Theory Into Practice

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1543-0421
Print ISSN: 0040-5841
Publications
Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not sufficient. The purpose of this article is to describe a family-school intervention for children with ADHD. In addition, program strategies and theoretical bases are discussed.
 
This paper was written as part of a project funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The authors thank the foundation for its help, acknowledging that the ideas expressed here do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of supporting agencies. Correspondence may be sent to: Shari Tishman, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 219 Longfellow Hall, Appian Way, Cambridge, MA 02138 In Press: Theory Into Practice Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation
 
We must next attempt a brief survey of recent methods of measuring emotion and the more complex personality traits, and then give some attention to modern conceptions of the nature of personality. This chapter considers the following topics: (1) physiological measurement of emotion; (2) behavior methods; (3) questionnaires and rating scales; (4) relation of physical to mental traits; (5) measurement of ethical knowledge and conduct; (6) theories of personality; (7) dissociation and the self; and (8) the mind-body relation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Genre/ mode switching. 
Law Faculty Experience Of Other Academic/Professional Writing. 
Although the term academic literacies was originally developed with regard to the study of literacies in higher education and the university, the concept also applies to K-12 education. An academic literacies perspective treats reading and writing as social practices that vary with context, culture, and genre (Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Street, 1984, 1995). The literacy practices of academic disciplines can be viewed as varied social practices associated with different communities. In addition, an academic literacies perspective also takes account of literacies not directly associated with subjects and disciplines, but with broader institutional discourses and genres. From the student point of view, a dominant feature of academic literacy practices is the requirement to switch their writing styles and genres between one setting and another, to deploy a repertoire of literacy practices appropriate to each setting, and to handle the social meanings and identities that each evokes.
 
Discusses recent theory and research on parental activities that influence children's academic self-regulatory development, describing a social-cognitive perspective on academic self- regulation which assumes parents function as implicit and explicit social models for their children and socially support their emulation and adaptive use of self-regulation. The paper describes a study of parental inducement of children's academic self-regulatory development, considering the implications for parents and teachers. (SM)
 
Language minority students represent an increasing percentage of the school-age student population in the United States. Because the number of English language learners (ELLs) is on the rise nationwide, some states have enacted English-only legislation that impacts the educational experiences of ELLs and the teachers who work with them. Many teachers are now responsible--for the first time--for the linguistic and academic success of this student population; therefore, many states and districts have mandated teacher training. The authors' work as co-staff developers over the past 7 years has highlighted the cyclic trends of teachers attending the workshops and the need to maintain a positive stance and ground training sessions in real classroom practices and experiences. As such, the interactive Structured English Language (SEI) training deepens the professional knowledge and strengthens the instructional skills of all certified teachers who attend the workshops and training sessions.
 
Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is presented here, in which the intent is to help students help each other plan their learning, identify their strengths and weaknesses, target areas for remedial action, and develop metacognitive and other personal and professional skills. Peer feedback is available in greater volume and with greater immediacy than teacher feedback. A peer assessor with less skill at assessment but more time in which to do it can produce an assessment of equal reliability and validity to that of a teacher. This article describes effective approaches to peer assessment and encourages teachers to incorporate it into their practice.
 
A more complete understanding of global perspective is provided in this essay through an examination of the modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual skills, and explanatory capacities which contribute to the formation of a global perspective. With an emphasis on both a formal and informal educational level, the essay is divided into five sections which examine the requirements for an attainable global perspective. Section 1, Perspective Consciousness, underscores the need to recognize the concept that everyone's perspective is shaped by subtle influences and that others may have different perspectives. Section 2, State of the Planet Awareness, examines the problems and solutions for increasing the ability of individuals to intelligently interpret information about world conditions. Section 3, Cross Cultural Awareness, describes the different degrees of cross-cultural awareness and the necessity to reach a stage beyond empathy where one has the capacity to imagine oneself in a role within the context of a foreign culture. Section 4, Knowledge of Global Dynamics, analyzes the world as an interdependent system where the issue of growth may be the predominant contemporary problem. Section 5, Awareness of Human Choices, emphasizes that increased global perspective will require difficult value decisions about the solutions to our world problems. (Author/DE)
 
Educators have been challenged to meet the needs of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Although this mandate has existed for 30 years, local educators report difficulties with program planning; graduation and grading of students with disabilities; recruitment and retention of qualified teachers; ensuring access of all students to the general education curriculum; training in collaborative planning and teaching; and placing students in the least restrictive setting. These challenges inhibit educators' ability to include students with disabilities in general education and are largely the by-product of district and state policy. This article describes a bottom-up, context-specific change model that focused on providing professional development at each level (local to state) of the system and fostering communication across the levels. This strategy produced lasting change in 2 states in policy and local implementation of policy and serves as a model for teachers and principals seeking to promote inclusion.
 
In this article, the implications of international students undertaking teacher education in Australian universities are discussed as an example of global teacher education and its consequences for teacher educators and students. Increasing numbers of international students come to Australia to qualify as teachers and this has consequences for the practices of teacher educators and also for the behaviors of the international teacher education students. We contend that the practice of undertaking teacher education in another country produces future teachers who are cosmopolitans who value diversity and embrace change and uncertainty, rather than producing fundamentalists who adhere rigidly to tradition and ritual truths. Drucker's (1993) concept of living simultaneously in global and local worlds forms a central element in the theoretical framework. Studying teacher education in global settings is seen as having positive outcomes and practical consequences at a number of levels.
 
The science-technology-society (STS) movement is emerging at the collegiate level. In elementary and secondary school science, social studies, and industrial arts classes, there is a growing awareness of the need for students to learn about technology and the methods by which it can be directed, made more appropriate, and controlled. This issue of "Theory Into Practice" is the first part of a two-part series that explores methods for approaching the integrated instruction of STS. Authors in this document review the history of science, technology, and social studies education, consider how various disciplines can contribute to the study of this emerging field, and discuss factors influencing the teaching of STS. A conceptualization of STS is introduced in the lead article by Melvin Kranzberg, one of the early proponents of an integrative study of science, technology, and society. In the following three articles, Paul DeHart Hurd, Karen F. Zuga, and Fred Splittgerber take a retrospective look at science, technology and social studies education, respectively, reviewing the history of those fields and related STS themes. The remaining articles address issues that influence people's perceptions of STS and ways in which STS instruction could be approached. Arthur G. Wirth, Merry M. Merryfield, and Jerry Kowal focus on concerns related to the reorganization of work, global perspectives, and a curricular approach to human values, respectively. Articles by Carolyn Carter, Rodger W. Bybee, and Peter A. Rubba discuss access to knowledge, the policy-practice gap, and teacher education. While describing and evaluating the STS movement, these articles point out the nature of the subject matter fields involved and identify potential areas of both cooperation and conflict. (PR)
 
Inclusive education aims toward integrating special needs students into all events of the typical classroom. For North American educators, the process of inclusion does not unfold naturally as in the routines of the Reggio Emilia approach. Reggio's powerful image of the child nourishes the authentic practice of maximizing each child's capabilities. With that, inclusion has the potential to reduce fear, to build respect and understanding not only in school life, but for the future as well. The purpose of this article is to identify and illustrate key principles within the Reggio ideals that can foster new beliefs and attitudes regarding inclusion. The goal is for teachers to consider alterations in their philosophies and practices concerning inclusion, and work toward adopting the research and making it into one of practice.
 
Classification of matching studies  
This article focuses on an educational versus psychological definition of learning styles and offers a rationale for matching student and teacher style based upon this definition. A survey of various matching approaches is provided along with a classification chart that visually differentiates among alternative matching strategies. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) by Renzulli and Smith is then described. The LSI is a research-based instrument designed to guide teachers in planning learning experiences that take into account the learning style preferences of students within their classrooms. The instrument provides information about student attitude toward lecture, discussion, drill and recitation, peer teaching, simulation, projects, teaching games, independent study and programmed instruction. Finally, research studies related to the LSI are reviewed. (Author)
 
The arrangement and use of space are parts of the nonverbal communications system of the class and, as such, have effects on the performance and behavior of both students and teachers. (MJB)
 
This booklet presents current educational theories concerning nonverbal communication and provides classroom activities for putting these theories into practice. The first section discusses the definition of communication, the relationship of verbal and nonverbal communication, the components of nonverbal communication, the environment of personal space, body movement and orientation, the face and eyes, and nonlanguage vocal behavior. The second section focuses on vocal cues, personal space and environment, face and eyes, body movement and orientation, and nonverbal awareness. Various games and exercises are recommended for each of these topics. The final section lists references related to nonverbal communication. (TS)
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. 25-29) Supported in part by the National Institute of Education under contract no. NIE 400-81-0030 and by the Department of Education under contract no. 300-81-0314
 
This article reframes the concept of comprehension as a social and intellectual practice. It reviews current approaches to reading instruction for linguistically and culturally diverse and low socioeconomic students, noting an emphasis on comprehension as autonomous skills. The Four Resources model (Freebody & Luke, 1990) is used to make the case for the integration of comprehension instruction with an emphasis on student cultural and community knowledge, and substantive intellectual and sociocultural content in elementary school curricula. Illustrations are drawn from research underway on the teaching of literacy in primary schools in low SES communities.
 
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Southern California, 1988. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-139).
 
All young children need to interact with their environments to achieve maximum development and learning. Technology has great potential for supporting the learning needs of all young children in early childhood programs supported by the Reggio Emilia philosophy. This article discusses possible uses of technologies that are appropriate for young children, including assistive technology devices (from low to high tech) for children with special needs. Additional uses of technology for educators and family members are included, such as for documentation, assessment, communication, and training.
 
Introduces a theme issue on the reform of school mathematics education. Articles in this issue describe: some of the many questions that have arisen from the call to reform of school mathematics; the response to the call from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics; and some recent research findings. (SM)
 
The 12 articles in this journal issue focus on writing as an expression of language. Specific topics discussed in the articles are: (1) What can be learned from writing research, (2) young children and writing (3) translating meaning from spoken to written language, (4) assumptions about writing instruction, (5) first grade writers, (6) learning to spell by spelling, (7) beginning writers' pencils and paper, (8) writing development patterns, (9) environmental influences on children's views of writing, (10) dynamic and static composition models, (11) peer editing, and (12) business writing and composition instruction. (HTH)
 
This article provides 4 selected strategies that were drawn from 135 schools that engaged in a research and development project to reform their teaching/learning from teacher-centered to learner-centered through a whole-school approach. The 4 strategies are provision for continuous internal supervision, exchanges of ideas and experiences, encouragement of community participation, and dissemination of innovations. Detailed descriptions of 4 practice-based strategies that emerged from the field are provided to help those who are interested in school reform.
 
The field of multicultural education emerged during the 50 years in which Theory Into Practice has been published. I provide a brief historical overview of how the field developed from ethnic studies, to multiethnic education, and to multicultural education, and identify articles published in Theory Into Practice that describe and analyze trends in the field since it was founded in 1962. The Theory Into Practice articles are discussed without the broad context of the historical development of the field. The most recent manifestation of multicultural education is its global focus and how it is implemented in nations around the world.
 
Our task is to consider the evolving perspectives around curriculum documented in the Theory Into Practice (TIP) corpus to date. The 50 years in question, 1962–2012, account for approximately half the history of mass institutionalized schooling. Over this time, the upper age of compulsory schooling has crept up, stretching the school curriculum's reach, purpose, and clientele. These years also span remarkable changes in the social fabric, challenging deep senses of the nature and shelf-life of knowledge, whose knowledge counts, what science can and cannot deliver, and the very purpose of education. The school curriculum is a key social site where these challenges have to be addressed in a very practical sense, through a design on the future implemented within the resources and politics of the present.
 
(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/24905404/_In_the_Service_of_Self-Determination_Teacher_Education_Service-Learning_and_Community_Reorganizing_) Influenced by Third World Liberation social movements in the United States and abroad, this article applies a serve-the-people concept to service-learning in education. Rooted in pedagogies more traditionally associated with ethnic studies and community organizing, and informed by sociocultural and critical frameworks in education, this article offers insights from school community spaces that serve K–12 youth from different urban working-class neighborhoods. Transformative opportunities for grassroots collaboration, learning, agency, and community reorganizing are explored with implications for students, teachers, teacher educators, and community workers concerned with social justice.
 
This study examines the limited use of technology as a potential obstacle to educational progress and development. Grounding our work in social justice issues reflected in the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, “banking education” was reviewed to articulate this use of technology, including the limited students’ engagement, opportunities to learn, and development of information/computer literacy. In the study, we introduce the notion of W³ (what technology is being used, why, and who is using it) to offer specific lenses (Table 1) related to K-12 technology-integrated instruction in regard to power structures. We offer suggestions on how teachers and educators can use these lenses to create technology-integrated activities to ensure equitable and meaningful learning opportunities. We provide additional recommendations on how administrators and policy makers can avoid banking (students’) education and support teachers’ implementation of effective technology platforms as major drivers for empowering students’ learning, progress, and future careers.
 
The role of technology in education has mystified the contributors to Theory Into Practice (TIP) during its 50-year history. In the first issue of TIP, Guba (1962)26. Guba , E. G. 1962. The issue: Teaching machines are here to stay. Theory into Practice, 1: 1–6. [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references was confident that “teaching machines are here to stay” and would help education, but raised various practical concerns, such as costs, programming resources, and acceptance by the education communities. Howell (1968)27. Howell , W. 1968. Technology and the human need. Theory into Practice, 7: 152–155. [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references was confident that new technologies would change education, but not directly without educators understanding their potential and having a commitment to use them wisely. Caldwell (1980)10. Caldwell , R. M. 1980. Improving learning strategies with computer-based education. Theory into Practice, 19: 141–143. [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references emphasized the need to reconceptualize the use of computers in education by shifting the emphasis from mere information delivery and testing systems to facilities that assist students in meaningful active learning, inquiry, and thought.
 
Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required of the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate practices required to be literate in the 21st century. Although educators often turn to the NCTE framework to define the characteristics of a 21st century literacies curriculum, missing from the professional literature are examples of student projects that have the potential to embody these characteristics. This article describes one such project, a digital transmedia magazine, in which groups of students transmediated a story or novel into a magazine using digital technologies. The article illustrates ways in which this project can be used to support students with the 6 elements of the NCTE framework.
 
This article examines how students can use the ePortfolio tool and platform to facilitate and foster increased opportunities for interactions with formal academic advisors and informal mentors. The learning documented within an ePortfolio can be especially useful as a resource for advisors and mentors who are looking not only to connect with their students in meaningful and relevant ways, but who also seek to understand their advisees' backgrounds and interests in order to better guide and support them along their academic journey. Drawing on theories from advising, mentoring, social networking, and communities of practice, the 360 degrees folio networking framework proposed explains the enhanced advising interactions and expanded mentoring opportunities that result when applied to ePortfolios. Examples from several institutions illustrating how ePortfolios have been integrated into advising and mentoring programs are explored.
 
Participants.
We utilize positioning theory to analyze language use within 2 different language program models in elementary language arts classrooms. We explore how the positioning of minoritized languages as valuable facilitates the use of students’ home languages in classrooms and allows us to examine the connections between language, identity, and power. Additionally, through the use of positioning theory alongside language learning theory, we recognize the importance of supporting students’ heritage language use, including nonstandard language varieties, in classroom settings. In the dual language (DL) classroom, we see how the teacher positions the Spanish language as valuable and worthy of learning. In the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom, the teacher positions African American Language (AAL) as worthy of study and inclusion in the curriculum and promotes the use of AAL within the poetry unit. Finally, we identify tensions that can emerge for teachers in different sociopolitical contexts within each of these language learning models.
 
Schools are adopting social emotional learning (SEL) programs, intending to provide students with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills to better prepare them for life. Transformative SEL is designed to promote the building of relationships between diverse students and educators to build more just schools and society. Because SEL models are heavily adopted, this paper addresses the inequities present within them. That is, traditional and transformative SEL fail BIPOC: Traditional SEL perpetuates the status quo by further marginalizing BIPOC and transformative SEL is too conceptual for successful adoption in PreK-12 schools. This article provides a brief discussion of traditional SEL, transformative SEL, and abolitionist teaching frameworks, then highlights educational practitioner narratives that discuss SEL adoptions that have proven harmful. We assert that we must (re)imagine and formulate a transformative SEL based on abolitionist teaching structures, which requires fully engaging the voices of our educators by presenting Transformative Abolitionist Social Emotional Learning (TASEL) framework, a practitioner-friendly SEL alternative framed by the tenets of equity and justice.
 
This work explores how short-term study abroad programs in emerging nations might be redesigned to become more beneficial to host institutions and communities, while providing more responsive, transformative learning experiences for students, and analyze how study abroad programs, as well as follow-on grant and research programs, can also be the tools that develop a sustainable and equitable partnership between universities in the Global North and South. This research is focused on the challenges of developing equitable north-south partnerships, as well as research focused on improving the quality of student experiences in emerging nations. Based on multiple study abroad programs from North America to Botswana, we examine the development of more collaborative study abroad programs in developing countries. This research, focused on the development and execution of study abroad programs with the propensity to positively impact their host community, or at least to do no harm, particularly in developing nations – includes analyses of programs that emphasize connecting and coping skills for all participants, community engagement and the avoidance of missionary zeal, and effective service-learning projects.
 
This article describes the theory and practice of three education courses focusing on critical multicultural education. Two versions of the course take place on the campus of a small liberal arts university in the Midwest region of the United States and the other is based at the same university but operates as a study abroad course in Trinidad and Tobago. Each course offers rich and challenging critical elements of multicultural education. This article describes the development of the curriculum and the strategies involved in the execution of these courses. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) and corresponding Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC) were used to assist in personalized instruction for students, along with Rogerian principles of personal growth and Freire’s notion of praxis: action and reflection. Students’ comments are included, highlighting the power of these courses. Recommendations are given for providing a more immersive and personalized education in critical multicultural education.
 
How do preservice teachers (PSTs) understand social justice within the context of education-focused study abroad programs? How might traveling across cultural borders facilitate PSTs'™ development of a social justice mindset? Drawing on previous studies and examples from an ongoing study of 6 annual, short-term study abroad programs, this article explores how PSTs reported experiences related to social justice and suggests implications for study abroad programs in teacher education. We propose that the context, curriculum, and co-curricular activities of a study abroad program have the potential to impact how PSTs conceptualize social justice and that an intentional focus on context-specific issues of social justice from a critical perspective has the potential to both broaden and deepen their conceptualizations. We suggest approaches from the programs that provided opportunities for PSTs to develop nuanced understandings of social justice in education and showed promise for preparing PSTs with global competency to serve diverse students.
 
Scholarship in teacher education reflects study abroad as established pedagogy and part of ‘best practices’ in preparing K-12 teachers for diverse classrooms. Three discourses dominate the literature to affirm the positive role of study abroad: a) changing White preservice teachers’ perceptions of self and others; b) increasing their multicultural knowledge and global-mindedness; and, c) developing competencies for culturally responsive classroom practice. In drawing from several scholars, this article uses poststructural analysis to trouble the above discourses that articulate study abroad within normalizing conceptions of self and other, universal worldview of multicultural knowledge and global-mindedness, and fixed conceptualization of culturally responsive teaching, so that new ways of thinking about disciplinary knowledge and pedagogical practice emerge. This article recommends teacher education pedagogies include critical frames of analyses when interpreting study abroad experiences for thinking through theory for generative practice and reclaiming epistemic reflexivity in how we do research.
 
Study abroad experiences provide teacher education programs with an opportunity to immerse their teacher candidates within linguistic and cultural contexts capable of broadening their views beyond their own settings with the hopes of improving their understanding and subsequent teaching of all children. Yet, from a Critical White Studies perspective, these same experiences can reify avoidance or enhance troubling views of children and families outside of the white dominant culture. Relying on autoethnographic methods, this article describes the importance of using Critical White Studies as a tool for classroom teachers as they navigated studying abroad. Autoethnographic study requires in-depth examination of how identity is understood by the self and others. The article examines how the teachers used course assignments focused on reflections, journaling, and follow up interviews and indicated that the teachers began to recognize their racial and linguistic positions of privilege through the use of autoethnographic methods. Recommendations for the utilization of autoethnography as a tool for teacher processing of study abroad experiences are included with specific course assignments and activities.
 
In this article, I explore the impact of receiving mentorship into research and theory of the field that was guided by a social constructivist learning lens. I reflect on the ways that my conception of research and research agenda were framed subconsciously by early experiences investigating my secondary mathematics teaching practice under the mentorship of Dr. Terry Wood. Terry mentored through listening, posing questions, creating cognitive conflict, and encouraging my autonomous exploration. What stood out from this process are the parallels between her words about constructivism, applied to the elementary mathematics classroom, and her ways of mentoring me into the space of mathematics education research, theory, and practice. Her patient and student-centered mentorship had a profound impact on my ways of framing and studying teacher learning.
 
In this article, I argue that academic language is a raciolinguistic ideology that frames racialized students as linguistically deficient and in need of remediation. I propose language architecture as an alternative framing of language that can serve as a point of entry for resisting these raciolinguistic ideologies in both research and practice. I use this framework as a lens for analyzing the literacy demands of the Common Core State Standard (CCSS). Using data collected as part of a larger ethnographic study, I illustrate how Latinx children from bilingual communities have unique opportunities for engaging in the language architecture called for in the standards. I then describe a unit plan that I developed from this perspective. I end with a call for situating language architecture within broader political struggles seeking to dismantle the political and economic inequities that are the root causes of deficit perspectives of Latinxs and other racialized students.
 
The belief that cheating is wrong doesn’t prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two “good” theories that offer some insight into the psychological and social processes underlying the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Specifically, attribution theory and social norms theory serve as conceptual lenses for understanding how students manage cognitive dissonance related to academic dishonesty. Finally, in the spirit of Kurt Lewin, these two “good” theories are discussed in terms of the design and development of “wise interventions” aimed at promoting academic integrity and reducing the prevalence of cheating.
 
To be academically successful, students need to delay gratification, sustain motivation, keep a high level of self-efficacy, and maintain an appropriate balance within their hot/cool cognitive-affective system. The cognitive-affective personality system includes 5 cognitive-affective mediating components (i.e., individuals’ way of encoding themselves and situations; expectancy for success and beliefs; affective responses, emotions, and feelings; goals and values; and competencies and self-regulatory plans), and it is the theoretical framework that guides this article. Consistent with the theme of this special issue and by focusing on college students, I present applications of motivational theory to educational practices for each of the 5 cognitive-affective mediating components with particular attention to a hot-cool system analysis of delaying gratification. The article describes specific motivational practices that could advance existing knowledge and enhance teaching, learning, and performance among college students. The article provides practical applications about how teachers could promote motivation when assigning long-term projects.
 
In 2008, I argued that a new approach to academic integrity in the 21st century was needed because the dominant approaches had been proven to be relatively ineffective (Bertram Gallant, 2008). This new approach, the teaching and learning approach, challenged educators to situate integrity practices within the goal of improving student learning, in essence shifting the focus from how educators could stop students from cheating to how they could ensure students are learning (Bertram Gallant, 2008, p. 112). I argued that this shift could be realized through “fostering a learning-oriented environment, improving instruction, enhancing institutional support for teaching and learning, and reducing institutional constraints to teaching and learning” (Bertram Gallant, 2008, p. 89). Although the latter 2 strategies are critical for realizing the teaching and learning approach, I do not address them here. Instead, I focus on applying empirical research to elucidate the practical methods faculty can use in the classroom to foster learning orientations and improve instruction. I will also introduce a 5th strategy of the teaching and learning approach—leveraging the cheating moment as a teachable moment. This 5th strategy is instrumental for faculty members who hope to create a teaching and learning environment in which cheating is the exception and integrity the norm.
 
Some argue that supporting minoritized students’ “academic language” (AL) development fosters equity in education. Others contend that AL is hegemonic, and that attempts to teach it perpetuate inequities across racial, ethnic, social class, immigrant, and related sociocultural and linguistic student differences. In this article, we frame the topic of this special issue—interdisciplinary approaches to equity in teaching AL—and show how authors across positions and analytic methods examine the goals of teaching AL and recommend ways for educators to foster meaningful language awareness for students. Although substantive, unresolved disagreements between positions remain; we identify points of agreement as well, which we present to educators as interdisciplinary principles of equity in teaching. Namely, educators should 1) understand how language is more than just vocabulary; 2) recognize academic features in students’ everyday talk; 3) develop awareness of language and its contexts of use with students, and 4) foster critical language awareness.
 
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