Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Published by Schattauer
Online ISSN: 2567-689X
Print ISSN: 0340-6245
Publications
Since the initial discovery of activated protein C (APC) and protein C (PC), subsequent findings have demonstrated that the protein C anti-thrombotic mechanism (anticoagulant and profibrinolytic) is very complex and convoluted, involving a multitude of other proteins and interactions with cell surfaces (1, 2). The PC system may be as complex as the coagulation scheme and other defense mechanisms. In recent years, investigations into ancillary functions of the PC system have identified interactions with some of these defense mechanisms in particular the inflammatory response (1, 3). Investigation of this highly complex system is no simple task. The number of proteins directly or indirectly involved in the PC system is growing, with several playing dual roles in the presence or absence of cells (1-5). Because of its complexity, the PC system can be broken down into functional subsets: cell-surface activation of protein C, the anticoagulant mechanism, the long-recognized but poorly-understood fibrinolytic response, and the shutdown mechanisms of the PC system. In the analysis of in vitro mechanisms of the PC pathway, care must be taken in the final interpretation of and application to the in vivo activities. We must weigh the importance of the apparent “minor” interactions with the perceived “major” roles these proteins play (5, 6). Any cursory review of these functions delineates the complexity of the system as a whole. The complex nature of the PC system reinforces how important good research is to the realization of our understanding of this functioning system. Because of the complexity of the system, the following questions must be meticulously addressed: What is the importance of each of the interactions? And what is the physiological role of these seemingly “minor” interactions of components in the regulation of the PC system?
 
Thirty-two patients with acute, proximal-vein thrombosis were treated with heparin and alteplase (0.25 versus 0.5 mg/kg/24 h during 3-7 days) in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, European (ETTT) trial. The treatment resulted in a decrease of the venographic Marder’s score from 18 (6-25) to 13 (2-24) units (median, range) in Group I (0.25 mg/kg/24 h, n = 15, median decrease 3.0, p = 0.32) and from 17.5 (3-33) to 15.5 (0-27) in Group II (0.5 mg/kg/24 h, n = 16, median decrease 4.0, p = 0.23). Comparison of the sequential venograms could be performed in 14 cases of Group I and in 15 cases in Group II. A minority of patients showed substantial partial recanalization of the initially obstructed veins on the control venogram (one in each treatment group) and most of the control venograms showed Thus, the results of the ETTT trial show that the used low dosages of alteplase administered intravenously over 3-7 days in heparinized patients cannot be recommended as a treatment for patients with deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs and/or pelvis. Further studies are needed to define a more suitable dosage regimen of alteplase in this indication.
 
The plasma clearance of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) depends on the initial molecular weight and the degree of substitution. So far, little attention has been paid to the clinical relevance of the C2/C6 substitution ratio of hydroxyethyl starch. 10 patients with cerebrovascular circulatory disturbance received hemodilution therapy for 10 days, consisting of 10% HES 200/0.5 (mean molecular weight 200 kD, degree of substitution 0.5) with a C2/C6 ratio of 13.4. A second group of 10 patients received a starch solution with identical initial molecular weight and degree of substitution but with a C2/C6 ratio of 5.7. After the administration of a single dose, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. After repeated administration, significant differences could be detected in hemorheology, coagulation and elimination (p<0.01). The larger C2/C6 ratio led to a higher intravascular mean molecular weight (95 vs. 84 kD), which in turn led to a higher increase in serum concentration during the therapy (14.7 vs.8.6 mg/ml). Hematocrit was lowered more (-30,5 vs. -23,5%) and plasma viscosity was increased more. There was also a more pronounced increase in partial thromboplastin time (+30% vs. +13%) and a factor of 2 larger decrease of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor-complex (p <0.01), which exceeded the dilution effect. The higher C2/C6 ratio of HES 200/0.5/13.4 slows down enzymatic degradation. After repeated administration of this starch, large molecules accumulate which are inefficiently degraded. The same effect has been observed after therapy with highly-substituted HES. This accumulation of large molecules leads to a beneficial longer lasting volume effect. The disadvantages include an increase in plasma viscosity and coagulation disturbances, which cannot be explained with the respective dilution effect alone. For these reasons, the C2/C6 ratio is of clinical relevance and should be included in the product labeling in the future.
 
An international study involving 26 laboratories assayed two candidate von Willebrand Factor (VWF) concentrates (B and C) for VWF:Antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF:Ristocetin Cofactor (VWF:RCo) and VWF:Collagen binding (VWF:CB) relative to the 4th International Standard Factor VIII/VWF Plasma (4th IS Plasma) (97/586). Estimates of VWF:Ag showed good agreement between different methods, for both candidates, and the overall combined means were 11.01 IU/ml with inter-laboratory variability (GCV) of 10.9% for candidate B and 14.01 IU/ml (GCV 11.8%) for candidate C. Estimates of VWF:RCo showed no significant difference between methods for both candidates and gave overall means of 9.38 IU/ml (GCV 23.7%) for candidate B and 10.19 IU/ml (GCV 24.4%) for candidate C. Prior to the calibration of the candidates for VWF:CB it was necessary to calibrate the 4th IS Plasma relative to local frozen normal plasma pools; there was good agreement between different collagen reagents and an overall mean of 0.83 IU per ampoule (GCV 11.8%) was assigned. In contrast, estimates of VWF:CB in both candidates showed large differences between collagen reagents with inter-laboratory GCV's of 40%. Candidate B (00/514) was established as the 1st International Standard von Willebrand Factor Concentrate by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation in November 2001 with assigned values for VWF:Ag (11.0 IU/ampoule) and VWF:RCo (9.4 IU/ampoule). Large inter-laboratory variability of estimates precluded the assignment of a value for VWF:CB.
 
There is evidence that infection and inflammation might trigger an acute coronary event, but the mechanisms are unclear. Activated factor VII (FVIIa) is a potent coagulant that is under genetic control and a potential determinant of the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. This study investigated the acute FVIIa response to experimental inflammation. Forty healthy men and women were vaccinated with 1 ml of Salmonella Typhii vaccine. Plasma levels of FVIIa, FVII antigen (FVIIag), tissue factor (TF) activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were measured at baseline and up to 24 hours after inoculation. All subjects were genotyped for the FVII gene Arg353Gln polymorphism. Plasma concentrations of FVIIa, but not FVIIag, increased significantly with a peak at 10 hrs after vaccination. At 24 hrs FVIIa levels had returned to baseline. The FVIIa response to vaccination was significantly greater in subjects with the ArgArg genotype compared with ArgGln subjects. TAT increased, but TF activity was unchanged after vaccination. The results are of interest from a mechanistic viewpoint, since one explanation for the link between infection and acute myocardial infarction might be activation of coagulation. However, there is a need for further studies of the role of infection and inflammation in haemostasis.
 
Compound ALX-0081 is a bivalent humanised Nanobody® that binds the A1-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with high affinity. Consequently, it can block the interaction between VWF and its platelet-receptor-glycoprotein Ib, which leads inevitably to formation of arterial thrombi. It was the objective of this study to assess the in vitro effects of ALX-0081 on platelet adhesion and aggregation in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients to determine the optimal concentration of ALX-0081 and the effect of co-medication. We included nine CAD patients, who were scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 11 healthy volunteers. At admission all patients received aspirin, clopidogrel and heparin. Blood was drawn 24 hours (h) before and 1 h after start of the PCI procedure and was subsequently spiked with different concentrations of ALX-0081 or buffer. The efficacy of ALX-0081 was assessed by in vitro experiments: flow chamber experiments, ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), and the platelet function analyser (PFA-100™). VWF levels in CAD patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls. During PCI VWF levels did not rise. In all in vitro experiments, ALX-0081 led to complete inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. However, the required effective concentration was higher in patients than in controls and was related to plasma VWF levels. In conclusion, ALX-0081 is able to completely inhibit in vitro platelet adhesion and aggregation in CAD patients scheduled for elective PCI. The efficacy of ALX-0081 is not influenced by PCI or co-medication. However, due to higher VWF levels in CAD patients a higher effective concentration of ALX-0081 was required than in healthy individuals.
 
The localization and biosynthesis of functional thrombomodulin (TM) on the cell surfaces of human platelets, megakaryocytes and a human megakaryoblastic cell line (MEG-01) were investigated. TM was demonstrated on the cell surfaces and in cytoplasms of human platelets, megakaryocytes and MEG-01 by an indirect immunofluorescent technique using monospecific rabbit anti-human TM serum. Immunoelectronmicroscopic analysis revealed that TM was localized in plasma membranes of MEG-01 cells as well as human megakaryocytes. 125I-monoclonal antithrombomodulin IgG binding assay showed that one MEG-01 cell possessed approximately 78,000 TM molecules on its cell surface. Thrombin-dependent protein C activating-cofactor activity was demonstrated on MEG-01 cells. Northern hybridization technique using cDNA probe of TM revealed that poly(A)(+)-RNA from MEG-01 cells showed a single band of 3.8 kb similar to that from human endothelial cells. These data suggest that human megakaryocytes synthesize functional TM, and thereby platelets possess TM on their surfaces. TM on platelets may participate in the activation of protein C at the site of a hemostatic plug.
 
The expression of various low Mr GTP-binding proteins at various states of differentiation of a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, MEG-01, was analyzed using thermocycle amplification of mRNA and immunoblotting. MEG-01 cells were found to express mRNAs of rap1A, rap1B, rap2B, ralA, rhoA, rac1, rac2, CDC42Hs, rab1, rab3B, rab6, ram and ran, but not rab4, and the proteins of Rap1, Rap2, RhoA, Rac1, Rac2, Rab3B, Rab4, Rab6 and Rab8 were expressed. Differentiation of MEG-01 cells induced by 100 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate revealed the considerable increases in mRNA expression of rap1B, rab3B, rab4, ram and ran whereas the levels of rap2B, rhoA and rac1 decreased. During the differentiation process, significant changes in protein levels of Rap1, RhoA, Rac1, Rac2, Rab3B, Rab4 and Rab6 were observed among three subcellular (cytosol, Triton X-100-soluble membrane and -insoluble cytoskeleton) fractions. The present investigation may be useful for the study of the megakaryocyte differentiation.
 
Recombinant Hirudin (rH) is an anticoagulant agent with a specific antithrombin activity independent of antithrombin III. We report the results of the first open pilot study on the curative treatment of acute venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) with rH (HBW 023) in ten patients. The dose of rH tested was 0.07 mg/kg (i.v. bolus) followed by 0.05 mg kg-1 h-1 (i.v. infusion) for 5 days, without activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) adjustment. Within the trial, no death, VTE recurrence or major bleeding was observed; lung scan pulmonary vascular obstruction improved from 44 to 37%, whereas the venographic Marder score was unchanged; APTT ratio ranged between 1.2 and 2.8. The dose of rH assessed in this study seems to be safe and efficient in the treatment of acute VTE.
 
The aim of this multicentre, prospective, randomised, dose-ranging study was to compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) against intravenous sodium heparin in acute lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients were randomized to treatment with either HBW 023 or heparin for 5 +/- 1 days. HBW 023 was given according to body-weight in three dose groups. Thromboembolic disease was assessed by phlebography and ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scanning on Day 1 and Day 5 +/- 1. One hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled, of these 121 were evaluable for efficacy analysis. Significantly fewer patients on HBW 023 developed new V/Q abnormalities during the treatment period, (p = 0.006). There was no difference between the groups in thrombus extension or regression, major bleeding complications or serious adverse events. There were significantly fewer findings of new V/Q mismatch after treatment with HBW 023, and anticoagulant control was superior in these patients.
 
Recombinant hirudin, a pure, specific antithrombin could be more effective than heparin in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis, but its short half-life requires constant intravenous infusion, whereas subcutaneous administration of recombinant hirudin can ensure stable and prolonged plasma levels. The aim of our study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, the results on the coagulation variables, and the safety of a recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) administered subcutaneously in patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis. Recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) was administered subcutaneously to 10 patients with recent deep vein thrombosis, at a dose of 0.75 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 5 days, after which standard heparin and acenocoumarol were introduced. Bilateral lower limb venography, and pulmonary angiography, and/or ventilation-perfusion lung scan were carried out on day 1 prior to recombinant hirudin injection and repeated on day 5. aPTT and recombinant hirudin plasma levels were serially assessed after the 1st and the 10th injections. Prothrombin fragments 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, fibrin degradation products were collected on days 1 and 5. Clinical evolution was uneventful in all but one patient who had a probable recurrence of pulmonary embolism on day 4. No hemorrhagic complication, no untoward biological event was observed. On days 5, Marder score was unchanged or had decreased. Plasma levels of recombinant hirudin peaked in between 3 and 4 h following the injection. aPTT values paralleled, and were significantly correlated with plasma levels of recombinant hirudin on day 1 as well on day 5 (r = 0.903, r = 0.948 respectively). Fragment 1 + 2, and thrombin antithrombin complexes non-significantly decreased from day 1 to day 5. Subcutaneous administration of recombinant hirudin ensures prolonged stable plasma levels of recombinant hirudin which results in efficient anticoagulation. A dose-ranging study conducted with subcutaneous recombinant hirudin in comparison to conventional heparin therapy may answer the question as to efficacy.
 
The influence of OKY-046, a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor, on prostanoid formation in healthy human subjects was studied. Vehicle (5% glucose solution) or OKY-046 in 5% glucose solution at 15 micrograms kg-1 min-1 was intravenously administered to five male healthy volunteers for 6 h. Platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation induced by collagen and arachidonic acid were suppressed by the infusion of OKY-046, while both were not affected by the infusion of vehicle. Urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, one of major urinary metabolites of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) was decreased by the infusion of OKY-046, while that of 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, one of major urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (PGI2) was increased. The present study demonstrated that the infusion of OKY-046 improved the balance of TXA2/PGI2 into antithrombotic state in healthy subjects. It was also suggested that endogenously produced (probably platelet-derived) endoperoxides could be redirected into prostacyclin in vivo.
 
In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over Phase-I study pharmacokinetic and hemostatic properties of BM 06.022 were investigated in seven healthy, male human volunteers. The novel recombinant plasminogen activator BM 06.022 consists of the kringle 2 domain and the protease domain of human t-PA and is unglycosylated due to its expression in Escherichia coli cells. Vehicle or 6 MU (= 10.4 mg) BM 06.022 was administered as a single i.v. bolus injection of 10 ml over 2 min. BM 06.022 was well tolerated. Fibrinogen levels and clotting times remained unchanged at baseline levels after 6 MU BM 06.022; plasminogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin (collected on chloromethylketone) decreased maximally to 83 +/- 1% and 64 +/- 3%, respectively, of baseline. D-dimers and fibrinogen degradation products increased to 1,006 +/- 234 ng/ml and 555 +/- 155 ng/ml, respectively, after BM 06.022. Half-life of BM 06.022-activity was 11.2 +/- 0.4 min and of antigen was 13.9 +/- 0.7 min, followed by a terminal half-life only for antigen of 173 +/- 33 min. Plasma clearance of BM 06.022 was 371 +/- 13 ml/min for activity and 183 +/- 15 ml/min for antigen. Thus, BM 06.022 is not fibrinogenolytic at 6 MU and is a fibrinolytic agent with a longer half-life than t-PA.
 
BM 06.022 is a non-glycosylated mutant of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) comprising only the kringle-2 and proteinase domains. The in vivo half-life of BM 06.022 antigen is 4- to 5-fold longer than that of t-PA antigen. The in vitro half-life of the activity of BM 06.022 at therapeutic concentrations in plasma is shorter than that of t-PA. In this study the inactivation of BM 06.022 in plasma was further investigated. Varying concentrations of BM 06.022 were incubated in plasma for 0-150 min. Activity assays on serial samples showed a dose-dependent decline of BM 06.022 activity with a half-life from 72 min at 0.3 μg/ml to 38 min at 10 μg/ml. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by fibrin autography showed the generation of several BM 06.022-complexes. These complexes could be completely precipitated with antibodies against Cl-inactivator, α2-antiplasmin and α1-antitrypsin. During the incubation of BM 06.022 in plasma, plasmin was generated dose-dependently as revealed by varying degrees of a2-anti-plasmin consumption and fibrinogen degradation. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting showed that single-chain BM 06.022 was rapidly (i. e. within 45 min) converted into its two-chain form at concentrations of 5 μg/ml BM 06.022 and higher. In conclusion, BM 06.022 at therapeutic concentrations in plasma was inactivated by Cl-inactivator, a2-antiplasmin and a j-antitrypsin. The half-life of the activity decreased at increasing BM 06.022 concentrations, probably as a result of the generation of two-chain BM 06.022 which may be inactivated faster than the single-chain form.
 
The recombinant plasminogen activator BM 06.022 consists of the kringle 2 and the protease domains of human t-PA and is unglycosylated because of the expression in Escherichia coli. The thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties as well as the hemostasis effects of BM 06.022 were investigated in the rabbit model of jugular vein thrombosis. The thrombi were 125I-fibrin labeled. Intravenous bolus injection of 50, 100, 200, and 400 kU/kg BM 06.022 or 400, 800, and 1600 kU/kg alteplase over 15 s to six rabbits/dose produced a dose-dependent increase of thrombolysis determined 2 h post injection. The dose-response curve of BM 06.022 was located left compared with that of alteplase. The effective dose of 50% thrombolysis (ED50) obtained by half-logarithmic regression analysis was 163 kU/kg (= 0.28 mg/kg) for BM 06.022 and 871 kU/kg (= 1.09 mg/kg) for alteplase. At equipotent doses (50% thrombolysis), the residual concentration of fibrinogen was 74.2% and 76.5%, that of plasminogen 66.7% and 69.4%, and that of alpha 2-antiplasmin 47.3% and 46% for BM 06.022 and alteplase, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis for plasma activity at a dose of 400 kU/kg revealed a half-life of 18.9 +/- 1.5 min for BM 06.022, whereas alteplase was distributed with a half-life of 2.1 +/- 0.1 min, accounting for 86.7 +/- 1.9% of the total AUC, followed by a beta-phase with a half-life of 13.8 +/- 0.9 min. Plasma clearance of BM 06.022 was 4.7 +/- 0.7 ml min-1 kg-1 compared with 20 +/- 1.2 ml min-1 kg-1 for alteplase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
The catabolism of the novel plasminogen activator reteplase (BM 06.022) was described. For this purpose BM 06.022 was radiolabelled with l25I or with the accumulating label l25I-tyramine cellobiose (l25I-TC). BM 06.022 was injected at a pharmacological dose of 380 μg/kg b.w. and it was cleared from the plasma in a biphasic manner with a half-life of about 1 min in the α-phase and t1/2of 20-28 min in the β-phase. 28% and 72% of the injected dose was cleared in the α-phase and β-phase, respectively. Initially liver, kidneys, skin, bones, lungs, spleen, and muscles contributed mainly to the plasma clearance. Only liver and the kidneys, however, were responsible for the uptake and subsequent degradation of BM 06.022 and contributed for 75% to the catabolism of BM 06.022. BM 06.022 was degraded in the lysosomal compartment of both organs. Parenchymal liver cells were responsible for 70% of the liver uptake of BM 06.022. BM 06.022 associated rapidly to isolated rat parenchymal liver cells and was subsequently degraded in the lysosomal compartment of these cells. BM 06.022 bound with low-affinity to the parenchymal liver cells (550 nM) and the binding of BM 06.022 could be displaced by t-PA (IC50 5.6 nM), indicating that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) could be involved in the binding of BM 06.022. GST-RAP, which is an inhibitor of LRP, could in vivo significantly inhibit the uptake of BM 06.022 in the liver. It is concluded that BM 06.022 is metabolized primarily in the liver and the kidneys. These organs take up and degrade BM 06.022 in the lysosomes. The uptake mechanism of BM 06.022 in the kidneys is unknown, while LRP is responsible for a low-affinity binding and uptake of BM 06.022 in parenchymal liver cells.
 
R 68 070 or (E)-5-[[[(3-pyridinyl)[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]- methylen]amino]oxy] pentanoic acid (Janssen Research Foundation, Belgium) combines specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthetase inhibition with TXA2/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor blockade in one molecule. In vitro, the compound specifically inhibits the production of TXB2 from [14C] arachidonic acid by washed human platelets (IC50 = 8.2 × 10-9 M) and by platelet microsomes (IC50 = 3.6 × 10-9 M), of MDA (IC50 = 1.91 × 10-8 M) and of TXB2 (IC50 = 1.47 × 10-8 M) by thrombin-coagulated human platelet-rich plasma (P.R.P.) and whole blood respectively and increases the levels of PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α and 6-keto-PGF1α. The activity of cyclo-oxygenase-, prostacyclin synthetase-, 5-, 12- and 15-lipoxygenase-enzymes are not affected. Additionally, R 68 070 inhibits human platelet aggregation in P.R.P. induced by U 46619 3 × 10-7 M to 2 × 10-6 M (IC50 = 2.08 × 10-6 M to 2.66 × 10-5 M), collagen 0.5 to 2 μg/ml (IC50 = 2.85 × 10-6 M to 4.81 × 10-5 M), arachidonic acid 7.5 × 10-4 M to 2 × 10- M (IC50 = 2.1 × 10-8 M to 3.3 × 10-8 M) and the U 46619 (1 × 10-7 M)-induced accumulation of [32P] phosphatidic acid (IC50 = 5.24 × 10-7 M) in washed human platelets. Collagen (0.75 μg/ml)-induced ATP release (IC50 = 4.1 × 10-6 M), ADP (1 to 2.5 × 10-6 M)-induced second wave aggregation (IC50 = 3.19 × 10-6 M) in P.R.P. as well as the collagen (1 μg/ml)-induced adhesion/aggregation reaction in human whole blood (IC50 = 1.02 × 10-5 M) are reduced as well by the compoun. Primary platelet reactions induced by serotonin, ADP, PAF, or A 23187, platelet adenylate cyclase- and cAMP phosphodiesterase-activity, and platelet inhibitory activities of PGD2, PGI2, PGE2, PGE1 are not modified by R 68 070. This biochemical profile is compatible with a dual mechanism of action of R 68 070, namely TXA2 synthetase inhibition at low concentrations, plus additionally TXA2/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor blockade at higher concentrations
 
R 68 070 or (E)-5-[[[(3-pyridinyl)[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]- methylen]amino]oxy] pentanoic acid (Janssen Research Foundation, Belgium), a newly developed compound, combining specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthetase inhibition with TXA2/pros- taglandin endoperoxide receptor blockade in one molecule, is active in vivo in man and in experimental animals. In man (n = 5), a single oral 400-mg dose of R 68 070 produces deep and protracted inhibition of platelet TXA2 synthetase activity (≥90% for 48 h), increases serum levels of immuno- reactive 6-keto-PGF1α, reduces platelet aggregation in RR.R induced by U 46619, collagen (>70% for 8 h), arachidonic acid (>90% for 18 h) and prolongs template bleeding times significantly, without affecting plasma coagulation or fibrinolysis. In rats, R 68 070 (1.25 mg/kg orally, –2 h) singly prolongs tail bleeding times as much as a combination of TXA2 synthetase inhibition (dazoxiben 10 mg/kg) and TXA2/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor blockade (BM 13177 40 mg/kg). In dogs, the compound reduces coronary thrombosis induced by electrical damage (1.25 mg/kg i. v.) and prevents the evolution of occlusion/ reperfusion-induced arrhythmias into ventricular fibrillation (2.5 mg/kg i.v.). R 68 070 thus may be an appropriate pharmacological tool to analyze the roles and interactions of agonistic (TXA2, prostaglandin endoperoxides) and antagonistic (PGD2, PGE2, PGI2) metabolites of arachidonic acid in experimental and human pathologies.
 
Protein kinase C activation in human platelets has a modulatory role in maintaining intracellular pH (pHi), by adjusting pHi at a particular value (7.22). Changes in pHi induced by protein kinase C appeared to be dependent upon the difference between H+ efflux catalyzed by the Na+/H+ exchanger and H+ production. The pHi recovery after acid loading was significantly facilitated by protein kinase C activation. Analysis of the rate constant for pHi recovery suggested that the turnover rate or the apparent affinity of the Na+/H+ exchanger for H+ was increased. Protein kinase C also decreased the Km value of the Na+/H+ exchanger for extracellular Na+. Thus, it is suggested that the role of protein kinase C in platelet pHi regulation is dual, adjusting the pHi value at a certain setpoint on the one hand, and increasing the rate constant of the Na+/H+ exchanger on the other.
 
Mass contents of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) were measured in U46619-stimulated human platelets. 1 microM of U46619 induced maximum responses in aggregation, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) secretion and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Aggregation was almost comparable to that induced by maximal dose (1 U/ml) of thrombin, while 5HT release was almost half. The initial [Ca2+]i peak in response to U46619 was about half of thrombin stimulation. Production of IP3 and DG was, however, less than one tenth of that seen in thrombin stimulation. The profile (time course and concentration-dependency) of IP3 formation did not correlate with that of [Ca2+]i, suggesting that U46619 stimulates IP3-dependent and -independent Ca2+ mobilization. DG production was small but sustained for more than 5 min. These findings support the recent hypothesis that aggregation is regulated by a delayed accumulation of DG. The low level of 5HT secretion could be explained by the low production of second messengers, IP3 and DG.
 
We describe an 11-year-old girl with a mild bleeding disorder since early childhood. The disorder was characterized by a prolonged bleeding time, and the patient's platelets showed defective aggregation responses to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimetic U46619 and arachidonic acid. In contrast, the platelets showed normal responses to thrombin and Ca ionophore A23187. When the platelet TXA2 receptor was examined with the [3H]-labeled TXA2 agonist U46619, the equilibrium dissociation rate constants (kd) and the maximal concentration of binding sites (Bmax) of the patient's platelets were within normal ranges. Normal GTPase activity was also induced in the patient's platelets by stimulation with U46619, however, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) formation was not induced by U46619. These results suggests that the patient's platelets had a defect in phospholipase C activation beyond TXA2 receptors.
 
Clinical outcomes of 1,478 danaparoid treatment case reports for HIT (involving 1,418 patients) treated between 1982 and mid-2004 are analysed. Treatment in 1,291 episodes was for current HIT. Thromboembolism due to HIT was present in 39.4%. The patients include 33 children and 32 pregnancies. Two hundred twenty-six patients required extra-corporeal circuit use for renal failure, 241 patients had a concomitant thrombophilic disorder, and 351 major operations were performed. Clinical outcomes were assessed during danaparoid treatment (range one day to 3.5 years) plus three months of follow-up. Of the danaparoid-treated patients 83.8% survived; 63.7% had no or minor adverse events and 20.1% suffered serious non-fatal adverse events. New thromboses occurred during 9.7% of treatment episodes, and 16.4% of treatment episodes had an inadequate treatment response (i. e. developed one or more of the following: new/extended thrombosis, persistent/new platelet count reduction, unplanned amputation during treatment and follow-up). Major bleeding was reported in 8.1% of treatment episodes. Clinical cross-reactivity of danaparoid (new/persistent platelet count reduction and/or new/extended thrombosis) was confirmed serologically in 23 of 36 patients with positive pretreatment serological danaparoid cross-reactivity and in 22 of 32 additional patients tested at the time of the new event, i.e. a total of 45 patients (3.2%). Clinical outcomes of these case reports of patients given danaparoid because of suspected or confirmed HIT appear to be comparable with those reported by others who used direct thrombin inhibitors, especially when a sufficient danaparoid dosing intensity was used in patients with isolated HIT. Post-operative bleeding limits danaparoid use for cardiopulmonary by-pass surgery. Routine clinical and platelet count monitoring are required to minimise adverse reactions due to cross-reactivity.
 
In this study we have assessed the deposition of 111-In-oxine-labelled platelets - using a dual radiotracer method - at angioplasty sites of the lower extremities in 20 patients (14 male, 6 female; median age: 60 years) with ASA (1.0 g/day)-therapy. The platelet survival time (PST) - using the multiple hit model -was evaluated before and after percutaneous transluminal angio-plasry, and we also measured the plasma levels of β-thrombo-globulin (β TG) and platelet fuetui 4 (PF 4) before and after PTA. Before PTA, scintigraphy was positive in only one patient, while 24 hours after PTA a positive scintigraphic result was observed in 16/20 patients. The median target/non target-ratio was 1.0 (0.66-1.3) before PTA, and this ratio increased significantly (p <0.0005) to 1.53 (1.0-3.3) after PTA. The median PST decreased significantly (185.0 hours before PTA → 145.2 hours after PTA; p <0.001), while the median platelet turnover increased from 34,000/μl/day to 47,900/μl/day(p<0.01). The median plasma levels of the platelet specific proteins increased significantly immediately after PTA (p <0.001), but one day later they were not significantly different from the pretreatment values. The quantitative methods used in this study seem a valuable tool to evaluate the effects of different therapeutical - especially antiplatelet - interventions after PTA in humans, thus helping to find the best antithrombotic regimen for this widely used therapeutical procedure.
 
We have investigated the antithrombotic properties of prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) in this study. To do this, we established the minimum concentration of human placental tissue factor or human alpha-thrombin that was lethal in mice within 5 min after intravenous injection. Prothrombin F1.2 protected the mice from the lethal effect of tissue factor or alpha-thrombin in a dose dependent manner, with 500 micrograms (14 nmoles) of prothrombin F1.2 per mouse being the minimum amount required to protect all mice from the lethal effect of either thrombogenic stimulus. The minimum dose of heparin which protected mice from the lethal effect of thrombin or tissue factor was 6 units or approximately 3.3 nmoles. The observation that prothrombin F1.2 has antithrombotic properties suggests prothrombin F1.2 can modulate coagulation in vivo, as it has previously been shown to do in vitro.
 
The amantadine derivative 1.3-dimethyl-5-aminoadamantane, D 145, induces in high concentrations of 2-10 mM the release reaction. Adenine nucleotides and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are liberated to the same extent and in the same ratio as found after thrombin-induced release. The time course of release is very slow; maximal release is reached in 15-20 min. The process is temperature-dependent and dependent on energy derived from glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Extracellular Ca++ does not promote the release process. D 145, in accordance with the mother-substance amantadine, inhibits 5-HT uptake non-competitively, KI = 0.15mM. In concentrations of 0.1-1 mM D 145 triggers only the liberation of 5-HT, adenine nucleotides are not liberated. The ADP induced platelet aggregation is completely inhibited after preincubation with a 1 mM solution of D 145.
 
Temporal distribution of major bleeding. 
Surgery and treatments. 
Clinical events. 
Risk factors for major bleeding at day 10 . 
Despite the need for effective and safe thromboprophylactic drugs for patients with renal impairment, clinical trial data on anticoagulant agents are limited in this population. The study aim was to assess in the real-world setting the use of the once-daily 1.5 mg reduced dosage regimen of fondaparinux available for this context. In this prospective cohort study, patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 20–50 ml/ minute, undergoing total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement or hip fracture surgery (HFS) received fondaparinux thromboprophylaxis. Main clinical outcomes were bleeding (major/clinically relevant nonmajor), symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) and death. Overall, 442 patients (353 women; median age: 82 years; 39.4% in ASA class ≥3; mean ± SD CrCl: 39.0 ± 8.0 ml/minute; 78% with additional risk factors for bleeding), undergoing THR (43.7%), TKR (27.6%), or HFS (28.7%) received fondaparinux 1.5 mg for a mean ± SD duration of 16.0 ± 12.5 days. At postoperative day 10, the rates (95% confidence interval) of major bleeding, clinically relevant bleeding and symptomatic VTE were 4.5% (2.8–6.9), 0.5% (0.1–1.6) and 0.5% (0.05–1.62), respectively; no fatal bleeding, bleeding into a critical organ, pulmonary embolism or proximal deep-vein thrombosis occurred. Corresponding rates at one month were 5.2%, 0.7% and 0.7%. One-month mortality was 2.3% (0.9–3.6). This large clinical prospective study provides for the first time, under conditions reflecting “real-world” routine clinical practice, data on the bleeding and VTE risks of thromboprophylaxis with fondaparinux 1.5 mg after major orthopaedic surgery in renally impaired patients. It shows that these patients constitute a very elderly and fragile population. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00555438
 
Venous thromboembolism may be efficiently treated by once-a-day (o.d.) administration of a high dose of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) instead of administration of the same total dose in two injections a day (b.i.d.). To reduce the volume of the subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, a more concentrated form of the drug is advisable. This study was designed to compare the bioavailability of 2 formulations of nadroparin containing 10,250 and 20,500 anti-Xa IU x ml(-1) respectively. This was an open, randomized, cross-over study where 12 healthy volunteers (age 18-35) were enrolled. They received either 90 anti-Xa IU x kg(-1) b.i.d. of the 10,250 IU preparation (treatment A), or 180 anti-Xa IU x kg(-1) o.d. of the 20,500 IU preparation (treatment B) for 10 days. On day 1, the subjects were sampled between 0 and 12 h (treatment A) or between 0 and 24 h (treatment B). On day 10, they were sampled between 0 and 12 h and between 12 and 24 h (treatment A) or between 0 and 24 h (treatment B). Anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities were determined by specific chromogenic assays. The main result of the study was that the bioavailability of the anti-Xa activity of the 2 nadroparin formulations was equivalent, as shown by the comparison of the AUC(0-12 h) plus AUC(12-24 h) (treatment A) and the AUC(0-24 h) (treatment B), calculated on day 10. This study also allowed a number of interesting observations to be made. 1) Between day 1 and day 10, there was an accumulation of the anti-Xa activity for treatment A but not for treatment B (accumulation factors: 1.6 and 1.1 respectively); 2) On day 10, the AUC(0-12 h) were slightly but significantly lower than the AUC(12-24 h) suggesting a circadian effect for anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities; 3) the clearance of the anti-Xa activity was comparable at the 2-dose regimens, while that of the anti-IIa activity was lower in treatment B than in treatment A, indicating a significant dose effect for the pharmacodynamics of the longer heparin chains; 4) On average, the clearance of the anti-IIa activity was twice as high as that of the anti-Xa activity; 5) For treatment B, significant APTT prolongations were noticed at Tmax (prolongation factor: 1.7 +/- 0.25), in relation with the anti-IIa activity (0.3 +/- 0.1 IU x ml(-1)).
 
The contribution of coagulation factors and fibrinolytic variables to the development of ischaemic arterial disease is still not clearly established. The PRIME study is a prospective cohort study of myocardial infarction in men aged 50-59 years and recruited from three MONICA field centers in France (Lille, Strasbourg and Toulouse) and the center in Northern Ireland (Belfast). Baseline examination included measurement of plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, and PAI-1 activity in over 10,500 participants. We investigated the associations of these haemostatic variables with cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent atherosclerotic disease and geographical area. Fibrinogen level increased with age, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio, LDL-cholesterol, and it decreased with educational level, leisure physical activity, alcohol intake and HDL-cholesterol. Factor VII activity increased with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides. HDL- and LDL-cholesterol. PAI-1 activity increased with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, alcohol intake, smoking, and decreased with leisure physical activity. PAI-1 level was higher in diabetic subjects than in subjects without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors explained 8%, 9%, and 26% of the total variance in fibrinogen, factor VII, and PAI-1, respectively. Compared with participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease, those with previous myocardial infarction (n = 280), angina pectoris (n = 230), or peripheral vascular disease (n = 19) had significantly higher levels of fibrinogen. but those with stroke (n = 67) had not. PAI-1 activity showed a similar pattern of association. The odds ratio for cardiovascular disease associated with a rise of a one standard deviation in fibrinogen and PAI-1 was 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 1.42, p <0.001) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 1.49, p<0.001), respectively. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, these associations were attenuated but remained highly significant. There was no significant association between factor VII activity and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen level and, to a lesser extent, factor VII and PAI-1 activity were higher in Northern Ireland than France after adjustment for the main cardiovascular risk factors. These geographical variations are consistent with the 2 to 3-fold higher incidence of myocardial infarction in Northern Ireland than France. Our results provide further epidemiological evidence for a possible role of fibrinogen and PAI-1 in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
 
Fibrinogen was isolated from human plasma using a polyethylene glycol 1000 fractionation procedure that eliminates problems of denaturation, degradation and contamination encountered with other procedures (1). The technique is simple, rapid, gives a high yield and gram amounts of fibrinogen can be readily obtained.
 
Alterations in blood coagulation may explain the poorer neurological outcome with diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia after acute ischemic stroke. We studied the relationships between diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) and plasma factorVIIa (FVIIa) in ten patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 11 non-diabetic patients at baseline and 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours (h) after presentation for acute stroke. In addition, we examined plasma prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1.2) and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) as markers of thrombin generation. Stroke severity, assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), was similar at baseline (p=0.26) but worse in diabetic (8.20+/-4.3) than nondiabetic patients (2.67+/-2.1, p=0.023) at 48 h. At presentation, diabetic patients had higher FVIIa (p=0.004) and lower TF-PCA (p=0.027) than non-diabetic patients but both were higher than in normal control subjects. FVIIa levels remained higher in diabetic patients at 6, 12 and 24 h after stroke. In diabetic patients, FVIIa (r=0.40, p=0.02) and TF-PCA (r=0.50, p=0.02) correlated with blood glucose; and, FVIIa correlated with plasma F1.2 (r=0.34, p=0.002) and TAT levels (r=0.62, p<0.0001). In non-diabetic patients, TF-PCA, but not FVIIa, correlated with F1.2 (r=0.402, p=0.010) and TAT (r=0.39, p=0.011). Combining both groups, NIHSS scores were positively related to FVIIa levels (r=0.50, p=0.021) and inversely related to TF-PCA levels (r=-0.498, p=0.02). Acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes and hyperglycemia have a more intense procoagulant state compared with nondiabetic patients. This is related to glucose levels and provides a potential mechanism for the observed worse prognosis in such patients after acute stroke.
 
We report the molecular genetic analysis of a patient with thrombasthenic phenotype. The lack of surface platelet GPIIb-IIIa complexes and the presence of GPIIIa suggested it was a case of type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia due to a mutation in GPIIb. Single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) of exon-19 of GPIIb showed polymorphic DNA bands. The DNA sequence of exon-19 revealed the presence of a homozygous C1882T transition that changes residue R597 to STOP codon. Since no other mutations were found in either GPIIb or GPIIIa it is concluded that the C1882T substitution in GPIIb is responsible for the thrombasthenic phenotype of the patient. The lack of platelet GPIIb-mRNA in the proband indicates instability of the [C1882T]GPIIb-mRNA. Coexpression of normal GPIIIa and GPIIb(delta597-1008) in CHO cells failed to show surface expression of GPIIb(delta597-1008)-IIIa complexes. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that GPIIb(delta597-1008) may indeed complex GPIIIa; however, the association is either unstable or incapable of progressing along the secretory pathway.
 
Over three decades after the generation of the first mouse monoclonal antibodies by Kohler and Milstein, recombinant antibodies are the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Furthermore, antibodies are key detection reagents in research and diagnostics. Technology improvements have provided several approaches to manufacturing human antibodies with high affinity for biologically relevant targets. Approximately 300 development programs for therapeutic antibodies have been reported in industrial and academic laboratories, and this clearly demonstrates the expectations towards antibody technology. Antibody fragments are a subclass with growing clinical importance. This review focuses on single-chain antibodies as one of the smallest possible format for recombinant antibodies and their use as diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents. We describe the structure, selection and production of single-chain antibodies. Furthermore, we review current applications of antibody fragments focusing on thrombus targeting using fibrin- and platelet-specific single-chain antibodies as well as describing novel noninvasive imaging approaches for the diagnosis of thrombosis and inflammation.
 
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a chronic progressive renal disease that is diagnosed on the basis of renal histological features. Several MPGN subtypes have been defined by the localization and composition of glomerular deposits (electron dense, Ig and C3). MPGN II or dense deposit disease (DDD) which is defined by the occurrence of electron dense deposits within the lamina densa of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is strongly associated with dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway (AP). However, C3 Nephritic Factor (C3NeF), an autoantibody against the alternative C3 convertase C3bBb, and mutations in regulatory proteins of the AP have also been identified in other subtypes of MPGN and even in glomerulonephritis with mesangial C3 deposits. Clinically, MPGN is characterized by proteinuria (up to nephrotic range) and hypertension, frequent progression to end-stage kidney disease and disease recurrence after renal transplantation. The age of onset varies from childhood to adulthood. In the following we will review our current knowledge of pathogenesis of MPGN and will present a novel classification system of the disease based on pathogenesis rather than on morphology. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of MPGN is crucial for the development of novel, specific treatment strategies.
 
The heparinoid of natural origin Org 10172 has anti-factor Xa activity but minimal anti-thrombin activity, and little effect upon broad spectrum assays such as the KCCT in vitro. Its anticoagulant effects have been compared to those of commercial heparin in 7 patients undergoing haemodialysis for chronic renal failure. Commercial heparin was administered in a dose (5,000 iu bolus + 1,500 iu/hour continuous iv infusion) previously shown to inhibit fibrin formation during haemodialysis. This produced mean anti-factor Xa levels in plasma between 0.7-1.0 iu/ml and largely suppressed fibrin formation for 5 h dialysis measured as mean FPA levels in plasma. Administration of Org 10172 as a bolus of 1,350 anti-factor Xa u or 2,000-2,400 anti-factor Xa u produced plasma anti-factor Xa levels of less than 0.5 u/ml and allowed fibrin clot and FPA generation during dialysis. Org 10172 administered as a bolus dose of 4,000-4,800 anti-factor Xa u produced mean anti-factor Xa levels of greater than 0.5 u/ml, allowed dialysis of 6 patients for 5 h and appreciably suppressed FPA generation during dialysis, with little effect on the KCCT. It is concluded that the anti-factor Xa activity of Org 10172 may reflect its ability to inhibit fibrin during dialysis and that single bolus injection of Org 10172 may be a useful alternative method of achieving anticoagulation.
 
Orgaran is a LMW heparinoid composed of heparan sulphate (83% w/w) of which 4-5% has high affinity for antithrombin, dermatan sulphate (12% w/w) and chondroitin sulphate (5% w/w). To examine the contribution of the low-affinity fraction to Orgaran's antithrombotic activity we have quantitated the binding of plasma proteins to Orgaran and its component fractions in whole, hirudin-anticoagulated human plasma. Antithrombin, largely bound to the high-affinity fraction, and histidine-rich glycoprotein, interacting with low-affinity components, were the dominant proteins bound to Orgaran. Vitronectin, fibrinogen, fibronectin, heparin cofactor II, and apolipoprotein B were also detected in small amounts. The ratio of bound antithrombin, histidine-rich glycoprotein and vitronectin to GAG was negatively correlated with the Orgaran concentration in plasma, implying that the efficacy of Orgaran may not be linearly related to dose. Binding of antithrombin to the high-affinity fraction was not decreased by other plasma proteins or affected by addition of low-affinity material. Moreover, the antithrombin and anti-factor Xa activities of the high-affinity material were unaltered by low-affinity GAGs. On the basis of our results we conclude that the low-affinity material does not contribute to the antithrombotic activity of Orgaran by binding non-anticoagulant plasma proteins and releasing the high-affinity chains to interact with antithrombin and its target proteinases.
 
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) with thrombosis occurs in about 1 in 2,000 heparin-treated patients. The arterial or venous thromboses may threaten life and limb hence alternative anticoagulation is needed. Some alternative treatments are possible i.e. LMWH, Ancrod, prostacyclin analogues, Dextran, aspirin and oral anticoagulants, but each has its drawbacks. This report reviews treatment of HIT patients with Orgaran (Org 10172), a low molecular weight heparinoid. Because of its proven antithrombotic activity Orgaran was used to treat 230 HIT patients. One hundred and fifty, nine patients presented with at least one thrombotic problem, which in 88 was due to the heparin use. 92.8% of the patients were considered to have adequately responded to Orgaran during the treatment period. Fifty-nine deaths (25.7%) occurred of which 7 (3.0%) were attributed to Orgaran use. The remaining 52 deaths, 27 of which occurred after Orgaran treatment was successfully terminated, were due to the severe underlying disorders in these patients. These results and the lower cross-reactivity rate (≈10%) with the heparin-induced antibody compared with that of the LMWH (>90%) suggest that although problems remain, Orgaran can be a valuable alternative treatment for patients who suffer from HIT and who require anticoagulation.
 
Potential interactions between Org 10172 (Lomoparan, i.v. bolus injection of 3,250 anti-Xa units followed by 750 units twice daily s.c. for 8 days) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (500 mg orally 14 and 2 h before i.v. Org 10172 administration) were studied in eight healthy male volunteers using an open, randomised three-way cross-over design. Except for moderate bruising at venepuncture and s.c. injection sites which were equally distributed over all three treatments (Org 10172 alone, ASA alone, Org 10172 and ASA combined), no side effects were observed. The effects of the separate drugs on several haemostatic parameters were as expected, although the prolongations in bleeding time after ASA were highly variable and tended to be somewhat more pronounced after the combination (p greater than 0.05). Org 10172 did not influence the inhibiting effects of ASA on platelet function nor the functional recovery afterwards, as evaluated by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, no important interactions were observed with regard to the coagulation tests and plasma anti-Xa activity. Although this study did not entirely exclude small interactions between Org 10172 and ASA in this relatively small group of subjects, these effects are probably without clinical significance.
 
Progressive thrombocytopenia may develop in as many as 5% of patients receiving heparin anticoagulation. In these patients, the risk of thromboembolic complications as well as continued thrombocytopenia necessitates discontinuation of heparin and initiation of an alternative anticoagulant when indicated. The heparinoid Lomoparan (Org 10172) is a mixture of several non-heparin low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans with proven anticoagulant efficacy that is generally non-reactive with platelets in the presence of plasma from patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia, whereas standard heparin will induce platelet aggregation. We evaluated the role of heparinoid as a potential alternative anticoagulant in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia. During a 6 month period, we identified six patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia who required an alternative parenteral anticoagulant, four as primary treatment for specific medical problem, and two as anticoagulation during a necessary surgical procedure. Heparinoid was used successfully in both medical and surgical patients requiring parenteral anticoagulation. In no case was there an exacerbation of the thrombocytopenia nor thromboembolic complications while on heparinoid therapy. Three of our patients sustained hemorrhagic complications, predominantly in the post-surgical setting in association with elevated anti-factor Xa levels and additional anticoagulant agents. We feel that these results confirm the utility of heparinoid anticoagulation in a select subset of patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia who require continued parenteral anticoagulation.
 
This double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial in 513 patients having elective surgery for intra-abdominal or intrathoracic malignancy compared the efficacy and safety of venous thrombosis (VT) prophylaxis using 750 anti-factor Xa units of Orgaran (a mixture of low molecular weight heparinoids) given subcutaneously (sc) twice-daily with that of twice-daily injections of 5,000 units standard heparin. The main study endpoints were the development of postoperative VT detected by 125I-fibrinogen leg scanning, and the onset of clinically significant venous thromboembolism or bleeding. "Intent to treat" analysis showed a statistically non-significant trend towards less VT during Orgaran prophylaxis (10.4%) than after heparin (14.9%) and there was no difference in bleeding complications between the two study groups. Results remained similar if only patients who completed the intended course of therapy ("compliant patients") were analysed. Other trials have shown that Orgaran prevents VT after hip surgery and stroke. We now show it is also safe and effective in patients having major surgery for cancer.
 
One hundred and three patients suffering from recurrent venous thrombosis, recurrent arterial thromboembolism and/or recurrent myocardial infarction and 50 healthy subjects were tested for Hageman factor (FXII) coagulant activity and antigen. Among the 103 patients we identified 15 subjects with FXII deficiency (15%), 3 with protein C deficiency (3%) and 3 with protein S deficiency (3%). Combined FXII and protein C, protein S or antithrombin III deficiency was not observed. The 103 patients were divided into subgroups according to the type of thrombotic complication. Among patients with exclusively recurrent venous thromboembolism 8% (p = 0.153) were deficient in FXII. Among patients suffering from recurrent arterial thromboembolism and/or myocardial infarction, the incidence of FXII deficiency was significantly higher (20%, p less than 0.003). In 67% of the patients with FXII deficiency a positive family history of thrombosis could be established. In contrast, only 32% of all venous and 28% of all arterial thrombosis patients had a positive family history. We believe that reduced levels of FXII should be considered as a risk factor in the development of thromboembolism. Consequently, more attention should be payed to the measurement of FXII when evaluating thromboembolic risk factors especially in cases of recurrent arterial thromboembolism and/or myocardial infarction.
 
The linear recognition sequences of an anti-beta(3) antibody that blocked platelet aggregation were identified using beta(3) tryptic peptides. Two of these recognition sequence-containing peptides were mapped to beta(3) 92-105, and antibodies affinity purified using these peptides blocked platelet aggregation. Examining the structure of alpha(IIb)beta(3) identified beta(3) 95-105 as the solvent accessible sequence within beta(3) 92-105. A peptide corresponding to beta(3) 95-105 was synthesized and used to affinity purify the beta(3) antibody. Anti-beta(3) 95-105 completely blocked platelet aggregation and agonist-induced fibrinogen binding to platelets, but had no effect on cyclic-RGD binding. Binding of anti-beta(3) 95-105 to alpha(IIb)beta(3) also did not alter the structure of the alpha(IIb) cap subdomain, as measured by anti-alpha(IIb) 201-217 binding. beta(3) 95-105 and peptides spanning two adjacent sequences in the structure of beta(3) did not bind fibrinogen and were ineffectual in blocking agonist-induced platelet aggregation. Structure analysis revealed that beta(3) 95-105 is adjacent to one of the two hinges in beta(3) that allows for the outward swing of the hybrid and PSI domains which is central to the conversion of alpha(IIb)beta(3) from a low into a high affinity state. Thus, the binding of an antibody to beta(3) 95-105 could serve as a fulcrum for allosteric regulation of alpha(IIb)beta(3) by regulating the movement of the hybrid-PSI domain.
 
Haemostatic disorders caused by Lonomia obliqua caterpillars has reached epidemic proportions in southern Brazil. Here we evaluated coagulation and fibrinolysis in 105 patients after accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. Global coagulation tests were prolonged in most cases and patients were divided into 3 groups according to fibrinogen (Fg) level: <or=0.5 g/l (group A); 0.51-1.5 g/l (group B), >1.5 g/l (group C). There was a significant reduction of factors V, XIII, VIII and prekallikrein in group A, with no change in factors X, II and von Willebrand factor. Thrombin-antithrombin and prothrombin F1+2 were elevated in most patients. Antithrombin and protein S were not changed whereas protein C levels were reduced in group A. Plasminogen and alfa2-antiplasmin levels were significantly reduced in group A and D-Dimer levels were extremely high in all groups, showing that fibrinolysis had been activated, possibly secondary to fibrin production. Levels of t-PA were normal and PAI-1 was mildly elevated in group A. The platelet count remained above 150 x 109 platelets/ml in 97% of cases. In summary, our results suggest that Lonomia obliqua envenoming is characterized by a consumption coagulopathy and secondary fibrinolysis.
 
Top-cited authors
Paolo Navalesi
  • University of Padova
Annalisa Boscolo
  • Department of Medicine
Luca Spiezia
  • University of Padova
Paolo Simioni
  • University of Padova
Elena Campello
  • University of Padova