The Veterinary Journal

Published by Elsevier
Print ISSN: 1090-0233
Publications
A randomized blinded placebo controlled trial was conducted to assess the clinical, biochemical and histological effects of a hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine combination (PG) administered through an intra-articular (IA) route for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) at the time of injury. OA was induced in one carpal joint of each of 16 horses. Horses were designated placebo or IA PG treated. All horses were treated with 125mg amikacin sulfate IA and 5mL physiological saline in the middle carpal joint bilaterally on study Days 0 (after induction of OA), 7, 14 and 28, except the OA affected joint of the IA PG horses, which received 5mL PG plus 125mg of amikacin sulfate on similar days. Evaluations included clinical and radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross and histological examinations, as well as histochemical and biochemical analyses. The model induced a significant pathology that resulted in clinical disease. No adverse treatment-related events were detected in any of the horses. Intra-articular treatment of OA-affected joints with PG resulted in a transient 16% improvement in clinical pain (lameness scores) and evidence of improvement trends in bone proliferation radiographically as well as in the degree of full thickness articular cartilage erosion seen grossly when compared to placebo treated OA affected joints, although the vast majority of outcome parameters were not significantly different than controls. The findings support some potential clinical sign or disease modifying action of this compound administered IA at the tested dose and frequency.
 
The relationship between the dose level of exogenous 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and the AUC 0-120. There was a significant linear correlation between the dose level and the AUC 0-120 (r = 0.944; P < 0.0001). 
Comparison of the changes in plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 after the intravaginal (n) and intravenous (h) administration of 1 lg of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 per kg BW. The mean percentage bioavailability of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was 93.0 ± 25.4%. Note that the collection of data for cows treated intravenously commenced 5 min after the administration of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . 
It was previously reported that intravaginal (IVAG) administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) might be protective against bovine hypocalcaemia. In the present study, various doses of exogenous 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were administered IVAG to ovariectomised cows, and the subsequent changes in the biochemical parameters of the blood were measured to assess the characteristics of vaginal absorption. Five cows received 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) IVAG at a dose of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0microg/kg of body weight (BW) or intravenously at a dose of 1.0microg/kg BW. Dosing was at intervals of at least two weeks in a 5x5 Latin square design. Vaginally administered 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was absorbed in a dose-dependent manner. There was no correlation between the IVAG dose of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and subsequent changes in plasma calcium concentrations. The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administered IVAG at 1.0microg/kg BW was approximately 93%.
 
The objective of this prospective observational study was to assess systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) in small-breed dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) from different International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) heart failure classes. For this purpose, 103 client-owned dogs weighing <20kg (mean±standard deviation, 8.5±3.0kg; aged 9.8±2.9years) and presenting with MVD diagnosed by echo-Doppler examination were enrolled. Nineteen healthy dogs (9.9±2.3years; 8.7±4.2kg) were concurrently recruited as controls. SABP was measured in unsedated dogs using the Doppler method according to the recommendations in the American College of Veterinary Medicine consensus statement. SABP was significantly increased in dogs in ISACHC class 1 (n=53; median, interquartile range 140mmHg, 130-150mmHg) and class 2 (n=21; 140mmHg, 130-150mmHg), compared to the control group (n=19; 130mmHg, 120-140mmHg; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), but remained within the reference interval (⩽160mmHg). Conversely, dogs in ISACHC class 3 showed a significantly lower SABP (n=29, 120mmHg, 110-130mmHg) than those from all other ISACHC classes (P<0.001) and the controls (P<0.05). Additionally, SABP<120mmHg was recorded in 13/103 dogs (13%). The 13 dogs were all ISACHC class 3 (3a or 3b) and were under medical treatment for heart failure. In conclusion, MVD was often associated with SABP values that were within the reference interval, but at its upper end. However, a significant decrease in SABP was observed in dogs with ISACHC heart failure class 3. Whether such low SABP values resulted from an MVD-related decrease in cardiac output, an afterload reduction owing to cardiac treatment, or both, remains to be determined.
 
The clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 108 horses with echocardiographically confirmed mild mitral valve regurgitation (MR) were investigated along with its clinical progression. Follow-up consisted of a re-examination of 28 horses and questionnaires were used to obtain information on a further 43 cases. Thirty-seven horses with mild MR were lost to follow-up. Horses with mild MR were re-examined between 2 and 9 years (3.8+/-1.8 years) following first presentation, with mild MR still present and a small, but statistically significant (P=0.049) increase of left ventricular diameter in end-diastole. These results suggested that mild MR has a good mid-term prognosis in sport and pleasure horses.
 
To investigate the association between locomotion score and types of hoof lesion, cows from 91 selected dairy herds in southern Chile were studied. The locomotion score was recorded for all of the lactating cows (n=10,699). The mean prevalence of lame cows, when all locomotion scores >1 were included was 33.2% in large herds and 28.7% in small herds. There were 39.7%, 42%, 17.9% and 0.4% cows with locomotion scores of 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Feet (with locomotion scores representative of all severities of lameness) were examined on 676 cows from 34 large herds and 422 cows from 57 small herds. The prevalence of lesions by type ranged from 65% of cattle with at least one white line lesion to 2% of cattle with an interdigital growth. The lesions linked with increasingly poor locomotion were sole ulcer, double sole and interdigital purulent inflammation. There was correlation between claw skin lesions and also between sole ulcer and double sole within cows. It was concluded that the presence of a lesion does not imply that it is necessarily associated with increasing locomotion score. The lack of association between certain lesions and poor locomotion scores indicates either that these lesions are causing different severities of lameness, or that the case definitions used were not sufficiently precise. Locomotion score may not be sensitive enough to detect all lesions (and possibly discomfort).
 
Out of 500 faecal samples from lambs with diarrhoea in Jammu and Kashmir, India, 66 (13.2%) were positive for group A rotavirus (GARV) by the latex agglutination test (LAT). Electropherotyping by RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the typical GARV 4-2-3-2 migration pattern in 49/66 (74.2%) samples. Fifty-two samples (10.4%) were positive by reverse transcription-PCR. G6 was the predominant G genotype (25/52; 48.07%), followed by G10 (19/52; 36.54%) whereas, the predominant P genotype was P[11] (46/52; 88.46%). G6P[11] is the prevalent strain of group A rotavirus in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
 
Germline mutations in the BRCA2 tumour suppressor gene are significant risk indicators of breast cancer in women, especially for hereditary breast cancer. The BRCA2 protein interacts via the BRC (breast cancer) domain with RAD51, an essential component of the cellular machinery for the maintenance of genome stability and double strand-breaks repair. Exon 11 is the largest exon of the BRCA2 gene and contains the region encoding eight repeats of the BRC domain. Little is known about the roles of BRCA2 exon 11 in canine mammary tumours. In present study, the entire BRCA2 exon 11 was sequenced in canine mammary tumours. Fifteen mammary gland samples were obtained from four normal mammary glands and 11 mammary tumours (10 malignant and one benign tumours). Comparing sequences of normal mammary glands with those in GenBank (AB043895 and Z75664), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 2414 G>A (resulting in a lysine to an arginine substitution) was identified. When compared with the normal mammary gland, 19 sporadically distributed point mutations were found in mammary tumours, including 68% of missense and 32% of silent mutations. A high frequency of genetic variations in codon 511 A>C or 2414 A>G were identified in 6/11 cases, and two missense mutations (2414 A>G, 2383 A>C) were located at the fourth repeat of the BRC domains.
 
A 10-year-old female Miniature Dachshund with a non-resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumour was treated with imatinib. The neoplastic cells had a deletion mutation (c.1667_1672del) within exon 11 of the c-kit gene, which resulted in deletion of three amino acids and insertion of one amino acid (p.Trp556_Val558delinsPhe) in the juxtamembrane domain of KIT. Following treatment with imatinib, the dog achieved partial remission on Day 21 with a continuous decrease in tumour size until Day 67 of treatment. Although no additional decrease in size was observed after Day 67 of treatment, the tumour remained stable in size as of Day 140 of treatment. The c-kit mutation found in the tumour cells appears to be a mutation driving oncogenesis, as evidenced by the partial remission elicited by imatinib in this dog.
 
Examination of 110 cheek teeth (CT) that were clinically extracted (between 2004 and 2008) because of apical infection (n=79; mean dental age 3.5 years) or idiopathic CT fractures (n=31; median dental age 8.5 years), including examinations of transverse and longitudinal sections, showed the apical infections to be mainly (68%) due to anachoresis, with the residual cases caused by periodontal spread, infundibular caries spread, fissure fractures and dysplasia. The idiopathic fracture patterns were similar to previously described patterns. Occlusal pulpar exposure was found in 32% of apically infected CT, including multiple pulps in 27% and a single pulp in 5%. However, 10% of apically infected CT had changes to the occlusal secondary dentine, termed occlusal pitting, but did not have exposure of the underlying pulp. Multiple pulpar exposures occurred in some CT with apical infections, and the combination of pulp involvement reflects the anatomical relationships of these pulps. A higher proportion (42%) of CT extracted because idiopathic fractures had pulpar exposure (26% multiple, 16% single pulps), especially with midline sagittal maxillary and miscellaneous pattern mandibular CT fractures, but only (3%) had occlusal pitting.
 
Using a representative sample of Scottish sheep comprising 125 flocks, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) was estimated. By combining and adapting existing methods, the characteristics of the diagnostic test were estimated (in the absence of a gold standard reference) using repeated laboratory replicates. As the results of replicates within the same animal cannot be considered to be independent, the performance of the PCR was calculated at individual replicate level. The median diagnostic specificity of the PCR when applied to individual animals drawn from the Scottish flock was estimated to be 0.997 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.996-0.999), whereas the median sensitivity was 0.107 (95% CI 0.077-0.152). Considering the diagnostic test as three replicates where a positive result on any one or more replicates results in a positive test, the median sensitivity increased to 0.279. Reasons for the low observed sensitivity were explored by comparing the performance of the test as a function of the concentration of target DNA using spiked positive controls with known concentrations of target DNA. The median sensitivity of the test when used with positive samples with a mean concentration of 1.0 target DNA sequence per 25μL was estimated to be 0.160, which suggests that the PCR had a high true (analytical) sensitivity and that the low observed (diagnostic) sensitivity in individual samples was due to low concentrations of target DNA in the blood of clinically healthy animals.
 
Alpha-chloralose (AC) is an anaesthetic compound also used as a rodenticide, and has dose-dependent central nervous system mixed effects of excitation and depression. The objectives of this study were to detail the clinical and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as the treatment and prognosis, of AC toxicosis in dogs and cats. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for AC poisoning between the years 1989 and 2004, and 33 dogs and 13 cats were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were seizures, muscle tremor, hyperaesthesia, hypothermia, salivation, myosis, stupor, coma and ataxia. Coma was more common, while salivation and ataxia were less common in cats compared to dogs. Although hypothermia was very common, especially in cats (90.9%), hyperthermia was frequently observed in dogs (21%). Treatment in all patients was supportive and symptomatic, and the most commonly used anticonvulsants were diazepam and barbiturates; however, severe unresponsive seizures in three dogs had to be controlled with inhalant gas anaesthesia. The hospitalisation period was 1-3 days, and the overall mortality rate was 6.5%. Alpha-chloralose poisoning seems to have a favourable prognosis in dogs and cats.
 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the 13C-galactose breath test (13C-GBT) in assessing canine liver function by applying it to a group of healthy dogs, and to a group with clinicopathological evidence of liver dysfunction. Breath samples were collected 30 min before ingestion of 13C-galactose, and then at regular intervals thereafter for 6 h. The proportion of 13CO2/12CO2 in the breath samples was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. There was no significant difference in recovery of 13CO2 in the diseased group, compared to the healthy controls, but there was considerable inter-subject variation in both groups, possibly due to differences in the rate of gastric emptying, which could preclude detection of alterations in hepatic metabolism of galactose. The results of this study do not support the application of the 13C-GBT for assessment of canine liver function.
 
History rediscovered: Welcome to 139 years of The Veterinary Journal ''History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time; it illumi-nates reality, vitalizes memory, provides guidance in daily life, and brings us tidings of antiquity.'' Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 – 43 BC) Pro Publio Sestio The Roman statesman and scholar, Cicero, draws our attention to the importance of appreciating the past and shows how it impacts on our lives. In this quote he emphasises that only through understanding what has gone before can we begin to visualise what really happened. History, he says, will enhance the memory, help to direct current endeavours and bring alive the work of our predecessors. It can also guide us to imitate and progress what has been successful and to reject what was mistaken. These con-cepts are important in science too but are not always recognised. Editors of scientific journals regularly read reports from reviewers stressing that an author has omitted to cite particular references or appears unaware of earlier work that is (or could have been) crucial to their investigations. But historical research can be frus-trating. Many of us reflect from time to time that we have a vague idea that such and such a study was done sometime in the past but even with the best of search engines we often find we cannot quite trace the report we need. George Fleming (1833–1901), who founded The Veterinary Journal in 1875, was an energetic and controversial figure of considerable importance in veterinary history. Writing in 1927, Major-General Sir Frederick Smith wrote of Fleming that he was 'modern in every sense of the term, and adopted views on glanders and tuberculosis which were greatly in advance of the veterinary thought of his day' (Smith, 1927). Fleming had a somewhat turbulent career that saw him progress from farrier's forge-boy to pioneering veterinary scientist, author, explorer and Director-General of the Army Veterinary Department. According to a recent history of the British Veterinary Association, Fleming was one of 'a metropolitan veterinary elite' (Boden, 2013) who played a crucial role in the passing of the Veterinary Surgeons Act in 1881. This was achieved against much opposition and established (in Fleming's view) veterinarians as educated and scientific (Fleming, 1880) and, for the first time separating in law qualified veterinary surgeons from those who were unqualified. According to Smith (1927), Fleming financed from his own pocket the passing of the Act. Fleming clearly had a vision of a science-based profession (Boden, 2013) and 'his pen was never idle' although he was fre-quently outspoken and often opinionated (Smith, 1927). During his military years, Fleming strove to make the Army Veterinary School at Aldershot a centre of scientific research. He published many editorials, commentaries and scientific papers in The Veterinary Journal and finally resigned the editorial chair in 1895 after 20 years. Smith (1927) notes that the creation and conduct of this journal was 'not the least of the great services he rendered to the profession'. The sea change in scientific thinking in the second half of the nineteenth century, accompanied by legislation and political development, helped veterinary science to become less empirical and more evidence based. It is rewarding to read in the early vol-umes of The Veterinary Journal how Fleming, as one of the 'modern scientific thinkers', considered and tackled such weighty matters as the introduction of machine-made horse shoes, the establish-ment of a Vaccine Institute as an Annex to the Army Veterinary School, and the critical need to understand and address many di-verse questions on infectious diseases, new surgical techniques, hygiene and equine physiology. For these reasons, the publishers of The Veterinary Journal, Elsevier, are to be commended for agreeing to digitise all back issues since 1875. This is planned to happen during the first half of 2014. Currently, The Veterinary Journal is available on-line only to January 1984 (Volume 140, Issue 1 of what was then called the British Veterinary Journal). In 1949, a decision was taken to change Fleming's founding title by including the word 'British'. The aim was to highlight the origin of the publication and, with the memories of World War II deeply etched in many minds, it is perhaps understandable that nationalist feelings of the time led to this variation (Higgins, 1997). There was also a strong view that the change would boost readership and it was therefore somewhat paradoxical that 48 years later, in 1997, we reverted to the original title for virtually the same reason. This is the one hundred and thirty-ninth year of the journal's existence. When it started, Disraeli had just succeeded Gladstone as British Prime Minister, Queen Victoria was on the throne, Aristides won the very first Kentucky Derby and Dr. Robert Koch was still to publish his pivotal paper which proved that anthrax was caused by an infectious micro-organism (Higgins, 1994). We have come a long way since then, but it is a matter of celebration that every page since 1875 will now be available on line. What a wealth of knowledge and history exists in those pages. How long TVJ will exist in print format remains to be seen, but regardless of such difficult publishing decisions, the journal con-tinues to grow from strength to strength. It commands a high im-pact factor, records envious downloads and has a massive submission rate that has led to the appointment of further mem-bers of the editorial team in 2014. During the last 12 months, the publishers have succeeded in dramatically bringing down the time to print publication by investing in a series of bumper print 1090-0233/$ -see front matter Ó
 
The 14-3-3 sigma protein, also called stratifin, belongs to the highly conserved family of 14-3-3 acid proteins, which are involved in the modulation of diverse signal transduction pathways. Loss of 14-3-3 sigma expression has been observed in several types of human cancers, suggesting that it may have a role as a tumour suppressor gene. The 14-3-3 sigma protein has been localised in normal human tissues exclusively in various epithelial cell types. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and the distribution pattern of 14-3-3 sigma by immunohistochemical analysis in normal canine tissues. Immunohistochemical expression of 14-3-3 sigma was demonstrated in several normal canine tissues with some minor differences of distribution pattern compared with human tissues. It appears that 14-3-3 sigma is a very specific epithelial cell marker in normal canine tissues.
 
Fourteen cases of cervico-thoracic (C-T) vertebral osteomyelitis in calves were investigated over a 6 year period. The onset of clinical signs was between 2 and 9 weeks of age. There was no breed or sex predisposition. The clinical history prior to referral extended from 5 days to 8 weeks (mean 20 days). The most common clinical presentation was difficulty in rising with a tendency to knuckle or kneel on the forelimbs which displayed hypotonia and hyporeflexia. In over half the cases pain could be elicited on manipulation of the neck. The lesion in all cases involved one or more of the vertebrae from C6 to T1. The diagnosis was confirmed by radiology and/or at post mortem. Four animals were discharged after treatment, 10 animals were humanely destroyed. Salmonella dublin was isolated from the vertebral lesion in eight of the 10 calves at post mortem.
 
To discern whether an association exists between specific combinations of polymorphisms of the prion protein (PrP) and natural scrapie in Cyprus goats, 250 goats were examined, including 164 histologically positive cases. Previously reported amino acid polymorphisms were detected at codons 154 (R-->H), 168(P-->Q), 220(Q-->H) and 240 (S-->P) and nucleotide alterations at codons 42 (a-->g) and 138 (c-->t). Additionally, novel amino acid polymorphisms were detected at codons 146 (N-->S or D) and 151 (R-->H) and new "silent" mutations were found at codons 179 (V,g-->t), 181 (D,c-->t) and 219 (T,c-->t). The two novel polymorphisms at codon 146 were found only in the healthy control and scrapie-negative goats. By comparison, none of the scrapie-affected goats encoded these polymorphisms.
 
The effect of a novel lairage environment on the ability of sheep to recover from 16 h of transport was investigated. Sheep were transported from grass paddocks to either novel outside paddocks or inside pens, and housed groups were transported to either familiar or novel inside pens. During transport, sheep from outside paddocks lay down less than those from inside pens. In sheep transported to inside pens, those from outside paddocks spent more time lying and spent less time eating; hay and water intakes during the first 12 h post-transport were lower than those previously kept inside. There was no obvious effect of a novel environment post-transport on blood biochemistry, suggesting that the lower post-transport feed and water intakes in a novel environment did not have a significant effect on the ability of the sheep to recover from the feed and water deprivation associated with transport.
 
Sixteen dogs with acute-onset, non-progressive signs of brain dysfunction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics compatible with thalamic infarction are described. Topographically the MRI lesions could be grouped in three thalamic regions, namely, paramedian (8/16), extensive dorsal (5/16) and ventrolateral (3/16). Paramedian lesions resulted in signs typical of vestibular dysfunction. Extensive dorsal lesions were associated with vestibular ataxia, circling and contralateral menace response deficits. Ventrolateral lesions resulted in circling and contralateral proprioceptive deficits. In several dogs, regions other than the thalamus were also affected: four extended into the midbrain; six extended to the internal capsule, and two dogs had a second lesion in the cerebellum. Three clinical syndromes were identified in association with thalamic infarction. These signs varied somewhat, most likely because lesions were not confined to specific nuclear boundaries and involved different combinations of thalamic nuclei.
 
Left laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in 16 dogs to describe the surgical techniques and initial experiences associated with operation time and surgery complications. The renal vein and artery were occluded by three ligating clips, respectively, and the ureter was sectioned after ligation with ligating clips at the level of the iliac vessels. A morcellation technique was used to remove the kidney from the abdominal cavity after placing it into a specimen retrieval bag. Total operation time and time spent for each different surgical stage in the first five operations were compared with those in the last five of the 16 operations. The factors that affected the differences of total operation time were examined, including sex, bodyweight, number of operations, incision length, and surgical stages. Six intra-operative complications occurred including splenic hemorrhage (3 cases), torn specimen retrieval bag during kidney morcellation (1 case), and subcutaneous emphysema (2 cases). Surgical time for laparoscopic nephrectomy was affected primarily by the time spent for renal vascular pedicle section and could be decreased as the number of cases increased. Thus, laparoscopic nephrectomy using ligating clips and morcellation for kidney removal could be considered where nephrectomy is indicated in dogs.
 
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the accuracy of broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR compared to bacterial culture for the detection of synovial infection in horses. The study included 57 synovial fluid samples from horses with presumed synovial infection and a control group consisting of 31 synovial fluid samples originating from clinically normal horses and horses with aseptic synovial inflammation. All samples were analysed by 16S PCR with reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation. Synovial fluid samples were cultured using conventional agar plate methods (APM) and/or blood culture medium (BCM). The results of the study showed a superior detection rate (89.5%) for 16S PCR with RLB. Bacterial culture had lower sensitivity, but highly acceptable detection rates (77.6%) were observed using BCM. APM had very low sensitivity (37.8%) and infection was never detected by plate isolation without positive incubation in BCM. The highest sensitivity (91.8%) for the detection of synovial infection was achieved when the results of incubation in BCM and 16S PCR were combined. For all the tests, the specificity was higher than 90%.
 
Forty-two isolates of Streptococcus pluranimalium were identified from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=2), an alpaca (n=1) and a pheasant (n=1) in the United Kingdom. The isolates were confirmed as S. pluranimalium by 16S rRNA sequence analysis but could not be differentiated reliably from Streptococcus acidominimus by phenotypic characterisation using commercial kits routinely used in veterinary laboratories. The alanyl-phenylalanyl-proline arylamidase reaction could be used to differentiate S. pluranimalium (positive) from Aerococcus urinae (negative).
 
Haematological and biochemical findings in 12 cows with thrombosis of the caudal vena cava (Braun et al., 2002)
The goal of the present study was to describe the clinical, haematological and ultrasonographic findings and treatment of 17 cattle with pyelonephritis. Fifteen cattle had an abnormal general condition, which varied in severity; five animals had signs of colic. The urine was brownish-red in 11 animals and cloudy in 13. Clumps of purulent material were seen in the urine of nine animals and clots of blood in two. The specific gravity was lower than normal in 13 animals and ranged from 1.005 to 1.020. A urine test strip revealed protein in 16 animals, blood in 16 and leukocytes in 12. Bacteriological examination of urine yielded Corynebacterium renale in 11 animals, Arcanobacter pyogenes in two and Escherichia coli in one. Rectal examination revealed abnormalities of the urinary tract in 11 animals; there was dilatation of the left ureter and/or enlargement of the left kidney in eight cases, and dilatation of the right ureter and/or enlargement of the right kidney in three others. The most frequent abnormal haematological finding was an increase in the serum concentrations of total protein, fibrinogen, urea and creatinine, a decreased haematocrit and a positive glutaraldehyde test. In 13 animals, ultrasonography via the rectum and right flank using a 5.0MHz transducer revealed dilatation of the right or left ureter, cystic lesions in one or both kidneys and dilatation of the renal sinus. Eight animals were euthanased or slaughtered at the owners' request or because of a poor prognosis. Nine (53%) animals were successfully treated; five received antibiotics and four underwent unilateral nephrectomy and antibiotic therapy. The treated animals were clinically healthy when discharged from the clinic 10-21 days after admission. A follow-up via telephone 8-24 months later revealed that none had experienced complications and all were in full production. In cattle with severe unilateral pyelonephritis, unilateral nephrectomy is the treatment of choice.
 
Primary cataracts are breed-related eye diseases and are common in many dog breeds. In this study, 17 genes (BFSP2, EYA1, FOXE3, FTL, GCNT2, GJA3, GJA8, HSF4, MAF, MIP, PAX6, PITX3, SIX5, SORD, SOX1, SPARC, TRNT1) were evaluated as candidates for primary non-congenital cataracts (CAT) in the Dachshund using microsatellites adjacent to the candidate genes. Linkage and association with CAT was tested in 15 affected and six unaffected wire-haired Dachshunds. Non-parametric linkage analysis and association tests did not reveal significant linkage or association for the candidate gene flanking microsatellites tested. Thus, it is unlikely that the 17 investigated candidate genes harbour a causative mutation for CAT in these Dachshunds.
 
There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with a T helper 17 response in intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-23 in equine IBD has not been studied and most gene expression studies in the equine intestine have been limited to the use of a single non-validated reference gene. In this study, expression of the reference gene candidates β2 microglobulin (β2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H2A type 1, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), 60S ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) and transferrin receptor 1 protein coding (TFRC)in the equine intestine was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Three to four reference genes were adequate for normalisation of gene expression in the healthy duodenum, mid-jejunum, colon and rectum, although each segment required a unique combination of reference genes. No combination of the evaluated genes was optimal for the caecum and ileum. Another combination of reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, RPL32 and SDHA) was optimal for normalisation of rectal samples from healthy and IBD-affected horses, indicating that reference genes should be re-evaluated if material from diseased specimens is analysed. Basal expression of IL-12p40, IL-17A and IL-23p19 was detected in each segment, which will enable gene expression studies of these cytokines by relative quantification.
 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a 17.6 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) microscope to determine external and internal structures and three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering of premature bovine brain tissue. Two bovine embryos (Carnegie-stages 16 and 21) were examined. 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with a high field MR-scanner at a field strength of 17.6 Tesla. Images with isotropic nominal resolutions up to 39.1 microm were acquired. The MR images corresponded very well with histological slices. 3D virtual models of the embryonic brain were easily produced in a relatively short time and the high field scanner provided highly detailed images of formalin fixed brain tissue. Manual segmentation and automatic volume rendering is a valuable tool for the fast generation of 3D brain models and, to some degree, can replace conventional techniques in comparative embryology.
 
Canine bronchomalacia (BM) is characterized by weakness leading to collapse of the bronchial wall. A prospective study of 18 affected dogs (age range: 1-15 years) was undertaken to characterize the clinicopathological and histological features of BM. Poodles and Yorkshire terriers were commonly affected. Half of the dogs were overweight or obese. The clinical presentation was a mild, wheezing, chronic cough and pulmonary crackles were heard in 28% of the dogs. Compatible radiographic changes were present in 61% of the dogs. Using bronchoscopy, both lungs were affected in half of the animals, whereas in the others the disease appeared to affect predominantly the left lung. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and biopsies of bronchial mucosa revealed pure or mixed neutrophilic inflammation. Underlying infectious bronchitis was considered possible in 56% of the dogs. It was concluded that canine BM may present as an isolated clinical entity associated with infection and/or inflammation.
 
Internal intestinal hernia was diagnosed during laparotomy in 18 cattle with a tentative diagnosis of ileus; the diagnosis was made during a second laparotomy in two cases. In 14 cattle, the hernial orifice was in the visceral layer of the greater omentum and the intestines had herniated into the caudal recess of the omental bursa. In two animals both the visceral and parietal layers had an opening; in one, the orifice was in the mesoduodenum, and in the other in the mesojejunum. The length of the hernial orifice ranged from 3 to >25cm and the length of the herniated intestine ranged from 30cm to the entire length of the small and large intestines. The omental rents were located near the caudal flexure of the duodenum (n=9), ventrally near the rumen (n=6) or in both of these locations (n=1). Seven cattle were euthanased intraoperatively because of incarceration of the jejunum; three of these had ruptured intestines and localised peritonitis; another animal was euthanased following a second laparotomy because of peritonitis. Ten animals, two of which underwent jejunal resection-anastomosis, recovered and were discharged. Nine of these survived a 6-month-postoperative period (mean±SD: 27±18months) and remained free of colic, and one was slaughtered 3months postoperatively because of rupture of the mammary suspensory ligament.
 
The history of recorded cases of anthrax in human beings and animals from 1909 to 2012 in the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is reviewed. The disease was endemic until the middle of the 20th century, but the incidence decreased thereafter, with only sporadic cases from the 1980s onwards. Human cases have not been diagnosed in the region since 1984 and the number of episodes of animal disease has reduced to less than one per year. This decline is mostly due to the disruption of the infective cycle by improved veterinary control, including vaccination, treatment and outbreak management. A policy of reactive vaccination for 10years of affected herds and herds grazing in their proximity has been applied. No new outbreaks have been observed in such herds after the cessation of vaccination, despite continued grazing on the same sites, so it is assumed that spore survival in such areas is shorter than 10years. This is independent of the soil composition, which is calcareous throughout most of the relevant area. However, reemergence of anthrax, even after decades, has occurred following disturbance and heavy rainfall.
 
In this study, six Chinese strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) isolated between 1953-1960 were analysed and their molecular characteristics compared to those of the African PG1 and Afade strains, the European C305 and 138/5 strains and the closely related caprine M. mycoides subsp.mycoides large colony type Y-goat strain. PCR amplification of long DNA fragments showed that the six Chinese strains, the PG1 strain and the Y-goat strain, just like Afade, did not have the 8.84 kb deletion characteristic of the European strains C305 and 138/5. In comparison, the lppB gene sequence of the six MmmSC Chinese strains was found to be 99% homologous to that of PG1and Afade, but <93% homologous to the Y-goat sequence. The anti-rLppB antiserum reacted with PG1, Y-goat and the six Chinese strains at 67 kDa sites in Western blot, indicating that the lppB gene and its encoding protein exist in the Chinese strains. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of MmmSC strains from various regions confirmed that the Chinese strains were identical to the African and Australian cluster. This finding was further supported by the outcome of selective primer amplification. Based on these results, it is suggested that CBPP in China may have originated from Australia.
 
The objectives of the study were to identify recent trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs and to identify host risk factors. Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) electronic records of 6860 dogs with a diagnosis of DM (VMDB code 870178500) between 1970 and 1999 were evaluated to determine time trends. Records of 6707 dogs with DM and 6707 frequency matched dogs with any diagnosis other than DM from the same teaching hospitals in the same year, selected as controls, were evaluated for risk factor analysis. The prevalence of DM in dogs presented to veterinary teaching hospitals increased from 19 cases per 10,000 admissions per year in 1970 to 64 cases per 10,000 in 1999, while the case-fatality rate decreased from 37% to 5%. The hospital prevalence of DM was consistently greater over time in older compared with younger dogs with the highest prevalence occurring in dogs 10-15 years of age. Dogs weighing <22.7 kg had a significantly (P<0.001) greater risk of DM compared with heavier dogs. Female dogs had an increased risk of DM compared with males (P<0.001).
 
Over a period of 20 years, a total of 207 Mannheimia haemolytica samples were isolated from calves affected with pneumonic pasteurellosis and serotyped by the indirect haemagglutination test. Serotypes A1 (102 isolates), A2 (47 isolates) and A6 (42 isolates) were most common; in addition, 16 isolates were serotypes A7, A13, A14 or untypable. The relative prevalence of serotype A6 has increased recently in Japan, as has been reported from other countries. The results of this study provide useful information towards the design of efficient vaccines for the prevention of M. haemolytica infection in Japan.
 
From August to October 1991 bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) occurred sporadically in two localities in Israel. The morbidity and mortality rates reached 2.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Only 12/50 dairy cattle herds were clinically infected with BEF in the dairy community. The total morbidity rate reached 0.8%. The lowest morbidity rate was recorded in young heifers (5.5%) and the highest in adult cows (75%). Only heifers over the age of three months were clinically affected. The spread of the disease apparently followed the local prevailing night winds, which blow from east to west, i.e., from the land toward the sea. The morbidity period lasted 61 days. The low incidence and morbidity rates were possibly due to the low virulence of the virus strain involved in the 1991 epidemic. Retrospective analysis indicates that vectors - apparently mosquitoes - infected with BEF virus could have been overwintering.
 
Three hundred and thirteen Estrela mountain dogs were examined for hip dysplasia (HD) using the standard ventrodorsal hip extended view, and graded into five categories (A, B, C, D and E) using the Fédération Cynologique Internationale's (FCI) scoring system. The Ortolani method was performed to evaluate hip joint laxity. Pedigree information was obtained from the Portuguese Kennel Club and the genetic trend was evaluated by calculating the mean breeding values (BVs) for the last 15 years, using the threshold model. HD was found in 66% of the dogs. There was low-moderate correlation between the results of the Ortolani test and FCI hip scores (r(s)=0.386; P<0.001). Grades of hip dysplasia were equal in both males and females (P=0.14) and in the animals' right and left sides (P=0.51). The mean BVs for HD were stable in dogs born between 1991 and 2003, and showed an improvement in 2004 and 2005. The data confirm the high prevalence and severity of HD in predisposed breeds that do not have breeding programmes in place. It also confirms an initial favourable change in BVs that is a likely consequence of the voluntary radiographic hip-screening programme.
 
It has recently been shown that the proportional mortality ratio for suicide by veterinarians is one of the highest of all occupational groups. The reasons for this alarming statistic are unclear although it has been postulated that alcohol or drug misuse may be significant risk factors which contribute towards the high incidence of suicide within the profession. However, there have been few studies on alcohol misuse by veterinarians and so the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of alcohol-related deaths in the veterinary profession in England and Wales between 1993 and 2005. The proportional mortality ratio for alcohol-related deaths for veterinarians was not significantly higher than the general population during this time period. Future studies should focus on establishing the incidence of sub-lethal alcohol misuse within the veterinary profession.
 
Dog bites in humans are a complex problem embracing public health and animal welfare. To prevent dog bites it is necessary to have comprehensive epidemiological data that allow the identification of associated risk patterns. This study was aimed at investigating the problem posed by dog bites in Spain. The epidemiology of medically attended dog bite-related incidents reported in Aragón was analysed from 1995 to 2004. Bite incidents were mostly associated with: (1) low-population areas (71.3/100,000 inhabitants); (2) males and children, particularly those aged 5-9; (3) single injuries directed to the head and neck area in children and to the extremities in adults; (4) young, male, medium to large, owned dogs that were known to the victim; (5) summer months, and (6) specific circumstances such as human interference with knocked down and fighting dogs. In the light of these risk patterns, a wide range of specific preventive measures could be proposed.
 
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in pigs throughout the world but have only recently been recorded in Korean pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HEV was present in archived porcine hepatic tissues collected between 1995 and 2004 using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and, if so, to determine the genotype of the isolates. Swine HEV was identified in the liver tissue of 42 pigs of 388 submissions (four pigs every year on average). The isolates showed genetic homology with swine and human HEV isolates identified in the United States and Japan (92.5-97%) and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated they belonged to genotype III. The study indicates that HEV is not a newly emerging virus in Korean pigs, but a pathogen that has existed in the country since at least 1995.
 
Disorders of the horizontal ramus (body) of the equine mandible are well reported, but there is minimal documentation of disorders of the angle of mandible. A retrospective examination of the records of Edinburgh University Equine Hospital (1997-2011) showed that 32 horses were referred due to swellings of the angle of the mandible. The aetiology of these swellings was identified in just 13/32 cases (41%) including fractures (n=2), traumatic, localised periosteal/cortical lesions (n=4), traumatic soft tissue lesions (n=2), neoplasia (n=3), and inflammation of the adjacent salivary gland (n=1) and masseter muscle (n=1). The remaining 19 (59%) cases without a definitive diagnosis showed two patterns of lesions. Twelve cases had localised periosteal/cortical lesions of the ventral aspect of the angle of mandible that were most likely traumatic in origin. The remaining seven undiagnosed cases without mandibular bony changes all had sinus tracts/chronic soft tissue infections on the medial aspect of the angle of the mandible which were believed to be caused by a draining retro-pharyngeal lesion in five cases. Surgical excision of abnormal soft tissues (if present) and bone curettage was the most successful treatment. It was concluded that the aetiology of swellings of the angle of the equine mandible are often obscure; most appear to be traumatic in origin, yet horses seldom develop gross fractures at this site due to the support of the dense surrounding musculo-tendinous structures. A smaller proportion are caused by draining retropharyngeal lesions that respond poorly to medical therapy, but respond well to surgical treatment.
 
Bluetongue (BT) exists around the world in a broad band covering much of the Americas, Africa, southern Asia, northern Australia and, occasionally, the southern fringe of Europe. It is considered to be one of the most important diseases of domestic livestock. Recently the virus causing this disease has extended its range northwards into areas of Europe never before affected and has persisted in many of these locations causing the greatest epizootic of the disease on record. The reasons for this dramatic change in BT epidemiology are complex but are linked to recent extensions in the distribution of its major vector, Culicoidesimicola, to the involvement of novel Culicoides vector(s) and to an apparent ability of the virus to overwinter in the absence of adult vectors. In addition, the effects of these changes have been exacerbated by problems in control, particularly in relation to vaccination. This paper explores these areas and highlights prospects for the future.
 
This aetiological study of guttural pouch mycosis (GPM) in the horse was based on the retrospective study of 21 horses brought into the National Veterinary School of Lyon (France) between 1998 and 2002. Biopsies were taken from the lesions caused by GPM during endoscopic examination. In 87% of the cases, direct examination gave positive results, whereas 43% of the cultures were found to be negative. The main fungi observed were Aspergillus fumigatus (in three cases), A. versicolor (in two cases, together with other fungi), and A. nidulans and A. niger (one case each). In six cases, the Aspergillus species could not be identified. In two cases, cleistothecia and/or Hulle cells were observed. In three cases, fungi other than Aspergillus were seen, mixed or not with Aspergillus. These results underline the importance of Aspergillus fumigatus in the development of GPM in horses.
 
In 1999-2000, Italian poultry production was disrupted by an H7N1 virus subtype epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The objectives of the present study were to identify risk factors for infection on poultry farms located in regions that had the highest number of outbreaks (Veneto and Lombardia) and the impact of pre-emptive culling as a complementary measure for eradicating infection. A Cox regression model that included spatial factors, such as the G index, was used. The results confirmed the relationship between risk of infection and poultry species, production type and size of farms. The effectiveness of pre-emptive culling was confirmed. An increased risk of infection was observed for poultry farms located near an infected farm and those at altitudes less than 150m above sea level. The measures for the control and eradication of AI virus infection need to consider species differences in susceptibility, the types of production and the density of poultry farms in the affected areas.
 
This study reports fluorescence high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis HPLC methods for the determination of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and tolbutamide methylhydroxylase (TMH) activities, respectively, using bovine liver microsomes. The detection limits were 0.022 and 5.5 pmol on the column, respectively; intra-day and inter-day precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) were <10%. Both methods showed enough sensitivity to allow for an accurate determination of enzyme kinetic parameters according to Michaelis-Menten plots and the results were: K(m)=0.23+/-0.051 microM, V(max)=0.488+/-0.035 nmol/min/mg protein for EROD activity, and K(m)=1010+/-155.7 microM, V(max)=0.089+/-0.006 nmol/min/mg protein for TMH activity. An Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis showed that in bovine liver microsomes, EROD and TMH activities followed a monophasic kinetic pattern. alpha-Naphthoflavone, a cytochrome P450 1A1/2 (CYP1A1/2) inhibitor, and sulfaphenazole, a cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) inhibitor, decreased EROD and TMH activities, respectively. The sensitivity of the methods allowed the use of microsomes with low enzyme activity, such as those from veal calf liver. Thus, EROD and TMH activities may be adopted as markers for the evaluation of CYP1A and CYP2C9-like activities in liver microsomes from veal and beef cattle.
 
The efficacy of a quadrivalent vaccine against viral bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) was assessed in four experimental studies. Calves between 2 and 9 months of age were allocated to one of two treatment groups (n=9-15) and then received either the vaccine or sterile saline in two doses approximately 3 weeks apart. Three to 5 weeks after the second injection, animals were challenged experimentally with one of the viruses, bovine herpes-virus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI(3)V), bovine viral-diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV), or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and were then monitored for at least 2 weeks. The administration of the vaccine was associated with enhanced antibody response to all four viruses post-challenge, with the reduction of the amount or duration (or both) of virus shedding in the BHV-1, PI(3)V, BVDV and BRSV studies and with an improvement of some clinical signs in the BHV-1 (nasal discharge, and rectal temperature) and the PI(3)V studies (abnormal respiration, and depression).
 
Interleukin (IL)-1β is a key mediator of the inflammatory response. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) regulates inflammation by functioning as an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1β. A disruption of the balance between IL-1β and IL-1Ra has been identified in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an intestinal imbalance of IL-1β and IL-1Ra in canine IBD by comparing expression of IL-1β and IL-1Ra mRNA by real-time RT-PCR and expression of IL-1β and IL-1Ra protein by ELISA in 21 dogs with IBD, 15 dogs with intestinal lymphoma ('inflammatory' controls) and 20 healthy Beagles ('healthy' controls). A significant decrease in the intestinal IL-1Ra:IL-1β ratio of mRNA and protein was observed in IBD cases when compared with healthy control dogs. In contrast, a decrease in IL-1Ra:IL-1β ratio was not observed in dogs with intestinal lymphoma. The IL-1Ra:IL-1β protein ratio was negatively correlated with clinical severity in dogs with IBD. An intestinal imbalance between IL-1β and IL-1Ra production may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine IBD.
 
Top-cited authors
A. J. F Webster
  • University of Bristol
Andrew John Bradley
  • University of Nottingham
J. Fink-Gremmels
  • Utrecht University
Brian Mcbride
  • University of Guelph