plantation-based revolts were but one element in a spectrum of resistance that transcended Africa, the Middle Passage, and the Americas.2 This article seeks to redress the imbalance in the literature by examining patterns of slave revolts on board ships at the African coast and in the Atlantic crossing between circa i650 and i86o. Using newly revealed quantitative data, it attempts to uncover explanations of these revolts and to assess their impact on the level as well as the structure of the slave trade. The analysis suggests that rebelliousness by slaves on ship and the resulting efforts by European carriers of slaves to curb such behavior significantly reduced the shipments of slaves. In addition, the analysis uncovers major variations in the incidence of revolts over time and, equally important, by geographical origin of the slaves shipped. These variations cannot be explained by reference to failure of European management regimes on slave ships but seem instead to be rooted in differences in the political economy of the various African slave supply regions. Overall, therefore, patterns of shipboard revolt shed important light on the impact of Africa and Africans on the organization and scale of the Atlantic slave trade as well as on the relationship of the trade in enslaved Africans to the development of Atlantic history.
Building on the work of McCalla, McInnis and others we describe the early income of Upper Canada over the period 1826 to 1851. The Municipal Assessments, which report ownership of land, livestock and other property, allow us to develop conjectural estimates of farm income; and various Provincial Accounts help us describe the pattern of trade as well as the development of the school system. Although we find little evidence of intensive growth in that per capita incomes stayed about the same over the period, there were remarkable increases in aggregate output and population.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Barbados formed one of the world's most successful economies, specialised in exporting sugar produced using enslaved labour. This paper analyses an account book maintained by the Bridgetown merchant factor, Richard Poor Jr, between 1699 and 1713. Poor Jr initially traded in provisions but switched to importing manufactures in exchange for sugar, rum, and cotton after establishing business relations with London Quaker merchants. Analysis of Sunday trading suggests that many clients were fellow Non-conformists. Quakerism, however, fused with other factors in reinforcing trust and security. The distribution of transactions was skewed towards persons trading only once or twice, while customers owning taxable property and heads of households generated the most valuable accounts and transacted over the longest period of time. The tempo of mercantile life appears slow: on a majority of days zero transactions are recorded. This finding may reflect the degree to which non-business activities complemented commerce.
This comprehensive study explores all aspects of the English business community as it developed between 1590 and 1720. Drawing on largely untapped records of private firms as well as on institutional archives, Richard Grassby describes and explains the economic and technical structure of business in a pre-industrial economy and examines the ways in which social values, demographic factors, the family, the state and religion distributed talent, trained and motivated businessmen and determined their life style. The important conclusion which emerges from his study is that individual initiative and a fluid social structure largely account for differences in response to economic opportunities between England and other pre-industrial societies. His book offers an empirically based analysis of why men entered business, how they lived and worked and what they achieved, and it will appeal to all who wish to understand the dynamics of pre-industrial growth and the interaction between business and society.
New World Economies closely examines the economic development of the Thirteen Colonies and early French Canada, looking at the impact of changing prices, capital flows, and shifts in demand. It is a companion to Egnal's earlier book, Divergent Paths, which emphasizes the influence of culture and institutions on growth. It contains seventeen tables and more than one hundred graphs, many of which are based on original data, presenting these new statistics in a series of appendices. Egnal's central argument is that the pace of economic development in the colonies reflected the rate of growth in the parent country. The book's theoretical foundation builds upon, but moves beyond, the traditional "staple thesis." Thoroughly documented and rich in quantitative data, the study traces the trajectory of economic growth by region and establishes a clear connection between colonial and European rates of growth.
The electronic version of this book has been prepared by scanning Group IV TIFF 600 dpi images of the pages of the book by Northern Micrographics in April 2002Shipment 14. Original source: Early maps of the Ohio Valley : a selection of maps, plans, and views made by Indians and colonials from 1673 to 1783 / Lloyd Arnold Brown. ; Brown, Lloyd Arnold, 1907- ; xiv, 132 p. : ill., maps, facsims., plans ; 29 cm. ; [Pittsburgh] : University of Pittsburgh Press, c1959. ; Created by OCR. NO corrections have been made.
Patterns of thought of social organization provided the focus of a study of the development of American Presbyterian institutions of higher education and of the denomination that established and supported them between the first and second Great Awakenings. The first part of the study describes the original Presbyterian settlements in the early eighteenth century, examines the Great Awakening in depth, and looks at the reunion that healed the colonial schism. The second part covers the Revolutionary War years between 1775 and 1795, especially the Presbyterians' response to the war for independence and its republican ideology. The third part examines the Presbyterian disillusionment with the Revolution and with the denomination's reaction to the altered religious landscape of the young republic. (Editor/MSE)
Vol. 2 has title: Philip Vickers Fithian: journal, 1775-1776, written on the Virginia-Pennsylvania frontier and in the army around New York, edited by Robert Greenhalgh Albion ... and Leonidas Dodson ... Vol. 2 has imprint: Princeton, Princeton university press, 1934. "Journal: October 26, 1774-March 19, 1775": [v. 2] p. -258. Bibliography: [v. 2] p. -261. Volume 1: Electronic reproduction. Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, [2002 or 2003]
The electronic version of this book has been prepared by scanning TIFF 600 dpi bitonal images of the pages of the text. Original source: The transformation of Western Pennsylvania, 1770-1800 / R. Eugene Harper.; Harper, R. Eugene.; xx, 273 p. : maps ; 23 cm.; Pittsburgh, PA :; This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 2 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file.
The electronic version of this book has been prepared by scanning TIFF 400 dpi color and greyscale images of the pages of the text. Original source: Conquest of the country northwest of the River Ohio 1778-1783 : and life of Gen. George Rogers Clark / by William Hayden English. v.2; English, William Hayden, 1822-1896.; 2 v. : ill., facsims., maps, ports. ; 26 cm.; Indianapolis, Ind. :; This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 2 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file.
Remittances of Continental Dollars to the national treasury from each state by year from 1779 through 1789 are used to determine state compliance with congressional resolutions regarding Continental-Dollar redemption. From 1781 through 1789, the states as a whole stayed well ahead of the remittance schedule set by Congress in 1779. Individual state compliance, however, varied considerably. By the time Congress changed redemption requirements with the Funding Act of 4 August 1790, a majority of the net new Continental Dollars ever emitted by Congress had already been redeemed by the states and remitted to the national treasury to be burned.Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.