly more rapidly. In particular, it is suggested that the powerful impact of social acceleration on our subjective sense of the passage of time may affect us differently at various stages in the life cycle.
 
Drawing on Weberian theory of social closure, this article explores how the long hours culture fostered in so many British organizations may act as a means of social closure to exclude women managers from senior positions. The research, conducted in eight different divisions of two UK companies, an airline and a merchant bank, shows that access to the resource of time is vital to be a successful manager. Women are less likely to have equal access to time because of the gendered division of domestic labour, and indeed men's time is often made available to them by their partners at home. At a time when women can offer almost everything that men can in terms of ability, skills and experience, time becomes the differentiating feature which makes men more likely to achieve promotion. The research shows the convergence of patriarchal and organizational desires/interests.
 
This experiential report explores the complexity of time(s) in the context of high-altitude climbing. It shows the tight interdependence of time and place for the shifting relationship between pace, movement and altitude. It considers the centrality of Kairos, the fortuitous (and fortunate) convergence of the right person, at the right time, in the right place. Finally, it discusses the climber's constantly shifting relationship to the past, present and future while ascending, arriving at the summit and descending some of the highest (8000+ metre) mountains of the earth.
 
What does the congressional discourse concerning US redress for the internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans during the Second World War reveal about the politics of governmental redress in relation to nation-building and national war memories? Examining US congressional debates on the Japanese American redress bill passed in 1988, this article argues that the narratives of Japanese American internment as an exceptional national tragedy and its redress as an ‘act of greatness for a great nation’ functioned to rescript memories of the incarceration into an inspirational narration of national redemption and an exemplar of American-style justice, in order to recuperate a particular moral, multicultural brand of American exceptionalism at the end of the Cold War.
 
This article focuses on dimensions of age in young people's life contexts within a discourse analytical framework. The analysis is based on meanings of age presented by Finnish secondary school students. The data consist of 88 autobiographical essays, written by 15 to 16-year-old boys and girls. Age is approached as a socially constructed phenomenon, defined differently in varying contexts.
 
Three critiques against cultural timelessness, the notion of late style, recycled ready-mades, and minimalist preservation, are examined to show how they are all compromised by a latent idealism. Such idealism, based on the decoupling of time from materiality through removal, displacement or wilful ignorance of material markers of age, forecloses the kinds of radical change and innovation espoused by the above critiques. While they all embrace timeliness and decay in the materiality of artists’ bodies and cultural artefacts, the ideology of timeless bourgeois art persists in their maintenance of a separate immaterial, eternal cultural essence.
 
Despite the growing use of apologies in post-conflict settings, cases of non-apology remain unaddressed and continue to puzzle scholars. This article focuses on the absence of apology by non-state and anti-state actors by examining the case of the Cypriot armed group EOKA, which has refused to offer an apology to the civilian victims of its ‘anti-colonial’ struggle (1955–1959). Using field data and parliamentary debates, and drawing on comparisons, this article analyses the factors that contributed to a lack of apology. It is argued that the inherited timelessness of Greek nationalism, and the impression of a perpetual need for defence, set up textbook conditions for the development of a hegemonic discourse and prevented an apology for human rights violations.
 
Diaries are elements of a school’s documentary reality. They possess a complex ‘narrative architecture’ and serve multiple functions. In addition to playing an important role in inducting students into the adroit chronometry of contemporary work, the school diary is also a manual of self-government, given that much of it deals with goal setting, managing health and conflict resolution. On the grounds that it ameliorates communication between the school and parents, the diary, unlike its adult counterparts, is subject to regular inspection. As such, it is part of the machinery of surveillance and accountability that are features of neo-liberalist schooling.
 
The article demonstrates that Hannah Arendt's examination of modern temporality strongly intersects with Michel Foucault's diagnosis of modern biopolitics. Both observe three key features of biopolitical modernity: the political zoefication of life, a technocratic understanding of politics, and processual temporality which link the project of modernity to the project of 20th-century totalitarianism. Arendt, however, also offers an alternative, nonbiopolitical understanding of politics, life, and time captured in the concept of natality. Built into the concept of natality is the ‘weakly’ messianic temporal structure of the interval as opposed to processual temporality.
 
The two Greek notions of time, chronos and kairos, and their spatial counterparts, chora and topos, are discussed in conjunction with some Aristotelian notions of human action, namely, theoria/episteme, poiesis/techne, and praxis/phronesis. From this discussion follows a unification of these Greek spatio-temporal notions into chronochora, chronotopos, kairochora, and kairotopos, which correspond to a move from abstract scientific time-space towards a concrete and meaningful time and place. Finally, these time and space notions are discussed in the contemporary organizational settings of time management (e.g. Just-In-Time) and virtual organizations, and their different forms of abstraction are alluded to.
 
This study is to explore the reality of gendered work time and its policy implications. With the dual-earner model of family, the amount and manner in which time is spent for paid work, as opposed to unpaid work, constructs gender relations in Korea. This article raises the following questions. What is the impact of exceptionally long working hours on gender relations in the workplace and the family in Korea? In terms of time spent, to what extent are there changes in the unquestioned exclusive care responsibility by women and traditional notions of fatherhood? To what extent has the Confucian dichotomy of public (workplace) and private (family) been altered, in terms of the workplace practice of long working hours? In doing so, this study applies quantitative and qualitative data from various sources. The findings show that, despite moving towards a dual-earner reality, the Confucian dichotomy of unpaid work and fatherhood is still tenacious. Furthermore, the practice of extremely long working hours provides a ‘good’ reason for a father’s absence in unpaid work, which in turn reflects the Confucian fatherhood. Also, this prevents mothers from achieving fuller integration into the labour market. Given these findings, we can see that the practices of long working hours and Confucian traditions combine to generate a vicious circle of gender inequality in the labour market and the family. The policy implications of these practices are discussed.
 
This article adopts a point of view of practice theories and elucidates how temporal orientations commence in the interactions of humans and the material world. Empirically the article focuses on the contemporary practices of wooden boating. Such practices offer a variety of different temporal orientations, which include emancipatory uchronias, flow states, altruistic care of common heritage and craft identities of mastering traditional skills. These positions within wooden boating result out of a distinct historic development. The practices of wooden boating also frequently imply stress and heavy toll on time, and entail subtle negotiations between self-determination and duties as a practitioner.
 
Discursive accounts of time tend to focus on a deconstruction of taken-for-granted notions of clock time, restricted to linear measurable units. By contrast the present article examines some of the discourses and practices deployed by managers in their attempts to control time; in the final instance, it shows how time can be a mystery that escapes such managerial pursuits and preoccupations. More specifically, we draw on Levinas’s ideas on time and the ‘Other’, and use two managerial discourses to illustrate how reification (through the use of technological and institutional artefacts) as attempts to control time tend to result in a proliferation of participation but, equally, an insistence on participation may invoke an intensification of control through reification. Reified relationships invariably result in a perpetual return to the Other, or what we have called participation. However, to varying degrees, our participatory mode is not possible without reification. Yet ‘relationships’ cannot be completely delegated to rationally calculating devices, formal institutions, or markets. Cooperation has its source not in reified forms of rationality (nor of irrationality), but in the human encounter with the Other. The organizational, social order is based on personal relations and personal responsibilities.
 
"The Internet is widely considered as a key factor of speeding up social and cultural change. It represents the merging of information and communication technologies and enables flows of information and capital, and communication and co-operation regardless of space and, possibly, time. The paper explores the example of Open Source/Free Software development, i.e. software development in self-organised projects based on a considerable share of voluntary work. Here, we find complex articulations of speeding up and slowing down technological development. Open Source/Free Software projects complement the logic of speeding up technological progress and of obsolescence with a reflexive logic of optionality, variety and sustainability which addresses the accessibility of technology and knowledge as a precondition for future creativity beyond markets and organisations." (author's abstract)
 
To illuminate the persisting division between East and West Germany, this article explores temporal aspects of East German culture and their impact on German unification. Arguing that approaches to GDR time in the contemporary literature border on oversimplification, the article focuses on different layers of time in East Germany. It also deals with possible time-related sources of conflict between East and West Germans, such as contradictory temporal work practices. On the basis of ethnographic and documentary evidence, the article argues that ordinary members of the German public may be more subtly aware of clashes in time cultures than this literature suggests.
 
Recent decades have seen the escalation of debate across western democracies that were once sites of the British Empire about how to remember the history of colonialism. This essay will consider how these debates have manifested in relation to the history of indigenous dispossession and its remembrance in Australia and Canada, which not only share many parallels in their stories of settlement but also in their recent efforts to come to terms with historical injustices against indigenous peoples. In examining how these debates have taken shape in the representation of national history in Australia’s and Canada’s recently established national museums, this essay will question the degree to which public historical consciousness in these former settler societies demonstrates a political imperative to remember historical injustices on the one hand, and on the other hand an enduring desire to forget them in favour of a more unifying story of the nation.
 
Descriptive statistics for the ZTPI subscales, Nostalgia Index, BFI traits, and AMQ variables
Zero-order correlations between the composite AMQ variable and the ZTPI and BFI
Zero-order correlations between the AMQ variables and time perspectives for men (N ¼ 112) and women (N ¼ 118)
Summary of hierarchical regression analysis for the ZTPI and BFI predictors of the mean AMQ score for the sample as a whole (N ¼ 230)
Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for the ZTPI and BFI Predictors of the mean AMQ score for Men (N ¼ 112) and Women (N ¼ 118)
This study examined the degree to which time perspectives were associated with the processes and content of autobiographical memory. A sample of 230 young adults (118 women) completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999), the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John and Srivastava, 1999), and responded in writing to seven memory prompts as well as to items from the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; Rubin et al., 2003). The Past Positive and Future subscales of the ZTPI predicted many aspects of memory even when controlling for BFI traits. There were gender differences in time perspectives and gender moderated a number of the correlations between time perspectives and autobiographical memory.
 
Although the tendency to delay gratification is by definition the core feature of twoincreasingly popular—within the scope of individual differences at least—constructs: emotional intelligence (EI) and time perspective (TP), the role of the latter two in its development has never been investigated before. Moreover, none of existing research reports consider mutual relationships between EI and TP. Our research investigated relationships between TP, EI and the rate of discounting of delayed awards, understood as one of the forms of gratification delay. We also applied a new method of assessing balanced time perspective—the Deviation from the Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP). 126 university students participated in the study. The results obtained suggest the existence of several important connections between TP and EI and moderate impact of DBTP on the process of discounting. Future studies on temporal orientation could be enriched by utilizing this integrative measure of balanced time perspective (the DBTP coefficient) and by partitioning award delays into stages when analyzing temporal discounting strategies.
 
As an example of the gendering of time, this article considers the ways which women have available to construct their experience of time spent breastfeeding. Many women struggle to accommodate the time it takes to care for babies into their already established regimes of temporality. The struggle, I suggest, is in assuming that maternity is a temporary or passing stage, after which everything will return to ‘normal’. As our experiences of time are intimately linked to the language available to conceptualize it, this article seeks alternative discourses which expand maternal agency and the ontological value of maternity and care.
 
Desirous time is not conducive to learning because its fantasies are distractions from the present moment, the time when genuine creative possibilities emerge. In contrast, the time of love, of an I–Thou relation, is the time of potential and infinitude. This is when engaged learning occurs, and when students develop the practices that open them to a creative way of being. In contrast to the future-oriented linearity of desirous time, the time of creative learning is the time of presence. This argument is developed using interview material from well-known Australians and well-regarded Australian teachers.
 
Drawing on the works of Paul Valéry and Walter Benjamin I show in what way the change in the temporal rhythm of life in industrial modern society has affected the individual's mode of experience. In particular, what might be called 'authentic' experience, or in Benjamin's words experience of 'fulfilled time', finds itself increasingly at odds with everyday time. Under this condition, I argue, youth is viewed as a resource that enables the individual to step out of everyday time, and is thus valued as what makes the experience of fulfilment possible.
 
The author argues that contemporary social theories cannot simultaneously accommodate the diachronic and synchronic dimensions of time within their frameworks, because they reduce the complexities of social life in order to cope with them. Jacques Derrida's and Walter Benjamin's writings on memory open up the possibility of thinking about the relation between memory and narrative in multiple ways. These two theorists affirm the discontinuity and the non-recognition between past events and present discourses and analyse a broad range of possibilities in the reading of history. The author argues that the simultaneity of the diachronic and synchronic dimensions of time becomes possible only when past and present are not thought of as two separate entities, as is common practice in social theory.
 
The compilation of economic statistics, and particularly those relating to labour, directly reflect the prevailing perspective of the economics discipline, and are manifested in abstractions in the form of models entirely and exclusively focused on market production. In the majority of labour surveys and statistics, thus, domestic work is neither economically relevant nor does it even have the status of ‘work’. The aim of this article is to suggest new ways for studying the working time and living time of women and men, on the basis of a non-gendered methodological proposal implemented in the city of Barcelona - a non-androcentric labour force survey that incorporates both domestic and market work.
 
Book reviews: Heintel, Peter, Gegen die Beschleunigung: Innehalten für eine neue Zeitkultur (Against Acceleration: Stopping and Thinking for a New Time Culture) (reviewed by Axel Haunschild); Zulley, Jürgen and Barbara Knab, Unsere Innere Uhr: Natürliche Rhythmen nutzen und der Non-Stop-Belastung entgehen (The Body Clock: Making Use of Natural Rhythms and Escaping Non-Stop Pressure) (reviewed by Axel Haunschild)
 
In a genuine Nietzschean way, Michel Foucault always refused to develop a definitive theory of time and preferred to produce local and non-explicit theories, adapted to each one of the objects that he was studying. As much as being, time cannot be but interpreted and subjected to a multiplicity of perspectives. I tried to reconstruct these various conceptions of time following Foucault from book to book and situating his work among some of the great modern philosophical movements (historicism and phenomenology), but also according to the internal logic of his research.
 
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